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Districts Of Germany
The primary administrative subdivision of German states is called a _LANDKREIS_ ("rural district "), except in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein where it is called simply a _KREIS_. Most major cities in Germany are not part of a rural district, but perform district-like functions on their own. In this context, those cities are referred to as _KREISFREIE STADT_ (literally "district-free town") or _STADTKREIS_ ("urban district"). Rural districts are at an intermediate level of administration between the German states (_Länder_) and the municipal governments (_Gemeinden _). They correspond to level 3 administrative units of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS 3), and are roughly equivalent to counties in the United States . Previously, the similar title _Reichskreis_ ( Imperial Circle ) was given to groups of states in the Holy Roman Empire
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Regierungsbezirk
_REGIERUNGSBEZIRK_ (pronounced , often abbreviated to REG.-BEZ.; English: Administrative district ) is an administrative region at federal state level in Germany. The regional authority is called a _Regierungspräsidium_ or _Bezirksregierung_ (district government) and is headed by a _Regierungspräsident_ (district president). The _Regierungsbezirke_ do not pass any legislation. Within the federal state authority, they act as a mid-level agency, concerned mostly with administrative decisions on a regional level for the affiliated rural or urban districts . CONTENTS * 1 Translations * 2 History * 3 _Regierungsbezirke_ by state * 4 Historic _Regierungsbezirke_ * 5 References * 6 External links TRANSLATIONS_Regierungsbezirk_ is variously translated as "governmental district", "administrative district" or "province", with the first two being closest literal translations
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Germany
Coordinates : 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9 Federal Republic of Germany _Bundesrepublik Deutschland_ (German ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " "Unity and Justice and Freedom" (de facto) ANTHEM: _ Deutschlandlied _ (English: "Song of Germany") (third verse only) Location of Germany (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Ca
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Politics Of Germany
Germany is a democratic, federal parliamentary republic , and federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag (the parliament of Germany) and the Bundesrat (the representative body of the Länder , Germany's regional states). There is a multi-party system that, since 1949, has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). The judiciary of Germany is independent of the executive and the legislature. The political system is laid out in the 1949 constitution, the _Grundgesetz _ (Basic Law), which remained in effect with minor amendments after German reunification in 1990. The constitution emphasizes the protection of individual liberty in an extensive catalogue of human and civil rights and divides powers both between the federal and state levels and between the legislative, executive and judicial branches
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Basic Law For The Federal Republic Of Germany
The BASIC LAW FOR THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY (German: _Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland_) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany . The Basic Law was approved on 8 May 1949 in Bonn , and, with the signature of the western Allies of World War II on 12 May, came into effect on 23 May. Its original field of application (German: _Geltungsbereich_) comprised the states of the Trizone that were initially included in the then West German Federal Republic of Germany , but not West Berlin . As part of the Two Plus Four Agreement of 1990 between the two parts of Germany and all four Allied Powers, a series of amendments were agreed to be implemented. In the subsequent Unification Treaty of 1990, this amended Basic Law was adopted as the constitution for a united Germany
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Human Rights In Germany
Human rights in Germany
Germany
are protected extensively by the Grundgesetz . The country has ratified most international human rights treaties. Reports from independent organizations such as Amnesty International certify a high level of compliance with human rights, while still pointing out several issues, in particular police brutality and mistreatment of refugees . The 2008 Freedom in the World report by US-funded Freedom House
Freedom House
gives Germany
Germany
a score of "1" (the best possible) for both political rights and civil liberties
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Federal Constitutional Court Of Germany
The FEDERAL CONSTITUTIONAL COURT (German: Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
, established by the constitution or Basic Law (Grundgesetz) of Germany. Since its inception with the beginning of the post-WW2 republic, the court has been located in the city of Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
—intentionally distanced from the other federal institutions in Berlin
Berlin
(earlier in Bonn
Bonn
) and other cities. The main task of the court is judicial review , and it may declare legislation unconstitutional , thus rendering them ineffective. In this respect, it is similar to other supreme courts with judicial review powers, yet the court possesses a number of additional powers, and is regarded as among the most interventionist and powerful national courts in the world
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President Of Germany
The PRESIDENT OF GERMANY, officially the PRESIDENT OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY (German : _Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland_), is the head of state of Germany . Germany has a parliamentary system of government in which the Chancellor is the nation's leading political figure and _de facto _ chief executive. However, the President has a role which, while not an executive post, is more than ceremonial. Presidents have extensive discretion regarding the way they exercise their official duties. The President gives direction to general political and societal debates and has some important "reserve powers " in case of political instability (such as those provided for by Article 81 of the Basic Law ). Under Article 59 (1) of the Basic Law (German Constitution), the President represents the Federal Republic of Germany in matters of international law, concludes treaties with foreign states on its behalf and accredits diplomats
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Frank-Walter Steinmeier
FRANK-WALTER STEINMEIER (German: ; born 5 January 1956) is the President of Germany , serving since 19 March 2017. He previously served as Minister for Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs
from 2005 to 2009 and again from 2013 to 2017, and as vice chancellor from 2007 to 2009. He was chairman-in-office of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in 2016. Steinmeier is a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), holds a doctorate in law and was formerly a career civil servant. He was a close aide of Gerhard Schröder when Schröder was Prime Minister of Lower Saxony during most of the 1990s, and served as Schröder's chief of staff from 1996. When Schröder became Chancellor of Germany
Germany
in 1998, Steinmeier was appointed Under-Secretary of State in the German Chancellery with the responsibility for the intelligence services
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Chancellor Of Germany (1949–)
CHANCELLOR (Latin : cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the cancellarii of Roman courts of justice—ushers, who sat at the cancelli or lattice work screens of a basilica or law court, which separated the judge and counsel from the audience. A chancellor's office is called a chancellery or chancery . The word is now used in the titles of many various officers in all kinds of settings (government, education, religion, etc.)
