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Discovery (observation)
DISCOVERY is the act of detecting something new, or something "old" that had been unrecognized as meaningful. With reference to sciences and academic disciplines , discovery is the observation of new phenomena, new actions, or new events and providing new reasoning to explain the knowledge gathered through such observations with previously acquired knowledge from abstract thought and everyday experiences. A discovery may sometimes be based on earlier discoveries, collaborations, or ideas. Some discoveries represent a radical breakthrough in knowledge or technology. CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Within science * 2 Exploration
Exploration
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONNew discoveries are acquired through various senses and are usually assimilated, merging with pre-existing knowledge and actions . Questioning is a major form of human thought and interpersonal communication, and plays a key role in discovery
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American Sociological Review
The AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all aspects of sociology . It is published by Sage Publications
Sage Publications
on behalf of the American Sociological Association . It was established in 1936. The current editors-in-chief are Omar Lizardo , Rory McVeigh , and Sarah Mustillo (University of Notre Dame ). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Abstracting and indexing * 3 Past editors * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYFor its first thirty years, the American Sociological Society (now the American Sociological Association) was largely dominated by the sociology department of the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
, and the quasi-official journal of the association was Chicago's American Journal of Sociology
Sociology

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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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JSTOR
JSTOR (/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ _JAY-stor_ ; short for _Journal Storage_) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals , it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals. As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR; most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Content * 3 Access * 3.1 Aaron Swartz incident * 3.2 Limitations * 3.3 Increasing public access * 4 Use * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORY William G. Bowen , president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, founded JSTOR
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the ISO . An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata
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Pubmed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
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Scientific Priority
In science , PRIORITY is the credit given to the individual or group of individuals who first made the discovery or propose the theory. Fame and honours usually go to the first person or group to publish a new finding, even if several researchers arrived at the same conclusion independently and at the same time. Thus between two or more independent discoverers, the first to make formal publication is the legitimate winner. Hence, the tradition is often referred to as the PRIORITY RULE, the procedure of which is nicely summed up in a phrase "publish or perish", because there are no second prizes. In a way, the race to be first inspires risk-taking that can lead to scientific breakthroughs which is beneficial to the society (such as discovery of malaria transmission , DNA
DNA
, HIV
HIV
, etc.); on the other hand, it can create an unhealthy competition, thus, becoming detrimental to scientific progress
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Serendipity
SERENDIPITY means a "fortunate happenstance" or "pleasant surprise". The term was coined by Horace Walpole
Horace Walpole
in 1754. In a letter he wrote to a friend, Walpole explained an unexpected discovery he had made by reference to a Persian fairy tale, The Three Princes of Serendip . The princes, he told his correspondent, were "always making discoveries, by accidents and sagacity, of things which they were not in quest of". The notion of serendipity is a common occurrence throughout the history of scientific innovation. Examples are Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
's accidental discovery of penicillin in 1928, the invention of the microwave oven by Percy Spencer in 1945, and the invention of the Post-it note by Spencer Silver in 1968. In June 2004, a British translation company voted the word to be one of the ten English words hardest to translate
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Timeline Of Scientific Discoveries
The timeline below shows the date of publication of possible major scientific theories and discoveries, along with the discoverer. In many cases, the discoveries spanned several years. CONTENTS * 1 4th century BCE * 2 3rd century BCE * 3 2nd century BCE * 4 2nd century * 5 9th century * 6 10th century * 7 11th century * 8 12th century * 9 13th century * 10 14th century * 11 15th century * 12 16th century * 13 17th century * 14 18th century * 15 19th century * 16 20th century * 17 21st century * 18 References * 19 External links 4TH CENTURY BCE * 4th century BCE - Mandragora (containing atropin ) was described by Theophrastus
Theophrastus
in the fourth century B.C.E. for treatment of wounds, gout, and sleeplessness, and as a love potion . By the first century C.E. Dioscorides recognized wine of mandrake as an anaesthetic for treatment of pain or sleeplessness, to be given prior to surgery or cautery
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Cognitive Science
COGNITIVE SCIENCE is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines the nature, the tasks, and the functions of cognition . Cognitive scientists study intelligence and behavior, with a focus on how nervous systems represent, process, and transform information . Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language , perception , memory , attention , reasoning , and emotion ; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics , psychology , artificial intelligence , philosophy , neuroscience , and anthropology . The typical analysis of cognitive science spans many levels of organization, from learning and decision to logic and planning; from neural circuitry to modular brain organization
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Oclc
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC
OCLC
ONLINE COMPUTER LIBRARY CENTER, INCORPORATED, is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the OHIO COLLEGE LIBRARY CENTER. OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat , the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. OCLC
OCLC
is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services (around $200 million annually as of 2016 )
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Portal
PORTAL may refer to: * Portal (architecture) , a monumental gate or door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel * Portals in fiction , magical or technological doorways that connect two locations, dimensions, or points in time * _ Portal _, a video game series developed by Valve Corporation CONTENTS* 1 Computing * 1.1 Gateways to information * 1.2 Other computing * 2 Art, entertainment, and media


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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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Main Page
The 1983 ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON was the least active Atlantic hurricane season in 53 years. Although the season begins by convention on June 1, there were no tropical depressions until July 23, and only four of the season's seven depressions became tropical storms . Tropical Depression Three became Hurricane Alicia_(satellite image pictured)_ on August 17 and made landfall in Texas the next day, breaking thousands of glass windows in Houston's skyscrapers, killing 22 people and causing $1.7 billion in damage. The storm that became Hurricane Barry formed on August 25, crossed Florida, and made landfall near Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville, Texas
, dissipating five days later. Hurricane Chantal stayed out at sea, and was absorbed by a front on September 15. Tropical Depression Six formed on September 19 and caused heavy rains in the Caribbean
Caribbean

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PBS
The PUBLIC BROADCASTING SERVICE (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor . Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia , PBS is an independently operated non-profit organization and is the most prominent provider of television programming to public television stations in the United States, distributing series such as _ Keeping Up Appearances _, _ BBC World News _, _ NOVA scienceNOW _, _NOVA _, _ Barney and Friends _, _Arthur _, _ Sesame Street _, _ PBS NewsHour _, _ Walking with Dinosaurs _, _Masterpiece _, _Nature _, _ American Masters _, _Frontline _, and _ Antiques Roadshow _. PBS is funded by member station dues, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting , government agencies, corporations, foundations and individual citizens
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BBC News
Television Centre 1969 - 2013 Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
2012 -, Greater London, United Kingdom NUMBER OF LOCATIONS BBC
BBC
Regional AREA SERVED Specific services for United Kingdom and rest of world KEY PEOPLE James Harding (Director of News LINE-HEIGHT:1.2EM;">NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 3,500 (2,000 are journalists) WEBSITE www.bbc.co.uk/news BBC
BBC
NEWS is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation ( BBC
BBC
) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage. The service maintains 50 foreign news bureaux with more than 250 correspondents around the world. James Harding has been Director of News and Current Affairs since April 2013
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