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Diogenes Of Babylon
DIOGENES OF BABYLON (also known as DIOGENES OF SELEUCIA; Greek : Διογένης Βαβυλώνιος; Latin
Latin
: _Diogenes Babylonius_; c. 230 – c. 150/140 BC ) was a Stoic philosopher. He was the head of the Stoic school in Athens
Athens
, and he was one of three philosophers sent to Rome
Rome
in 155 BC. He wrote many works, but none of his writings survive , except as quotations by later writers. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 Notes * 4 References LIFEBorn in Seleucia on the Tigris
Seleucia on the Tigris
in Babylonia
Babylonia
, Diogenes was educated at Athens
Athens
under the auspices of Chrysippus
Chrysippus
and succeeded Zeno of Tarsus as head (_scholarch _) of the Stoic school there in the 2nd century BC. Among his pupils were Panaetius and Antipater of Tarsus who succeeded him as scholarch. He seems to have closely followed the views of Chrysippus, especially on dialectic , in which he is said to have instructed Carneades . Together with Carneades and Critolaus , he was sent to Rome
Rome
to appeal a fine of hundred talents imposed on Athens
Athens
in 155 BC for the sack of Oropus . They delivered their epideictic speeches first in numerous private assemblies, then in the Senate
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Diogenes Of Seleucia
DIOGENES (/daɪˈɒdʒəˌniːz/ ; Greek : Διογένης, Diogenēs ) was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy. Also known as DIOGENES THE CYNIC ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Διογένης ὁ Κυνικός, Diogenēs ho Kunikos), he was born in Sinope (modern-day Sinop, Turkey ), an Ionian colony on the Black Sea, in 412 or 404 BC and died at Corinth
Corinth
in 323 BC. Diogenes
Diogenes
was a controversial figure. His father minted coins for a living, and when Diogenes
Diogenes
took to debasement of currency , he was banished from Sinope. After being exiled, he moved to Athens
Athens
and criticized many cultural conventions of the city. Diogenes
Diogenes
modelled himself on the example of Heracles
Heracles
. He believed that virtue was better revealed in action than in theory. He used his simple lifestyle and behaviour to criticize the social values and institutions of what he saw as a corrupt or at least confused society. In a highly non-traditional fashion, he had a reputation of sleeping and eating wherever he chose and took to toughening himself against nature. He declared himself a cosmopolitan and a citizen of the world rather than claiming allegiance to just one place. There are many tales about him dogging Antisthenes ' footsteps and becoming his "faithful hound"
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems. The Greek language
Greek language
holds an important place in the history of the Western world
Western world
and Christianity
Christianity
; the canon of ancient Greek literature includes seminal works in the Western canon such as the epic poems _ Iliad
Iliad
_ and _ Odyssey
Odyssey
_
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus
Plautus
and Terence
Terence

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Stoicism
STOICISM is a school of Hellenistic philosophy that flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD. Stoicism is predominantly a philosophy of personal ethics which is informed by its system of logic and its views on the natural world. According to its teachings, as social beings, the path to happiness for humans is found in accepting that which we have been given in life, by not allowing ourselves to be controlled by our desire for pleasure or our fear of pain, by using our minds to understand the world around us and to do our part in nature's plan, and by working together and treating others in a fair and just manner. It was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. The Stoics taught that emotions resulted in errors of judgment which were destructive, due to the active relationship between cosmic determinism and human freedom , and the belief that it is virtuous to maintain a will (called _prohairesis _) that is in accord with nature. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life (_lex divina_), and they thought that the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how that person behaved. To live a good life, one had to understand the rules of the natural order since they taught that everything was rooted in nature
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Scholarch
A SCHOLARCH ( Ancient Greek : σχολάρχης, scholarchēs) was the head of a school in ancient Greece . The term is especially remembered for its use to mean the heads of schools of philosophy, such as the Platonic Academy in ancient Athens . Its first scholarch was Plato
Plato
himself, the founder and proprietor. He held the position for forty years, appointing his nephew Speussipus as his successor; later scholarchs were elected by members of the Academy. The Greek word is a produced compound of scholē (σχολή), "school," and archē (ἀρχή), "ruler." The Romans did not choose to Latinize the word, perhaps because they had no archons. They used scholasticus instead, "savant," which always applied to headmasters. CONTENTS * 1 Usage in Latin and English * 2 Social status * 3 Some major scholarchs * 4 Notes USAGE IN LATIN AND ENGLISHEnglish does not use either of those two words for the name of the ancient office, but prefers scholiarch, a word that is not generally listed in the dictionary, because it is considered an error. If it were a produced word; i.e., a meaning compounded from words of known meaning, then it ought to mean "master of the scholia ," a specious etymology sometimes put forward. Scholiarch was not known in classical, vulgar, or mediaeval Latin. It does appear in the New Latin of Renaissance monastic schools in Europe with reference to the schoolmaster
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Athens
