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Districts Of England
The DISTRICTS OF ENGLAND (also known as LOCAL AUTHORITY DISTRICTS or LOCAL GOVERNMENT DISTRICTS to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government . As the structure of local government in England is not uniform, there are currently four principal types of district-level subdivision. There are a total of 326 districts made up of 36 metropolitan boroughs , 32 London boroughs , 201 non-metropolitan districts , 55 unitary authorities , as well as the City of London and the Isles of Scilly which are also districts, but do not correspond to any of these categories. Some districts are styled as boroughs , cities , or royal boroughs ; these are purely honorific titles, and do not alter the status of the district. All boroughs and cities, and a few districts, are led by a mayor who in most cases is a ceremonial figure elected by the district council , but – after local government reform – is occasionally a directly elected mayor who makes most of the policy decisions instead of the council
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom . It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly , and the Isle of Wight . The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery , which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language , the Anglican Church , and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations
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Metropolitan And Non-metropolitan Counties Of England
METROPOLITAN AND NON-METROPOLITAN COUNTIES are one of the four levels of subdivisions of England
England
used for the purposes of local government outside Greater London
Greater London
and the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
. As originally constituted, the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties each consisted of multiple districts , had a county council and were also the counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies . Later changes in legislation during the 1980s and 1990s have allowed counties without county councils and 'unitary authority' counties of a single district. Counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies are now defined separately , based on the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. In 2009, there were further structural changes in some areas , resulting in a total of 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. These 83 counties collectively consist of 292 districts or district-level subdivisions, i.e. 36 metropolitan boroughs and 256 non-metropolitan districts (201 of these are subdivisions of non-metropolitan counties with county councils; 6 are subdivisions (and also unitary authorities, but without non-metropolitan county status) of Berkshire, which is a non-metropolitan county with no county council; and the remaining 49 are unitary authorities that have non-metropolitan county status)
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Local Government Act 1972
The LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT 1972 (c 70) is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that reformed local government in England and Wales
England and Wales
on 1 April 1974. Its pattern of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan county and district councils remains in use today in large parts of England, although the metropolitan county councils were abolished in 1986, and both county and district councils were replaced with unitary authorities in many areas in the 1990s. In Wales, too, the Act established a similar pattern of counties and districts , but these have since been entirely replaced with a system of unitary authorities . It was one of the most significant Acts of Parliament to be passed by the Heath Government of 1970-74 and is surpassed only by the European Communities Act 1972 which took the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
into the European Communities . Elections were held to the new authorities in 1973, and they acted as "shadow authorities" until the handover date. Elections to county councils were held on 12 April, for metropolitan and Welsh districts on 10 May, and for non-metropolitan district councils on 7 June
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London Government Act 1963
The LONDON GOVERNMENT ACT 1963 (c. 33) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom , which recognised officially the conurbation known as Greater London and created a new local government structure for the capital. The Act significantly reduced the number of local government districts in the area, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger areas and populations. The upper tier of local government was reformed to cover the whole of the Greater London area and with a more strategic role; and the split of functions between upper and lower tiers was recast. The Act classified the boroughs into inner and outer London groups. The City of London and its corporation were essentially unreformed by the legislation. Subsequent amendments to the Act have significantly amended the upper tier arrangements, with the Greater London Council abolished in 1986, and the Greater London Authority introduced in 2000. As of 2016 , the London boroughs are more or less identical to those created in 1965, although with some enhanced powers over services such as waste management and education
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List Of English Districts
This is a list of the districts of England
England
, a type of country subdivision governed by a local authority, that cover all of England
England
