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Discovery (observation)
DISCOVERY is the act of detecting something new, or something "old" that had been unrecognized as meaningful. With reference to sciences and academic disciplines , discovery is the observation of new phenomena, new actions, or new events and providing new reasoning to explain the knowledge gathered through such observations with previously acquired knowledge from abstract thought and everyday experiences. A discovery may sometimes be based on earlier discoveries, collaborations, or ideas. Some discoveries represent a radical breakthrough in knowledge or technology. CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Within science * 2 Exploration
Exploration
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONNew discoveries are acquired through various senses and are usually assimilated, merging with pre-existing knowledge and actions . Questioning is a major form of human thought and interpersonal communication, and plays a key role in discovery. Discoveries are often made due to questions . Some discoveries lead to the invention of objects, processes, or techniques. A discovery may sometimes be based on earlier discoveries, collaborations or ideas, and the process of discovery requires at least the awareness that an existing concept or method can be modified or transformed. However, some discoveries also represent a radical breakthrough in knowledge
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Sightings (other)
SIGHTINGS are the visual detection of new things. SIGHTINGS may also refer to: * Sightings
Sightings
(TV series) , an American television series * Sightings
Sightings
(band) , an American noise rock music groupSEE ALSO * Sight (other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title SIGHTINGS. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sightings_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Sciences
SCIENCE (from Latin _scientia_, meaning "knowledge") :58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe . Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences , which study the material universe ; the social sciences , which study people and societies; and the formal sciences , which study logic and mathematics . The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine , may also be considered to be applied sciences . From classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy than it is now, and in the Western world the term "natural philosophy " once encompassed fields of study that are today associated with science, such as astronomy , medicine, and physics . However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the scientific method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his _ Book of Optics _. While the classification of the material world by the ancient Indians and Greeks into air, earth, fire and water was more philosophical, medieval Middle Easterns used practical and experimental observation to classify materials. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws
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Discipline (academia)
An ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE or ACADEMIC FIELD is a branch of knowledge . It incorporates expertise, people, projects, communities, challenges, studies, inquiry, and research areas that are strongly associated with a given scholastic subject area or college department. For example, the branches of science are commonly referred to as the scientific disciplines, e.g. physics , mathematics , and computer science . Individuals associated with academic disciplines are commonly referred to as _experts _ or _specialists_. Others, who may have studied liberal arts or systems theory rather than concentrating in a specific academic discipline, are classified as _generalists_. While academic disciplines in and of themselves are more or less focused practices, scholarly approaches such as multidisciplinarity , interdisciplinarity , transdisciplinarity , and crossdisciplinarity integrate aspects from multiple academic disciplines, therefore addressing any problems that may arise from narrow concentration within specialized fields of study. For example, professionals may encounter trouble communicating across academic disciplines because of differences in language or specified concepts. Some researchers believe that academic disciplines may be replaced by what is known as Mode 2 or "post-academic science", which involves the acquisition of cross-disciplinary knowledge through collaboration of specialists from various academic disciplines
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Observation
OBSERVATION is the active acquisition of information from a primary source . In living beings, observation employs the senses . In science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of instruments. The term may also refer to any data collected during the scientific activity. Observations can be qualitative , that is, only the absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring . CONTENTS * 1 Observation
Observation
in science * 2 Observational paradoxes * 3 Biases * 3.1 Confirmation bias
Confirmation bias
* 3.2 "Cargo cult" science * 3.3 Processing bias * 3.4 Observational bias * 4 Observations in philosophy * 5 See also * 6 References OBSERVATION IN SCIENCEThe scientific method requires observations of nature to formulate and test hypotheses
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Sense
A SENSE is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception . The senses and their operation, classification, and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields, most notably neuroscience , cognitive psychology (or cognitive science ), and philosophy of perception . The nervous system has a specific sensory nervous system , and a SENSE ORGAN, dedicated to each sense. Humans have a multitude of senses. Sight (vision ), hearing (audition ), taste (gustation ), smell (olfaction ), and touch (somatosensation ) are the five traditionally recognized senses. The ability to detect other stimuli beyond those governed by these most broadly recognized senses also exists, and these sensory modalities include temperature (thermoception ), kinesthetic sense (proprioception ), pain (nociception ), balance (equilibrioception ), vibration (mechanoreception ), and various internal stimuli (e.g. the different chemoreceptors for detecting salt and carbon dioxide concentrations in the blood, or sense of hunger and sense of thirst ). However, what constitutes a sense is a matter of some debate, leading to difficulties in defining what exactly a distinct sense is, and where the borders between responses to related stimuli lie. Other animals also have receptors to sense the world around them, with degrees of capability varying greatly between species
