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Division (business)
A DIVISION of a business , sometimes called a _BUSINESS SECTOR_, is one of the parts into which a business, organization or company is divided. The divisions are distinct parts of that business. If these divisions are all part of the same company, then that company is legally responsible for all of the obligations and debts of the divisions. However, in a large organization, various parts of the business may be run by different subsidiaries , and a business division may include one or many subsidiaries. Each subsidiary is a separate legal entity owned by the primary business or by another subsidiary in the hierarchy. Often a division operates under a separate name and is the equivalent of a corporation or limited liability company obtaining a fictitious name or "doing business as " certificate and operating a business under that fictitious name. Companies often set up business units to operate in divisions prior to the legal formation of subsidiaries. Generally, only an "entity", e.g. a corporation, public limited company (plc) or limited liability company, etc. would have a "division"; an individual operating in this manner would simply be "operating under a fictitious name". An example of this would be to look at Hewlett Packard
Hewlett Packard
(HP), the computer and printer company. HP has several divisions, with the printer division, that makes laser and inkjet printers, being the largest and most profitable division
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Business
A BUSINESS (also known as an ENTERPRISE, a COMPANY or a FIRM) is an organizational entity involved in the provision of goods and services to consumers . Businesses serve as conductors of economic activity, and are prevalent in capitalist economies , where most of them are privately owned and provide goods and services allocated through a market to consumers and customers in exchange for other goods, services, money, or other forms of exchange that hold intrinsic economic value . Businesses may also be social non-profit enterprises or state-owned public enterprises operated by governments with specific social and economic objectives. A business owned by multiple private individuals may form as an incorporated company or jointly organise as a partnership. Countries have different laws that may ascribe different rights to the various business entities . The word "business" can refer to a particular organization or to an entire market sector (for example, "the finance business" is "the financial sector") or to all economic sectors collectively ("the business sector "). Compound forms such as "agribusiness " represent subsets of the concept's broader meaning, which encompasses all activity by suppliers of goods and services. Typically private-sector businesses aim to maximize their profit , although in some contexts they may aim to maximize their sales revenue or their market share . Government-run businesses may aim to maximize some measure of social welfare
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Organization
An ORGANIZATION or ORGANISATION is an entity comprising multiple people , such as an institution or an association , that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment. The word is derived from the Greek word _organon_, which means "organ ". CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Structures * 2.1 Committees or juries * 2.2 Ecologies * 2.3 Matrix organization * 2.4 Pyramids or hierarchical * 3 Theories * 4 Leadership * 4.1 Formal organizations * 4.2 Informal organizations * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links TYPESThere are a variety of legal types of organizations, including corporations , governments , non-governmental organizations , political organizations , international organizations , armed forces , charities , not-for-profit corporations , partnerships , cooperatives , and educational institutions . A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector simultaneously, fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. A voluntary association is an organization consisting of volunteers. Such organizations may be able to operate without legal formalities, depending on jurisdiction, including informal clubs . Organizations may also operate in secret and/or illegally in the case of secret societies , criminal organizations and resistance movements . STRUCTURES Diagram of the Federal Government and American Union , 1864
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Company
A COMPANY, abbreviated CO., is a legal entity made up of an association of people, be they natural , legal , or a mixture of both, for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise. Company members share a common purpose and unite in order to focus their various talents and organize their collectively available skills or resources to achieve specific, declared goals . Companies take various forms such as: * Voluntary associations which may include nonprofit organization * A group of soldiers * Business entities with an aim of gaining a profit * Financial entities and banks A company or association of persons can be created at law as legal person so that the company in itself can accept limited liability for civil responsibility and taxation incurred as members perform (or fail) to discharge their duty within the publicly declared _"birth certificate" _ or published policy . Because companies are legal persons, they also may associate and register themselves as companies – often known as a corporate group . When the company closes it may need a _"death certificate" _ to avoid further legal obligations
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Subsidiary