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Angela Merkel
ANGELA DOROTHEA MERKEL (English: /ˈæŋɡələ ˈmɜːrkəl/ , German: ; _née_ KASNER; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician and the Chancellor of Germany since 2005. She is also the leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). A former research scientist with a doctorate in physical chemistry , Merkel entered politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989 , and briefly served as a deputy spokesperson for the first democratically elected East German Government headed by Lothar de Maizière in 1990. Following German reunification in 1990, Merkel was elected to the Bundestag for the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern , and has been reelected ever since. Merkel was appointed as the Minister for Women and Youth in the federal government under Chancellor Helmut Kohl in 1991, and became the Minister for the Environment in 1994
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Vice-Chancellor Of Germany
The DEPUTY TO THE FEDERAL CHANCELLOR (German : _Stellvertreter des Bundeskanzlers_), widely known as the VICE CHANCELLOR (German : _Vizekanzler_) of Germany is, according to protocol, the second highest position in the Cabinet of Germany . He is the equivalent of a deputy prime minister in other parliamentary systems. The current Vice Chancellor is Sigmar Gabriel , who also serves as Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs
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Sigmar Gabriel
SIGMAR HARTMUT GABRIEL (born 12 September 1959) is a German politician who has served as Minister for Foreign Affairs since 2017 and Vice Chancellor since 2013. He was chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 2009 to 2017, which made him the party’s longest-serving leader since Willy Brandt . He was the Federal Minister of the Environment from 2005 to 2009 and the Federal Minister for Economic Affairs and Energy from 2013 to 2017. From 1999 to 2003 Gabriel was Prime Minister of Lower Saxony . Gabriel belongs to the right wing of the SPD, which shares many similarities with Tony Blair 's New Labour
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Cabinet Of Germany
The CABINET OF GERMANY (German : _BUNDESKABINETT_ or _BUNDESREGIERUNG_) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany . It consists of the Chancellor and the cabinet ministers . The fundamentals of the cabinet 's organization as well as the method of its election and appointment as well as the procedure for its dismissal are set down in articles 62 through 69 of the _Grundgesetz _ (the Basic Law). In contrast to the system under the Weimar Republic , the Bundestag may both only move a constructive vote of no-confidence (by electing a new Chancellor if it has lost trust in the existing) and can also only choose to dismiss the entire cabinet and not simply individual ministers
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Third Merkel Cabinet
The incumbent government of Germany , the third cabinet of Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel , was sworn in on 17 December 2013. Led by Merkel, the government is supported by a coalition of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), the Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CSU), and the Social Democrats (SPD). The CDU received five ministries in addition to the positions of Chancellor and Chancellery Chief of Staff/Minister for Special Affairs. The SPD controls six ministries and the CSU three. Although the CSU received a disproportionate share of ministries relative to its weight in the Bundestag, the six most powerful ministries were divided equally between the CDU and the SPD: the CDU controls the ministries for finance, internal affairs, and defense, while the SPD controls the ministries for foreign affairs, economics and energy, and justice and consumer protection
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Bundesversammlung (Germany)
The FEDERAL CONVENTION, also known as the FEDERAL ASSEMBLY (German : Bundesversammlung), is a special constitutional body in the political and federal institutional system of Germany
Germany
, convened solely for the purpose of electing the President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident ), either every five years or within 30 days of the premature termination of a presidential term. The Federal Convention mirrors the aggregated majority situation of the Bundestag
Bundestag
and the parliaments of the 16 German federal states . The Basic Law mandates that a maximum of three votes can be held. On the first two rounds, a candidate must receive an absolute majority of delegates to be elected. After that, in the third round, a plurality of all delegates voting is sufficient for election to the office of Federal President
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