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Knowledge
KNOWLEDGE is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts , information , descriptions , or skills , which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving , discovering , or learning . Knowledge can refer to a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); it can be more or less formal or systematic. In philosophy , the study of knowledge is called epistemology ; the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief ", though this definition is now thought by some analytic philosophers to be problematic because of the Gettier problems while others defend the platonic definition. However, several definitions of knowledge and theories to explain it exist. Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception , communication , and reasoning ; while knowledge is also said to be related to the capacity of _acknowledgment_ in human beings. CONTENTS * 1 Theories of knowledge * 2 Communicating knowledge * 3 Situated knowledge * 4 Partial knowledge * 5 Scientific knowledge * 6 Religious meaning of knowledge * 6.1 As a measure of religiosity in sociology of religion * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE _ Robert Reid , Knowledge_ (1896)
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Action (philosophy)
In philosophy , an ACTION is something which is done by an agent . In common speech, the term action is often used interchangeably with the term behavior. However, in the philosophy of action , the behavioural sciences , and the social sciences , a distinction is made: behavior is defined as automatic and reflexive activity, while action is defined as intentional, purposive, conscious and subjectively meaningful activity. Thus, throwing a ball is an instance of action; it involves an intention, a goal, and a bodily movement guided by the agent. On the other hand, catching a cold is not considered an action because it is something which happens to a person, not something done by one. CONTENTS * 1 Intention * 2 Perception
Perception
* 3 Movement * 4 Reasons for action * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links INTENTIONOther events are less clearly defined as actions or not. For instance, distractedly drumming ones fingers on the table seems to fall somewhere in the middle. Deciding to do something might be considered a mental action by some. However, others think it is not an action unless the decision is carried out. Unsuccessfully trying to do something might also not be considered an action for similar reasons (for e.g. lack of bodily movement). It is contentious whether believing , intending , and thinking are actions since they are mental events
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Question
A QUESTION is a linguistic expression used to make a request for information , or the request made using such an expression. The information requested is provided in the form of an answer . Questions have developed a range of uses that go beyond the simple eliciting of information from another party. Rhetorical questions , for example, are used to make a point, and are not expected to be answered. Many languages have special grammatical forms for questions (for example, in the English sentence "Are you happy?", the inversion of the subject _you_ and the verb _are_ shows it to be a question rather than a statement). However, questions can also be asked without using these interrogative grammatical structures – for example one may use an imperative , as in "Tell me your name". CONTENTS* 1 Uses * 1.1 By purpose * 1.2 By grammatical form * 2 Grammar * 3 Responses * 4 Learning * 5 Philosophy * 6 Origins * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading USES Jonathan Dimbleby questioning - BBC World Service The principal use of questions is to elicit information from the person being addressed by indicating the information which the speaker (or writer) desires. However, questions can also be used for a number of other purposes. Questions may be asked for the purpose of testing someone's knowledge, as in a quiz or examination
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Invention
An INVENTION is a unique or novel device , method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering and product development process. It may be an improvement upon a machine or product or a new process for creating an object or a result. An invention that achieves a completely unique function or result may be a radical breakthrough. Such works are novel and not obvious to others skilled in the same field . An inventor may be taking a big step in success or failure. Some inventions can be patented. A patent legally protects the intellectual property rights of the inventor and legally recognizes that a claimed invention is actually an invention. The rules and requirements for patenting an invention vary from country to country and the process of obtaining a patent is often expensive. Another meaning of invention is CULTURAL INVENTION , which is an innovative set of useful social behaviours adopted by people and passed on to others. The Institute for Social Inventions collected many such ideas in magazines and books. Invention
Invention
is also an important component of artistic and design creativity . Inventions often extend the boundaries of human knowledge, experience or capability
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Phenomenon
A PHENOMENON (Greek :φαινόμενον, _phainómenon_, from the verb _phainein_, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural PHENOMENA) is any thing which manifests itself. Phenomenaare often, but not always, understood as "things that appear" or "experiences " for a sentient being, or in principle may be so. The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant , who contrasted it with the noumenon . In contrast to a phenomenon, a noumenon can not be directly observed. Kant was heavily influenced by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnizin this part of his philosophy, in which phenomenon and noumenon serve as interrelated technical terms. Far predating this, the ancient Greek Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus
Sextus Empiricus
also used phenomenon and noumenon as interrelated technical terms. Cloud chamber
Cloud chamber
