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Dodo
The dodo (Raphus cucullatus) is an extinct flightless bird that was endemic to the island of Mauritius, east of Madagascar
Madagascar
in the Indian Ocean. The dodo's closest genetic relative was the also extinct Rodrigues
Rodrigues
solitaire, the two forming the subfamily Raphinae
Raphinae
of the family of pigeons and doves. The closest living relative of the dodo is the Nicobar pigeon. A white dodo was once thought to have existed on the nearby island of Réunion, but this is now thought to have been confusion based on the Réunion
Réunion
ibis and paintings of white dodos. Subfossil
Subfossil
remains show the dodo was about 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) tall and may have weighed 10.6–17.5 kg (23–39 lb) in the wild. The dodo's appearance in life is evidenced only by drawings, paintings, and written accounts from the 17th century
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Monograph
A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works)[1] on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, usually by a single author. In library cataloging, monograph has a broader meaning, that of a nonserial publication complete in one volume (book) or a finite number of volumes. Thus it differs from a serial publication such as a magazine, journal, or newspaper.[2] In this context only, books such as novels are monographs.Contents1 In academia 2 In art 3 In biology 4 In United States Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
regulation 5 See also 6 ReferencesIn academia[edit] See also: Monographic series The term "monographia" is derived from the Greek "mono" (single) and grapho (to write), meaning "writing on a single subject". Unlike a textbook, which surveys the state of knowledge in a field, the main purpose of a monograph is to present primary research and original scholarship
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Digestion
Digestion
Digestion
is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma. In certain organisms, these smaller substances are absorbed through the small intestine into the blood stream. Digestion
Digestion
is a form of catabolism that is often divided into two processes based on how food is broken down: mechanical and chemical digestion. The term mechanical digestion refers to the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces which can subsequently be accessed by digestive enzymes
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Plumage
Plumage
Plumage
(Latin: plūma "feather") refers both to the layer of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, colour, and arrangement of those feathers. The pattern and colours of plumage differ between species and subspecies, and may vary with age classes. Within species there can be different colour morphs. The placement of feathers on a bird are not haphazard, but rather emerge in organized, overlapping rows and groups, and these feather tracts are known by standardized names.[1][2] Most birds moult, usually before and after breeding, resulting in a breeding or nuptial plumage and a basic plumage. Many ducks and some other species such as the red junglefowl have males wearing a bright nuptial plumage while breeding and a drab eclipse plumage for some months afterwards. The painted bunting's juveniles have two inserted moults in their first autumn, each yielding plumage like an adult females
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Habitat
In ecology, a habitat is the kind of natural environment in which a particular organism species lives. It is characterized by both physical and biological features. A species' habitat is those places where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction. The physical factors are for example soil, moisture, range of temperature, and light intensity as well as biotic factors such as the availability of food and the presence or absence of predators. Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, but some are tolerant of wide variations while others are very specific in their requirements
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Clutch (eggs)
A clutch of eggs is the group of eggs produced by birds, amphibians, or reptiles, often at a single time, particularly those laid in a nest. In birds, destruction of a clutch by predators (or removal by humans, for example the California condor
California condor
breeding program) results in double-clutching. The technique is used to double the production of a species' eggs, in the California condor
California condor
case, specifically to increase population size. The act of putting one's hand in a nest to remove eggs is known as "dipping the clutch". Size[edit] Clutch size differs greatly between species, sometimes even within the same genus. It may also differ within the same species due to many factors including habitat, health, nutrition, predation pressures, and time of year.[1] Clutch size variation can also reflect variation in optimal reproduction effort
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Réunion
Réunion
Réunion
(French: La Réunion, pronounced [la.ʁe.y.njɔ̃] ( listen); previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France
France
in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar
Madagascar
and 175 kilometres (109 mi) southwest of Mauritius. As of January 2018[update], it had a population of 865,826.[1] It is the most prosperous island in the Indian Ocean, having the highest GDP per capita in the region. The island has been inhabited since the 17th century when people from France
France
and Madagascar
Madagascar
settled there. Slavery was abolished on 20 December 1848 (a date celebrated yearly on the island), after which indentured workers were brought from Tamil Nadu, Southern India, among other places. The island became an overseas department of France
France
in 1946. As elsewhere in France, the official language is French
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Holocene
The Holocene
Holocene
( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/)[2][3] is the current geological epoch. It began after the Pleistocene[4], approximately 11,650 cal years before present.[5] The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent".[6] It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Family (biology)
In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus. In vernacular usage, a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Taxonomic Rank
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, etc. A given rank subsumes under it less general categories, that is, more specific descriptions of life forms. Above it, each rank is classified within more general categories of organisms and groups of organisms related to each other through inheritance of traits or features from common ancestors. The rank of any species and the description of its genus is basic; which means that to identify a particular organism, it is usually not necessary to specify ranks other than these first two.[2] Consider a particular species, the red fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes: the next rank above, the genus Vulpes, comprises all the "true" foxes
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Obsolescence
Obsolescence
Obsolescence
is the state of being which occurs when an object, service, or practice is no longer wanted even though it may still be in good working order. Obsolescence
Obsolescence
frequently occurs because a replacement has become available that has, in sum, more advantages compared to the disadvantages incurred by maintaining or repairing the original
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Genetic Distance
Genetic distance
Genetic distance
is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species, whether the distance measures time from common ancestor or degree of differentiation.[2] Populations with many similar alleles have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor. Genetic distance
Genetic distance
is useful for reconstructing the history of populations. For example, evidence from genetic distance suggests that African and Eurasian people diverged about 100,000 years ago.[3] Genetic distance
Genetic distance
is also used for understanding the origin of biodiversity
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Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean
Ocean
is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).[1] It is bounded by Asia
Asia
on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, a
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Madagascar
Madagascar
Madagascar
(/ˌmædəˈɡæskər/; Malagasy: Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar
Madagascar
(Malagasy: Repoblikan'i Madagasikara [republiˈkʲan madaɡasˈkʲarə̥]; French: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
(the fourth-largest island in the world), and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar
Madagascar
split from the Indian peninsula
Indian peninsula
around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar
Madagascar
is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth
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Endemism
Endemism
Endemism
is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area.Contents1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Threats to highly endemistic regions 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The word endemic is from New Latin
New Latin
endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people".[1] The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists,[a] and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917
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