. Most English districts are known as non-metropolitan districts and are found in non-metropolitan counties. However, primarily in urban areas, other types of districts are found. Each district is contained within one ceremonial county, except Stockton-on-Tees, which is split for this purpose. Population figures are the mid-year estimates for 2016 from the Office for National Statistics . CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 Current districts * 3 Former districts * 4 Renamings * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links NOMENCLATUREThere are currently 326 districts in England. The districts are divided into several categories which determine the powers and functions of the local authority. * 32 London boroughs * 36 metropolitan districts * 201 non-metropolitan districts (in a two-tier county arrangement) * 55 unitary authorities (all also non-metropolitan districts, but with the combined powers of non-metropolitan counties and districts ) * City of London
City of London
(sui generis) * Isles of Scilly (sui generis)Each district can additionally hold the honorific statuses of borough , city and royal borough , which does not affect the powers and functions of the local authority
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Metropolitan Borough
A METROPOLITAN BOROUGH is a type of local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county . Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
, metropolitan boroughs are defined in English law as METROPOLITAN DISTRICTS. However, all of them have been granted or regranted royal charters to give them borough status (as well as, in some cases, city status ). Metropolitan boroughs have been effectively unitary authority areas since the abolition of the metropolitan county councils by the Local Government Act 1985 . However, metropolitan boroughs pool much of their authority in joint boards and other arrangements that cover whole metropolitan counties, such as combined authorities . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Metropolitan district
Metropolitan district
councils * 3 List of metropolitan boroughs * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe term "metropolitan borough" was first used for administrative subdivisions of the County
County
of London between 1900 and 1965. However, the present boroughs of Greater London, which have different boundaries and functions, and are much larger in area, are known as London Boroughs rather than metropolitan boroughs
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Non-metropolitan District
NON-METROPOLITAN DISTRICTS, or colloquially "SHIRE DISTRICTS", are a type of local government district in England . As created, they are sub-divisions of non-metropolitan counties (colloquially _shire counties_) in a two-tier arrangement. In the 1990s, several non-metropolitan counties were created that are unitary authorities and also have non-metropolitan district status. A third category is the districts of Berkshire, which are non-metropolitan districts that are unitary authorities, but without non-metropolitan county status. CONTENTS * 1 Non-metropolitan districts * 2 Status * 3 History * 3.1 Scotland and Wales * 4 District Councils\' Network * 5 List of counties and districts * 6 List of abolished non-metropolitan districts * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links NON-METROPOLITAN DISTRICTSNon-metropolitan districts are subdivisions of English non-metropolitan counties which have a two-tier structure of local government. Most non-metropolitan counties have a county council , and also have several districts, each with a borough or district council
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Unitary Authorities Of England
UNITARY AUTHORITIES OF ENGLAND are local authorities that are responsible for the provision of all local government services within a district. They are constituted under the Local Government Act 1992 , which amended the Local Government Act 1972 to allow the existence of counties that do not have multiple districts. They typically allow large towns to have separate local authorities from the less urbanised parts of their counties and provide a single authority for small counties where division into districts would be impractical. Unitary authorities do not cover all of England. Most were established during the 1990s and a further tranche were created in 2009 . Unitary authorities have the powers and functions that are elsewhere separately administered by councils of non-metropolitan counties and the non-metropolitan districts within them. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Background * 1.2 1990s reform * 1.3 2009 changes * 2 Functions * 3 Electoral arrangements * 4 Current list * 5 Similar authorities * 6 See also * 7 Footnotes * 8 References HISTORYBACKGROUNDThe term "unitary authority " was first used in the Redcliffe-Maud Report in 1969 in its current sense of a local government authority which combines the functions of a county council and a district council
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London Boroughs
LONDON BOROUGHS are 32 of the 33 local authority districts of the Greater London administrative area (the 33rd is the City of London ) and are each governed by a London borough council. The London boroughs were all created at the same time as Greater London on 1 April 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 and are a type of local government district . Twelve were designated as Inner London boroughs and twenty as Outer London boroughs. London boroughs have populations of around 150,000 to 300,000. Inner London boroughs tend to be smaller, in both population and area, and more densely populated than Outer London boroughs. The London boroughs were created by combining groups of former local government units. A review undertaken between 1987 and 1992 led to a number of relatively small alterations in borough boundaries. London borough councils provide the majority of local government services, in contrast to the strategic Greater London Authority , which has limited authority over all of Greater London. The councils were first elected in 1964 and acted as shadow authorities until 1 April 1965. Each borough is divided into electoral wards , subject to periodic review, for the purpose of electing councillors