ATHENS (/ˈæθᵻnz/ ; Modern Greek : Αθήνα, _Athína_ , Ancient Greek : Ἀθῆναι, _Athênai_, modern pronunciation _Athínai_) is the capital and largest city of Greece . Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world\'s oldest cities , with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years, and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th century BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus , which had been a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A centre for the arts , learning and philosophy , home of Plato 's Academy and Aristotle 's Lyceum , it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy , largely because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, and in particular the Romans . In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime, political and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global city and one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe
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Rome
ROME (/ˈroʊm/ _ROHM_ ; Italian : _Roma_ (_ listen ), Latin : Rōma_) is the capital of Italy and a special comune (named _ Comune di Roma Capitale_). Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region . With 2,877,215 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome , which has a population of 4.3 million residents. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula , within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber . The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states. Rome\'s history spans more than 2,500 years. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins , Etruscans and Sabines
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Lost Books
A LOST WORK is a document, literary work, or piece of multimedia produced some time in the past of which no surviving copies are known to exist. In contrast, surviving copies of old or ancient works may be referred to as extant. Works may be lost to history either through the destruction of the original manuscript, or through the loss of all later copies of a work. The term most commonly applies to works from the classical world , although it is increasingly used in relation to more modern works. Works or fragments may survive, either found by archaeologists , or accidentally by anyone, as in the case of the spectacular find of the Nag Hammadi library scrolls. Works also survived when they were reused as bookbinding materials; when they were quoted or included in other works; or as palimpsests , which are documents made of materials that originally had one work written on them, but which were then cleaned and reused. The discovery in 1822 of large parts of Cicero
Cicero
's De re publica was one of the first major recoveries of an ancient text from a palimpsest , while another famous example is the discovery of the Archimedes palimpsest
Archimedes palimpsest
, which had been used to make a prayer book almost 300 years later. Works may be recovered in libraries as a lost or mislabeled codex , a palimpsest, or even as a part of another book or codex
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Seleucia On The Tigris
SELEUCIA (/sɪˈluːʃə/ ), also known as SELEUCIA-ON-TIGRIS or SELEUCIA ON THE TIGRIS, was a major Mesopotamian city of the Seleucid , Parthian , and Sasanian empires. It stood on the west bank of the Tigris River opposite Ctesiphon , within the present-day Babil Governorate in Iraq
Iraq
. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 History * 2.1 Seleucid Empire * 2.2 Sasanian rule * 3 Archaeology * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links NAME Seleucia
Seleucia
(Greek : Σελεύκεια, _Seleúkeia_) is named for Seleucus I Nicator , who enlarged an earlier settlement and made it the capital of his empire around 305 BC. It was the largest and most important of the many cities to bear its name but is sometimes distinguished as Seleucia-on-Tigris or Seleucia
Seleucia
on the Tigris (Latin : _ Seleucia
Seleucia
ad Tigridem_) from the name of its river . Texts from the Assyrian Church of the East 's synods referred to the city as _Salīq_ (Syriac : ܣܠܝܩ‎) or some times _Māḥôzē_ (Syriac : ܡܚܘܙ̈ܐ‎) when referring to the metropolis of Seleucia- Ctesiphon . HISTORYSELEUCID EMPIRESeleucia, as such, was founded in about 305 BC, when an earlier city was enlarged and dedicated as the first capital of the Seleucid Empire by Seleucus I Nicator
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Babylonia
BABYLONIA was an ancient Akkadian -speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq ). A small Amorite -ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained at this time the minor administrative town of Babylon . Babylon greatly expanded from the small provincial town that it had originally been during the Akkadian Empire (2335-2154 BC) during the reign of Hammurabi in the first half of the 18th century BC, becoming a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi and afterwards, Babylonia was called _Māt Akkadī_ "the country of Akkad" in the Akkadian language. It was often involved in rivalry with its older fellow Akkadian-speaking state of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia, as well as Elam to the east, in Ancient Iran . Babylonia briefly became the major power in the region after Hammurabi (fl. c. 1792 – 1752 BC middle chronology, or c. 1696 – 1654 BC, short chronology ) created a short-lived empire, succeeding the earlier Akkadian Empire , Third Dynasty of Ur , and Old Assyrian Empire ; however, the Babylonian empire rapidly fell apart after the death of Hammurabi and reverted back to a small kingdom
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Chrysippus
CHRYSIPPUS OF SOLI (/kraɪˈsɪpəs, krɪ-/ ; Greek : Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, _Chrysippos ho Soleus_; c. 279 – c. 206 BC ) was a Greek Stoic philosopher . He was a native of Soli, Cilicia , but moved to Athens
Athens
