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Dionaea Muscipula
The VENUS FLYTRAP (also referred to as VENUS\'S FLYTRAP or VENUS\' FLYTRAP), DIONAEA MUSCIPULA, is a carnivorous plant native to subtropical wetlands on the East Coast of the United States in North Carolina and South Carolina . It catches its prey—chiefly insects and arachnids —with a trapping structure formed by the terminal portion of each of the plant's leaves, which is triggered by tiny hairs on their inner surfaces. When an insect or spider crawling along the leaves contacts a hair, the trap prepares to close, snapping shut only if another contact occurs within approximately twenty seconds of the first strike. The requirement of redundant triggering in this mechanism serves as a safeguard against wasting energy by trapping objects with no nutritional value, and the plant will only begin digestion after five more stimuli to ensure it has caught a live bug worthy of consumption
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William Curtis
WILLIAM CURTIS (11 January 1746 – 7 July 1799) was an English botanist and entomologist , who was born at Alton, Hampshire , where is the Curtis Museum . Curtis began as an apothecary , before turning his attention to botany and other natural history. The publications he prepared effectively reached a wider audience than early works on the subject had intended. At the age of 25 he produced Instructions for collecting and preserving insects; particularly moths and butterflies. Curtis was demonstrator of plants and Praefectus Horti at the Chelsea Physic Garden from 1771 to 1777. He established his own London Botanic Garden at Lambeth in 1779, moving to Brompton in 1789. He published Flora Londinensis (6 volumes, 1777–1798), a pioneering work in that it devoted itself to urban nature
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Curtis's Botanical Magazine
THE BOTANICAL MAGAZINE; or Flower-Garden Displayed, is an illustrated publication which began in 1787. The longest running botanical magazine, it is widely referred to by the subsequent name CURTIS\'S BOTANICAL MAGAZINE. Each of the issues contains a description, in formal yet accessible language, and is renowned for featuring the work of two centuries of botanical illustrators . Many plants received their first publication on the pages, and the description given was enhanced by the keenly detailed illustrations. CONTENTS * 1 History and profile * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links HISTORY AND PROFILEThe first issue, published on 1 February 1787, was begun by William Curtis , as both an illustrated gardening and botanical journal. Curtis was an apothecary and botanist who held a position at Kew Gardens , who had published the highly praised (but poorly sold) Flora Londinensis a few years before
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Photosynthesis
PHOTOSYNTHESIS is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation ). This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules , such as sugars , which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name _photosynthesis_, from the Greek φῶς, _phōs_, "light", and σύνθεσις, _synthesis_, "putting together". In most cases, oxygen is also released as a waste product. Most plants , most algae , and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs . Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
is largely responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen content of the Earth's atmosphere, and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth
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Petiole (botany)
In botany , the PETIOLE (/ˈpiːtᵻoʊl/ ) is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem . :87 The petiole is the transition between the stem and the leaf blade. :171 Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole in some species are called stipules . Leaves lacking a petiole are called sessile or EPETIOLATE. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Etymology * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (June 2015) Harvested rhubarb petioles with leaves attached The petiole is a stalk that attaches a leaf to the plant stem. In PETIOLATE leaves, the leaf stalk (petiole) may be long, as in the leaves of celery and rhubarb, short or completely absent, in which case the blade attaches directly to the stem and is said to be SESSILE. SUBPETIOLATE leaves are nearly petiolate, or have an extremely short petiole, and may appear sessile
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Anthocyanin
ANTHOCYANINS (also ANTHOCYANS; from Greek : ἄνθος (_anthos_) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς _kyaneos/kyanous_ "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH , may appear red, purple, or blue. Food plants rich in anthocyanins include the blueberry, raspberry, black rice, and black soybean, among many others that are red, blue, purple, or black. Some of the colors of autumn leaves are derived from anthocyanins. Anthocyanins belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway; they are odorless, but flavorful, contributing to taste as a moderately astringent sensation. Anthocyanins occur in all tissues of higher plants, including leaves , stems , roots , flowers , and fruits . Anthoxanthins are clear, white, to yellow counterparts of anthocyanins occurring in plants. Anthocyanins are derived from anthocyanidins by adding sugars
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Colony (biology)
In biology , a COLONY is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another, usually for mutual benefit such as stronger defense or the ability to attack bigger prey. It is a cluster of identical cells (clones) on the surface of (or within) a solid medium, usually derived from a single parent cell, as in bacterial colony. In contrast, a solitary organism is one in which all individuals live independently and have all of the functions needed to survive and reproduce. Colonies, in the context of development, may be composed of two or more unitary (or solitary) organisms or be modular organisms. UNITARY ORGANISMS have determinate development (set life stages) from zygote to adult form and individuals or groups of individuals (colonies) are visually distinct
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Peter Collinson (botanist)
PETER COLLINSON (January 1694 – 11 August 1768) was a Fellow of the Royal Society , an avid gardener, and the middleman for an international exchange of scientific ideas in mid-18th century London. He is best known for his horticultural friendship with John Bartram and his correspondence with Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