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City Status In The United Kingdom
CITY STATUS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities: as of 2014 , there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England , six in Wales , seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland . The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a _city_. Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions for the status are hard fought. The status does not apply automatically on the basis of any particular criteria, although in England and Wales it was traditionally given to towns with diocesan cathedrals . This association between having a cathedral and being called a city was established in the early 1540s when King Henry VIII founded dioceses (each having a cathedral in the see city ) in six English towns and also granted them city status by issuing letters patent . City status in Ireland was granted to far fewer communities than in England and Wales, and there are only two pre–19th-century cities in present-day Northern Ireland . In Scotland, city status did not explicitly receive any recognition by the state until the 19th century
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Royal Borough
The following LIST OF PLACE NAMES WITH ROYAL PATRONAGE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM includes both those granted a royal title or status by express wish of a specific monarch, and those with prefixes or suffixes such as "King's" or "Regis" that relate to historic ownership of the area by the Crown . CONTENTS* 1 England * 1.1 Royal * 1.2 Former * 1.3 Regis * 1.4 King\'s * 1.4.1 Somerset
Somerset
* 1.5 Queen\'s * 1.6 Prince\'s * 2 Scotland * 2.1 King and Rìgh * 2.2 Regis * 2.3 Queen * 2.4 Royal * 2.4.1 Former royal burghs * 3 Wales * 3.1 Royal * 4 See also * 5 References ENGLANDROYALThe following places have been explicitly granted or confirmed the use of the title "royal" by royal charter , letters patent or similar instrument issued by the monarch. Since 1926 the entitlement to the title "royal borough" has been strictly enforced. Devizes
Devizes
in Wiltshire
Wiltshire
, which had previously used the title without sanction, was forced to end the practice
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Borough Status In England And Wales
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
(which lies in the North Atlantic
North Atlantic
) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
, and the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
. The area now called England
England
was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles
Angles
, one of the Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England
England
became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery , which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world
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Subdivisions Of England
The SUBDIVISIONS OF ENGLAND constitute a hierarchy of administrative divisions and non-administrative ceremonial areas. Overall, England
England
is divided into nine regions and 48 ceremonial counties , although these have only a limited role in public policy. For the purposes of local government , the country is divided into counties , districts and parishes . In some areas, counties and districts form a two-tier administrative structure, while in others they are combined under a unitary authority . Parishes cover only part of England. The current system is the result of incremental reform which has its origins in legislation enacted in 1965 and 1972
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Local Government
LOCAL GOVERNMENT is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government , national government, or (where appropriate) federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states , local government generally comprises the third (or sometimes fourth) tier of government, whereas in unitary states , local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions. The question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public administration and governance . The institutions of local government vary greatly between countries, and even where similar arrangements exist, the terminology often varies. Common names for local government entities include state, province , region , department , county , prefecture , district , city , township , town , borough , parish , municipality , shire , village , and local service district
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City Of London
The CITY OF LONDON is a city and county that contains the historic centre and central business district of London
London
. It constituted most of London
London
from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages , but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London
London
, though it remains a notable part of central London
London
. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London
London
; however, the City of London
London
is not a London
London
borough , a status reserved for the other 32 districts (including London's only other city, the City of Westminster ). The City of London
London
is widely referred to simply as THE CITY (differentiated from the phrase "the city of London" by capitalising _City_) and is also colloquially known as the SQUARE MILE, as it is 1.12 sq mi (2.90 km2) in area. Both of these terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being largely based in the City. The name _London_ is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City
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