A SUBSIDIARY, SUBSIDIARY COMPANY or DAUGHTER COMPANY is a company that is owned or controlled by another company, which is called the _parent company _, _parent_, or _holding company _. The subsidiary can be a company, corporation , or limited liability company . In some cases it is a government or state-owned enterprise . In some cases, particularly in the music and book publishing industries, subsidiaries are referred to as imprints . In the United States railroad industry, an OPERATING SUBSIDIARY is a company that is a subsidiary but operates with its own identity, locomotives and rolling stock . In contrast, a NON-OPERATING SUBSIDIARY would exist on paper only (i.e., stocks, bonds, articles of incorporation) and would use the identity of the parent company . Subsidiaries are a common feature of business life, and most multinational corporations organize their operations in this way. Examples include holding companies such as Berkshire Hathaway
Berkshire Hathaway
, Leucadia National Corporation
Corporation
, Time Warner
Time Warner
, or Citigroup
Citigroup
; as well as more focused companies such as IBM
IBM
or Xerox . These, and others, organize their businesses into national and functional subsidiaries, often with multiple levels of subsidiaries
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Corporation
A CORPORATION is a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person ) and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter (i.e. by an _ad hoc_ act granted by a monarch or passed by a parliament or legislature). Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration . Corporations come in many different types but are usually divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they make profit or not. Where local law distinguishes corporations by ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, and owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders". Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations; those who are considered the owners of the corporation are those who have obtained membership in the corporation, and are referred to as a "member" of the corporation. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well
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Limited Liability Company
A LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY (LLC) is the United States-specific form of a private limited company . It is a business structure that combines the pass-through taxation of a partnership or sole proprietorship with the limited liability of a corporation . An LLC is not a corporation; it is a legal form of a company that provides limited liability to its owners in many jurisdictions. LLCs do not need to be organized for profit. In certain U.S. states (for example, Texas), businesses that provide professional services requiring a state professional license, such as legal or medical services, may not be allowed to form an LLC but may be required to form a similar entity called a PROFESSIONAL LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY (PLLC)
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Fictitious Name
A PSEUDONYM (UK : /ˈsjuːdənɪm/ SYOO-də-nim and US : /ˈsuːdənɪm/ SOO-də-nim ) or ALIAS is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name (orthonym ). Pseudonyms include stage names and user names (both called screen names), ring names , pen names , nicknames , aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, and regnal names of emperors , popes , and other monarchs . Historically, they have often taken the form of anagrams , Graecisms, and Latinisations , although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts - usually adopted to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names , graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters\' or terrorists\' noms de guerre, and computer hackers ' handles . Actors , musicians, and other performers sometimes use stage names , for example, to mask their ethnic backgrounds. In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because they are part of a cultural or organisational tradition: for example devotional names used by members of some religious institutes , and "cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Lenin
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Doing Business As
A TRADE NAME, TRADING NAME, or BUSINESS NAME is a pseudonym used by companies to perform their business under a name that differs from the registered, legal name of the business. In a number of countries the phrase TRADING AS (abbreviated T/A) is used to designate trade names. In the United States, the phrase "DOING BUSINESS AS" (abbreviated DBA, DBA, D.B.A. or D/B/A) is used. That is also sometimes used in Canada ; but OPERATING AS (abbreviated to O/A) and TRADING AS (abbreviated to T/A) is the most common form. Trade names are typically used by companies to conduct their operations under a simpler brand as opposed to using their formal name within all public communications, or when a desired name was not able to be registered by the business operator, or if that business is owned by a separate company, franchisee, or a sole proprietorship. CONTENTS * 1 Legal aspects * 2 By country * 2.1 Canada
Canada
* 2.2 Chile
Chile
* 2.3 Japan
Japan
* 2.4 United Kingdom * 2.5 United States * 3 See also * 4 References LEGAL ASPECTSThe distinction between a registered legal name and a "fictitious" business name or trade name is important, as businesses with the latter give no obvious indication of the true identity of the entity that is legally responsible for their operation
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Public Limited Company
A PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY (legally abbreviated to PLC) is a type of public company under the United Kingdom company law
United Kingdom company law
, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