about electricity. CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 References * 2.1 Notes * 3 External links LIFE AND WORKBorn the son of a London woolen draper, Collinson entered his father's business and developed an interest in botany. His family belonged to the Gracechurch Street Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (i.e. Quakers). In October 1728, Collinson wrote to Sir Hans Sloane , President of the Royal Society, about strange events in Kent and on 7 November 1728, he was proposed for Fellowship of the Society
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Aldrovanda Vesiculosa
ALDROVANDA VESICULOSA, commonly known as the WATERWHEEL PLANT, is the sole extant species in the flowering plant genus Aldrovanda of the family Droseraceae . The plant captures small aquatic invertebrates using traps similar to those of the Venus flytrap . The traps are arranged in whorls around a central, free-floating stem, giving rise to the common name. This is one of the few plant species capable of rapid movement . While the genus Aldrovanda is now monotypic, up to 19 extinct species are known in the fossil record. While the species displays a degree of morphological plasticity between populations, A. vesiculosa possesses a very low genetic diversity across its entire range. A. vesiculosa has declined over the last century to only 50 confirmed extant populations worldwide. These are spread across Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia
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Drosera
DROSERA, commonly known as the SUNDEWS, is one of the largest genera of carnivorous plants , with at least 194 species . These members of the family Droseraceae lure, capture, and digest insects using stalked mucilaginous glands covering their leaf surfaces. The insects are used to supplement the poor mineral nutrition of the soil in which the plants grow. Various species, which vary greatly in size and form, are native to every continent except Antarctica
Antarctica
. Both the botanical name (from the Greek δρόσος: drosos = "dew, dewdrops") and the English common name (sundew, derived from Latin
Latin
ros solis, meaning "dew of the sun") refer to the glistening drops of mucilage at the tip of each tentacle that resemble drops of morning dew
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Arthur Dobbs
ARTHUR DOBBS (2 April 1689 – 28 March 1765) was a British administrator who served as the seventh Governor of North Carolina , serving from October 31, 1754, until his death in 1765. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and career * 2 Governor of North Carolina (1754-1765) * 3 Other interests * 3.1 Discovery of the Venus flytrap * 3.2 Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage
* 4 Personal life * 5 See also * 6 Further reading * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFE AND CAREERDobbs was born in Ayrshire
Ayrshire
, Scotland
Scotland
, where his mother had been sent because of political and religious unrest. He was the eldest son of Richard Dobbs of Carrickfergus
Carrickfergus
, County Antrim, who was soon to become Sheriff of Antrim in 1694 and Mary Stewart from Ballintoy
Ballintoy

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Mucilage
MUCILAGE is a thick, gluey substance produced by nearly all plants and some microorganisms .These microorganisms include protists which use it for their locomotion. Their movement is always opposite to the secretion of mucilage. It is a polar glycoprotein and an exopolysaccharide . Mucilage in plants plays a role in the storage of water and food , seed germination , and thickening membranes. Cacti (and other succulents ) and flax seeds especially are rich sources of mucilage. CONTENTS * 1 Occurrence * 2 Human uses * 3 Ecological implications for plants * 4 Plant sources * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links OCCURRENCEExopolysaccharides are the most stabilising factor for microaggregates and are widely distributed in soils . Therefore, exopolysaccharide-producing "soil algae " play a vital role in the ecology of the world's soils
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Trichome
TRICHOMES (/ˈtraɪkoʊmz/ or /ˈtrɪkoʊmz/ ), from the Greek τρίχωμα (trichōma) meaning "hair ", are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants , algae , lichens , and certain protists . They are of diverse structure and function. Examples are hairs, glandular hairs, scales, and papillae. A covering of any kind of hair on a plant is an indumentum , and the surface bearing them is said to be pubescent . CONTENTS * 1 Algal trichomes * 2 Plant
Plant
trichomes * 2.1 Aerial surface hairs * 2.2 Root
Root
hairs * 3 Significance for taxonomy * 4 Significance for plant molecular biology * 5 Uses * 6 Defense * 6.1 Stinging trichromes * 7 See also * 8 References ALGAL TRICHOMESCertain, usually filamentous, algae have the terminal cell produced into an elongate hair-like structure called a trichome. The same term is applied to such structures in some cyanobacteria , such as Spirulina and Oscillatoria
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Aphrodite
APHRODITE (/æfrəˈdaɪti/ (_ listen ) af-rə-DY-tee_ ; Greek : Ἀφροδίτη _Aphrodite_) is the Greek goddess of love , beauty , pleasure , and procreation . She is identified with the planet Venus ; her Roman equivalent is the goddess Venus . Myrtle , roses, doves , sparrows and swans were sacred to her. In Hesiod 's _ Theogony _, Aphrodite was created from the sea foam (_aphros_) produced by Uranus 's genitals, which had been severed by Cronus . In Homer 's _ Iliad _, however, she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione . In Plato (_Symposium_, 180e), these two origins are said to be of hitherto separate entities: Aphrodite Ourania (a transcendent, "Heavenly" Aphrodite) and Aphrodite Pandemos (Aphrodite common to "all the people")
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Dione (mythology)
DIONE (/daɪˈoʊniː/ ; Διώνη Dios "She-Zeus" or dios "divine one") is the name of four women in ancient Greek mythology , and one in the Phoenician mythology of Sanchuniathon . Dione is translated as "Goddess", and given the same etymological derivation as the names Zeus
Zeus
, Diana , et al. Very little information exists about these nymphs or goddesses, although at least one is described as beautiful and is sometimes associated with water or the sea. Perhaps this same one was worshiped as a mother goddess who presided over the oracle at Dodona , Greece and was called the mother of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
. One Dione is identified as the mother of the Roman goddess of love, Venus , or equivalently as the mother of the Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
; but Dione is also sometimes identified with Aphrodite
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