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Doctor Of Law
DOCTOR OF LAW or DOCTOR OF LAWS is a degree in law . The application of the term varies from country to country, and includes degrees such as the Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D. or S.J.D), Doctor juris (Dr. iur. or Dr. jur.), Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy
(Ph.D.), Juris Doctor (J.D.), and Legum Doctor (LL.D.)
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Slovakia
Coordinates : 48°40′N 19°30′E / 48.667°N 19.500°E / 48.667; 19.500 Slovak Republic Slovenská republika (Slovak ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Nad Tatrou sa blýska " "Lightning Over the Tatras" Location of Slovakia (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Bratislava 48°09′N 17°07′E / 48.150°N 17
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Rigorosum
The ORAL EXAM (also ORAL TEST or VIVA VOCE; RIGOROSUM in German-speaking nations) is a practice in many schools and disciplines in which an examiner poses questions to the student in spoken form. The student has to answer the question in such a way as to demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the subject to pass the exam. The oral exam also helps reduce (although it does not eliminate) the risk of granting a degree to a candidate who has had the thesis or dissertation ghostwritten by an expert. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 Sources * 4 References OVERVIEWMany science programs require students pursuing a bachelor\'s degree to finish the program by taking an oral exam or a combination of oral and written exams to show how well a student has understood the material studied in the program
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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Australia
Coordinates : 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133 Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Advance Australia Fair
Advance Australia Fair
" CAPITAL Canberra
Canberra
35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E
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Czech Republic
The CZECH REPUBLIC (/ˈtʃɛk rᵻˈpʌblɪk/ ( listen ) CHEK-rə-PUB-lik ; Czech : Česká republika, Czech pronunciation: ( listen )), also known as CZECHIA (/ˈtʃɛkiə/ ( listen ), CHEK-ee-ə ; Czech : Česko, pronounced ( listen )), is a nation state in Central Europe
Europe
bordered by Germany
Germany
to the west, Austria
Austria
to the south, Slovakia
Slovakia
to the east and Poland
Poland
to the northeast. The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate . It is a unitary parliamentary republic , has 10.5 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague
Prague
, with over 1.2 million residents
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Civil Law (legal System)
CIVIL LAW, CIVILIAN LAW, or ROMAN LAW is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law
Roman law
, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law. This can be contrasted with common law systems whose intellectual framework comes from judge-made decisional law which gives precedential authority to prior court decisions on the principle that it is unfair to treat similar facts differently on different occasions (doctrine of judicial precedent , or stare decisis ). Historically, a civil law is the group of legal ideas and systems ultimately derived from the Codex Justinianus , but heavily overlaid by Napoleonic , Germanic , canonical , feudal, and local practices, as well as doctrinal strains such as natural law , codification, and legal positivism
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Criminal Law
CRIMINAL LAW is the body of law that relates to crime . It proscribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property, health, safety, and moral welfare of people. Most criminal law is established by statute, which is to say that the laws are enacted by a legislature. It includes the punishment of people who violate these laws. Criminal law
Criminal law
varies according to jurisdiction , and differs from civil law , where emphasis is more on dispute resolution and victim compensation than on punishment . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Objectives of criminal law * 3 Selected criminal laws * 3.1 Elements * 3.2 Actus reus * 3.3 Mens rea * 3.4 Strict liability * 3.5 Fatal offenses * 3.6 Personal offenses * 3.7 Property offenses * 3.8 Participatory offenses * 3.9 Mala in se v
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Practice Of Law
In its most general sense, the PRACTICE OF LAW involves giving legal advice to clients, drafting legal documents for clients, and representing clients in legal negotiations and court proceedings such as lawsuits , and is applied to the professional services of a lawyer or attorney at law, barrister , solicitor , or civil law notary . However, there is a substantial amount of overlap between the practice of law and various other professions where clients are represented by agents . These professions include real estate , banking , accounting , and insurance . Moreover, a growing number of legal document assistants (LDAs) are offering services which have traditionally been offered only by lawyers and their employee paralegals. Many documents may now be created by computer -assisted drafting libraries, where the clients are asked a series of questions that are posed by the software in order to construct the legal documents
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Master Of Sigena
MONASTERIO DE SANTA MARíA DE SIGENA is a convent in Villanueva de Sigena , region of Aragon
Aragon
, Spain
Spain
. It was constructed between 1183 and 1208, founded by Queen Sancha of Castile , wife of Alfonso II of Aragon
Aragon
, for nuns from the richest families of Aragon. The monastery flourished in the 14th century thanks to royal support, but declined after the crown of Aragon
Aragon
merged with that of Castile . In 1835, after the Ecclesiastical Confiscations of Mendizábal deprived it of most of its revenues, it was abandoned by the nuns, although later some returned. In 1936, during the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
, it suffered a fire, and was restored in the 1950s. Starting from 1985, it is inhabited by nuns of the Sisterhood of Belén y de la Asunción de la Virgen
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Common Law
COMMON LAW (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law , or case law ) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals. The defining characteristic of “common law” is that it arises as precedent. In cases where the parties disagree on what the law is, a common law court looks to past precedential decisions of relevant courts, and synthesizes the principles of those past cases as applicable to the current facts. If a similar dispute has been resolved in the past, the court is usually bound to follow the reasoning used in the prior decision (a principle known as stare decisis )
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New Zealand
NEW ZEALAND (Māori : AOTEAROA ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island
North Island
(or Te Ika-a-Māui), and the South Island (or Te Waipounamu)—and around 600 smaller islands . New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia
New Caledonia
, Fiji
Fiji
, and Tonga
Tonga
. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand
New Zealand
developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life
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Europe
EUROPE is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia
Eurasia
. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Though the term "continent" implies physical geography defines it, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Swedish Language
SWEDISH ( svenska (help ·info ) ) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by more than 10 million people - predominantly in Sweden
Sweden
(as sole official language), and in parts of Finland
Finland
, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish . It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent also Danish , although the amount of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse
Old Norse
, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era . It is currently the largest of the North Germanic languages
Germanic languages
by number of speakers
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Monograph
A MONOGRAPH is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works ) on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, usually by a single author. In library cataloging, monograph has a broader meaning, that of a nonserial publication complete in one volume (book) or a finite number of volumes. Thus it differs from a serial publication such as a magazine , journal , or newspaper . In this context only, books such as novels are monographs. CONTENTS * 1 In academia * 2 In art * 3 In biology * 4 In United States Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
regulation * 5 See also * 6 References IN ACADEMIA See also: Monographic series The term "monographia" is derived from the Greek "mono" (single) and grapho (to write), meaning "writing on a single subject"
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Ludwig Maximilian University Of Munich
LUDWIG-MAXIMILIAN UNIVERSITY OF MUNICH (also referred to as LMU or the UNIVERSITY OF MUNICH, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich
Munich
, Germany . The University of Munich
Munich
is Germany\'s sixth-oldest university in continuous operation . Originally established in Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
in 1472 by Duke Ludwig IX of Bavaria- Landshut
Landshut
, the university was moved in 1800 to Landshut
Landshut
by King Maximilian I of Bavaria
Bavaria
when Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
was threatened by the French, before being relocated to its present-day location in Munich
Munich
in 1826 by King Ludwig I of Bavaria
Bavaria

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