. It is a limited liability company whose shares may be freely sold and traded to the public (although a plc may also be privately held, often by another plc), with a minimum share capital of £50,000 and usually with the letters PLC after its name. Similar companies in the United States are called _publicly traded companies_. Public limited companies will also have a separate legal identity. A PLC can be either an unlisted or listed company on the stock exchanges . In the United Kingdom, a public limited company usually must include the words "public limited company" or the abbreviation "PLC" or "plc" at the end and as part of the legal company name. Welsh companies may instead choose to end their names with ccc, an abbreviation for _cwmni cyfyngedig cyhoeddus_. However, some public limited companies (mostly nationalised concerns) incorporated under special legislation are exempted from bearing any of the identifying suffixes. The term "public limited company" and the "PLC"/"plc" suffix were introduced in 1981; prior to this, all limited companies bore the suffix "Limited" ("Ltd."), which is still used by private limited companies
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Hewlett Packard
Coordinates : 37°24′49″N 122°08′42″W / 37.413579°N 122.14508°W / 37.413579; -122.14508 Hewlett-Packard Company Last logo of Hewlett-Packard used from 2010 to 2015; now used by HP Inc. HP headquarters in Palo Alto, California , U.S. FORMER TYPE Public TRADED AS NYSE : HPQ INDUSTRY Computer hardware Computer software IT services IT consulting FATE Split into two companies SUCCESSOR HP Inc. Hewlett Packard Enterprise FOUNDED January 1, 1939; 78 years ago (1939-01-01) FOUNDERS William Redington Hewlett and David Packard
David Packard
DEFUNCT November 1, 2015 (2015-11-01) (main company) (For Hewlett Packard Enterprise). Now operating as HP Inc. HEADQUARTERS Palo Alto , California
California
, U.S. AREA SERVED Worldwide PRODUCTS See list of HP products . SUBSIDIARIES List of subsidiaries WEBSITE www.hp.comThe HEWLETT-PACKARD COMPANY (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to HEWLETT-PACKARD (/ˈhjuːlɪt ˈpækərd/ _HEW-lit PAK-erd_ ) was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California
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Computer
A COMPUTER is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow generalized sequences of operations, called _programs _, enable them to perform a wide range of tasks. Such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices . This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls , factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design , but also in general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones . The Internet is run on computers and it connects millions of other computers. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution , some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms . More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II . The speed, power, and versatility of computers has increased continuously and dramatically since then. Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element , typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory
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Printer (computing)
In computing , a PRINTER is a peripheral which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper or similar physical media. The first computer printer design was a mechanically driven apparatus by Charles Babbage for his difference engine in the 19th century; his mechanical printer design was not built until 2000. The first electronic printer was the EP-101 , invented by Japanese company Epson
Epson
and released in 1968. The first commercial printers generally used mechanisms from electric typewriters and Teletype machines. The demand for higher speed led to the development of new systems specifically for computer use. In the 1980s were daisy wheel systems similar to typewriters, line printers that produced similar output but at much higher speed, and dot matrix systems that could mix text and graphics but produced relatively low-quality output. The plotter was used for those requiring high quality line art like blueprints . The introduction of the low-cost laser printer in 1984 with the first HP LaserJet , and the addition of PostScript in next year's Apple LaserWriter , set off a revolution in printing known as desktop publishing . Laser
Laser
printers using PostScript mixed text and graphics, like dot-matrix printers, but at quality levels formerly available only from commercial typesetting systems
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Compaq
COMPAQ (a portmanteau of COMPATIBILITY AND QUALITY; occasionally referred to as CQ prior to its final logo) was a company founded in 1982 that developed, sold, and supported computers and related products and services. Compaq
Compaq
produced some of the first IBM
IBM
PC compatible computers, being the first company to legally reverse engineer the IBM Personal Computer . It rose to become the largest supplier of PC systems during the 1990s before being overtaken by HP in 2001. Struggling to keep up in the price wars against Dell
Dell
, as well as with a risky acquisition of DEC , Compaq
Compaq
was acquired for US$25 billion by HP in 2002. The Compaq
Compaq
brand remained in use by HP for lower-end systems until 2013 when it was discontinued. The company was formed by Rod Canion , Jim Harris and Bill Murto —former Texas
Texas
Instruments senior managers. Murto (SVP of Sales) departed Compaq
Compaq
in 1987, while Canion (President and CEO) and Harris (SVP of Engineering) left under a shakeup in 1991, which saw Eckhard Pfeiffer appointed President and CEO. Pfeiffer served through the 1990s
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Mack Trucks
MACK TRUCKS, INC., is an American truck –manufacturing company and a former manufacturer of buses and trolley buses . Founded in 1900 as the MACK BROTHERS COMPANY, it manufactured its first truck in 1907 and adopted its present name in 1922. Mack Trucks is a subsidiary of AB Volvo which purchased Mack along with Renault Trucks in 2000. After being founded in Brooklyn, New York , the company's headquarters were in Allentown, Pennsylvania , from 1905 to 2009, when they moved to Greensboro, North Carolina . The entire line of Mack products is still produced in Macungie, Pennsylvania , with additional assembly plants in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Australia, and Venezuela
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