phenomena. Scientists use phenomena to refine some hypotheses and sometimes to disprove a theory . See also animated version . CONTENTS * 1 Modern philosophical usage * 2 Scientific * 3 Mechanical * 4 Gem * 5 Group and social * 6 Popular usage * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links MODERN PHILOSOPHICAL USAGEIn modern philosophical use, the term 'phenomena' has come to mean 'what is experienced is the basis of reality '
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Scientific Evidence
SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE is evidence which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis . Such evidence is expected to be empirical evidence and interpretation in accordance with scientific method . Standards for scientific evidence vary according to the field of inquiry, but the strength of scientific evidence is generally based on the results of statistical analysis and the strength of scientific controls . CONTENTS * 1 Principles of inference * 2 Utility of scientific evidence * 3 Philosophic versus scientific views of scientific evidence * 4 Concept of "scientific proof" * 5 See also * 6 References PRINCIPLES OF INFERENCEA person's assumptions or beliefs about the relationship between observations and a hypothesis will affect whether that person takes the observations as evidence. These assumptions or beliefs will also affect how a person utilizes the observations as evidence. For example, the Earth's apparent lack of motion may be taken as evidence for a geocentric cosmology. However, after sufficient evidence is presented for heliocentric cosmology and the apparent lack of motion is explained, the initial observation is strongly discounted as evidence. When rational observers have different background beliefs, they may draw different conclusions from the same scientific evidence. For example, Priestley , working with phlogiston theory , explained his observations about the decomposition of mercuric oxide using phlogiston
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Particle Physics
PARTICLE PHYSICS (also HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute _matter _ and _radiation _. Although the word "particle " can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons , gas particles, or even household dust), "particle physics" usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behaviour. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model . Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model and its various possible extensions, e.g. to the newest "known" particle, the Higgs boson , or even to the oldest known force field, gravity
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Statistic
A STATISTIC (singular) or SAMPLE STATISTIC is a single measure of some attribute of a sample (e.g., its arithmetic mean value). It is calculated by applying a function (statistical algorithm ) to the values of the items of the sample, which are known together as a set of data . More formally, statistical theory defines a statistic as a function of a sample where the function itself is independent of the sample's distribution; that is, the function can be stated before realization of the data. The term statistic is used both for the function and for the value of the function on a given sample. A statistic is distinct from a statistical parameter , which is not computable because often the population is much too large to examine and measure all its items. However, a statistic, when used to estimate a population parameter, is called an estimator . For instance, the _sample mean _ is a statistic that estimates the _population mean_, which is a parameter. When a statistic (a function) is being used for a specific purpose, it may be referred to by a name indicating its purpose: in descriptive statistics , a descriptive statistic is used to describe the data; in estimation theory , an estimator is used to estimate a parameter of the distribution (population); in statistical hypothesis testing , a test statistic is used to test a hypothesis
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Experiment
An EXPERIMENT is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis . Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exists natural experimental studies . A child may carry out basic experiments to understand gravity, while teams of scientists may take years of systematic investigation to advance their understanding of a phenomenon. Experiments and other types of hands-on activities are very important to student learning in the science classroom. Experiments can raise test scores and help a student become more engaged and interested in the material they are learning, especially when used over time. Experiments can vary from personal and informal natural comparisons (e.g. tasting a range of chocolates to find a favorite), to highly controlled (e.g. tests requiring complex apparatus overseen by many scientists that hope to discover information about subatomic particles). Uses of experiments vary considerably between the natural and human sciences. Experiments typically include controls , which are designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the single independent variable . This increases the reliability of the results, often through a comparison between control measurements and the other measurements
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Randomness
RANDOMNESS is the lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps has no order and does not follow an intelligible pattern or combination. Individual random events are by definition unpredictable, but in many cases the frequency of different outcomes over a large number of events (or "trials") is predictable. For example, when throwing two dice , the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as often as 4. In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome, rather than haphazardness, and applies to concepts of chance, probability , and information entropy . The fields of mathematics, probability, and statistics use formal definitions of randomness. In statistics, a random variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space. This association facilitates the identification and the calculation of probabilities of the events. Random variables can appear in random sequences . A random process is a sequence of random variables whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern, but follow an evolution described by probability distributions . These and other constructs are extremely useful in probability theory and the various applications of randomness . Randomness is most often used in statistics to signify well-defined statistical properties
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