as a young man, where he became a pupil of Cleanthes in the Stoic school. When Cleanthes died, around 230 BC, Chrysippus
Chrysippus
became the third head of the school. A prolific writer, Chrysippus
Chrysippus
expanded the fundamental doctrines of Zeno of Citium , the founder of the school, which earned him the title of Second Founder of Stoicism. Chrysippus
Chrysippus
excelled in logic , the theory of knowledge , ethics and physics . He created an original system of propositional logic in order to better understand the workings of the universe and role of humanity within it. He adhered to a deterministic view of fate , but nevertheless sought a role for personal freedom in thought and action. Ethics, he thought, depended on understanding the nature of the universe, and he taught a therapy of extirpating the unruly passions which depress and crush the soul. He initiated the success of Stoicism as one of the most influential philosophical movements for centuries in the Greek and Roman world
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Zeno Of Tarsus
ZENO OF TARSUS (Greek : Ζήνων ὁ Ταρσεύς, Zenon ho Tarseus; fl. 200 BC) was a Stoic philosopher and the son of Dioscorides . BIOGRAPHYZeno was a pupil of Chrysippus
Chrysippus
, and when Chrysippus
Chrysippus
died c. 206 BC, he succeeded him to become the fourth scholarch of the Stoic school in Athens
Athens
. According to Diogenes Laërtius , he wrote very few books, but left a great number of disciples. From what little is known about his philosophical views, he was an orthodox Stoic, but doubted the doctrine of the conflagration of the universe . This was a considerable modification of the physical theory of the Stoics, who held that the universe periodically dissolved into fire. It is not known when he died. He was succeeded as head of the Stoic school by Diogenes of Babylon . REFERENCES * ^ A B Laërtius, Diogenes (1925). "Book VII: The Stoics". Lives of the Eminent Philosophers . 2:7. Translated by Hicks, Robert Drew (Two volume ed.). Loeb Classical Library. § 35 Cf. 41, 84. * ^ A B Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica, 15. 18.FURTHER READING * "Zeno of Tarsus". Encyclopædia Britannica . 28 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 972
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Panaetius
PANAETIUS (/pəˈniːʃiəs/ ; Greek : Παναίτιος; c. 185 - c. 110/109 BC ) of Rhodes
Rhodes
was a Stoic philosopher. He was a pupil of Diogenes of Babylon
Diogenes of Babylon
and Antipater of Tarsus in Athens
Athens
, before moving to Rome
Rome
where he did much to introduce Stoic doctrines to the city. After the death of Scipio in 129 BC, he returned to the Stoic school in Athens, and was its last undisputed scholarch . With Panaetius, Stoicism became much more eclectic. His most famous work was his On Duties, the principal source used by Cicero
Cicero
in his own work of the same name. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Philosophy * 3 Writings * 3.1 On Duties * 3.2 Other works * 4 Notes * 5 References LIFEPanaetius, son of Nicagoras, was born around 185-180 BC, into an old and eminent Rhodian family. He is said to have been a pupil of the linguist Crates of Mallus , who taught in Pergamum , and moved to Athens
Athens
where he attended the lectures of Critolaus and Carneades , but attached himself principally to the Stoic Diogenes of Babylon
Diogenes of Babylon
and his disciple Antipater of Tarsus
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Antipater Of Tarsus
ANTIPATER (Greek : Ἀντίπατρος ὁ Ταρσεύς; died 130/129 BC ) of Tarsus was a Stoic philosopher . He was the pupil and successor of Diogenes of Babylon as leader of the Stoic school, and was the teacher of Panaetius . He wrote works on the gods and on divination , and in ethics he took a higher moral ground than that of his teacher Diogenes. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Philosophy * 3 Notes * 4 References LIFEVery little is known about his life, except that he was the disciple and successor of Diogenes of Babylon as leader of the Stoic school in Athens , and he was the teacher of Panaetius . The few extant accounts of his philosophical opinions would not be sufficient grounds for any great reputation, if it were not for the testimony of ancient authors to his merit. Plutarch speaks of him with Zeno , Cleanthes , and Chrysippus , as one of the principal Stoic philosophers, and Cicero mentions him as remarkable for acuteness. He seems to have taken the lead during his lifetime in the disputes constantly recurring between his own school and the Academy , although he is said to have felt himself so unequal in argument to his contemporary Carneades in public debates, that he confined himself to writing; by which he was called "Pen-noise" (Greek : καλαμοβόας)
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Dialectic
DIALECTIC or DIALECTICS (Greek : διαλεκτική, _dialektikḗ_), also known as the DIALECTICAL METHOD, is a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments. The term _dialectic_ is not synonymous with the term _debate _. While in theory debaters are not necessarily emotionally invested in their point of view, in practice debaters frequently display an emotional commitment that may cloud rational judgment. Debates are won through a combination of persuading the opponent, proving one's argument correct, and proving the opponent's argument incorrect. Debates do not necessarily require promptly identifying a clear winner or loser; however, clear winners are frequently determined by a judge, a jury or group consensus . The term _dialectics_ is also not synonymous with the term _rhetoric _, a method or art of discourse that seeks to persuade, inform, or motivate an audience. Concepts, like "_logos _" or rational appeal, "_pathos _" or emotional appeal, and "_ethos _" or ethical appeal, are intentionally used by rhetoricians to persuade an audience. Socrates favoured truth as the highest value, proposing that it could be disc