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Diogenes Of Babylon
DIOGENES OF BABYLON (also known as DIOGENES OF SELEUCIA; Greek : Διογένης Βαβυλώνιος; Latin
Latin
: Diogenes Babylonius; c. 230 – c. 150/140 BC ) was a Stoic philosopher. He was the head of the Stoic school in Athens
Athens
, and he was one of three philosophers sent to Rome
Rome
in 155 BC. He wrote many works, but none of his writings survive , except as quotations by later writers. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 Notes * 4 References LIFEBorn in Seleucia on the Tigris
Seleucia on the Tigris
in Babylonia
Babylonia
, Diogenes was educated at Athens
Athens
under the auspices of Chrysippus and succeeded Zeno of Tarsus as head (scholarch ) of the Stoic school there in the 2nd century BC. Among his pupils were Panaetius
Panaetius
and Antipater of Tarsus who succeeded him as scholarch
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Villa Of The Papyri
Coordinates : 40°48′28″N 14°20′40″E / 40.8078°N 14.3445°E / 40.8078; 14.3445 The VILLA OF THE PAPYRI (Italian : Villa dei Papiri, also known as Villa dei Pisoni), is named after its unique library of papyri (or scrolls), but is also one of the most luxurious houses in all of Herculaneum
Herculaneum
and in the Roman world. Its luxury is shown by its exquisite architecture and by the very large number of outstanding works of art discovered, including frescoes, bronzes and marble sculpture which constitute the largest collection of Greek and Roman sculptures ever discovered in a single context. It is located in the current commune of Ercolano
Ercolano
, southern Italy
Italy
. It was situated on the ancient coastline below the volcano Vesuvius with nothing to obstruct the view of the sea
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Herculaneum
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
, HERCULANEUM (Italian : Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD. Its ruins are located in the comune of Ercolano
Ercolano
, Campania
Campania
, Italy. As a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, it is famous as one of the few ancient cities that can now be seen in much of its original splendour, as well as for having been lost, along with Pompeii
Pompeii
, Stabiae , Oplontis
Oplontis
and Boscoreale , in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
in AD 79 that buried it. Unlike Pompeii, the deep pyroclastic material which covered it preserved wooden and other organic-based objects such as roofs, beds, doors, food and even some 300 skeletons which were discovered in recent years along the seashore
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Epicurus
EPICURUS (/ˌɛpɪˈkjʊərəs/ or /ˌɛpɪˈkjɔːrəs/ ; Greek : Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded the school of philosophy called Epicureanism
Epicureanism
. Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus's 300 written works remain. Much of what is known about Epicurean philosophy derives from later followers and commentators. For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia —peace and freedom from fear—and aponia —the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends
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Athena
ATHENA (/əˈθiːnə/ ; Attic Greek : Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic : Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric : Ἀθάνα, Athānā) or ATHENE (/əˈθiːniː/ ; Ionic : Ἀθήνη, Athēnē), often given the epithet PALLAS (/ˈpæləs/ ; Παλλὰς), is the goddess of wisdom, craft, and war in ancient Greek religion and mythology . In later times, Athena
Athena
was syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva
Minerva
. Athena
Athena
was portrayed as having a calm temperament, and moving slowly to anger. She was believed to only fight for just causes and never fight without a purpose
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Diogenes Of Seleucia
DIOGENES (/daɪˈɒdʒəˌniːz/ ; Greek : Διογένης, Diogenēs ) was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy. Also known as DIOGENES THE CYNIC (Ancient Greek : Διογένης ὁ Κυνικός, Diogenēs ho Kunikos), he was born in Sinope (modern-day Sinop, Turkey ), an Ionian colony on the Black Sea, in 412 or 404 BC and died at Corinth in 323 BC. Diogenes was a controversial figure. His father minted coins for a living, and when Diogenes took to debasement of currency , he was banished from Sinope. After being exiled, he moved to Athens and criticized many cultural conventions of the city. Diogenes modelled himself on the example of Heracles . He believed that virtue was better revealed in action than in theory. He used his simple lifestyle and behaviour to criticize the social values and institutions of what he saw as a corrupt or at least confused society
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Philodemus
PHILODEMUS OF GADARA (Greek : Φιλόδημος ὁ Γαδαρεύς, Philodēmos, "love of the people"; c. 110 – prob. c. 40 or 35 BC) was an Epicurean
Epicurean
philosopher and poet . He studied under Zeno of Sidon in Athens
Athens
, before moving to Rome
Rome
, and then to Herculaneum
Herculaneum
. He was once known chiefly for his poetry preserved in the Greek Anthology
Greek Anthology
, but since the 18th century, many writings of his have been discovered among the charred papyrus rolls at the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum
Herculaneum
. The task of excavating and deciphering these rolls is difficult, and work continues to this day. The works of Philodemus so far discovered include writings on ethics , theology , rhetoric , music , poetry , and the history of various philosophical schools
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Cicero
MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO (/ˈsɪsᵻroʊ/ ; Classical Latin: ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman politician and lawyer, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order , and is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists. His influence on the Latin
Latin
language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose, not only in Latin
Latin
but in European languages up to the 19th century, was said to be either a reaction against or a return to his style. According to Michael Grant , "the influence of Cicero
Cicero
upon the history of European literature and ideas greatly exceeds that of any other prose writer in any language"
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Lucian
LUCIAN OF SAMOSATA (/ˈluːʃən, ˈluːsiən/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Λουκιανὸς ὁ Σαμοσατεύς, Latin : Lucianus Samosatensis; about 125 AD – after 180 AD) was a satirist and rhetorician who wrote exclusively in the Greek language during the Second Sophistic . Most of his works are written in the Attic dialect , but On the Syrian Goddess , which is attributed to him, is written in a faux- Ionic dialect . Noted for his witty and scoffing nature, Lucian
Lucian
frequently poked fun at superstition, religious practices, and belief in the paranormal. He admired the philosophers Democritus
Democritus
and Epicurus , both of whom advocated naturalistic worldviews
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Epicureanism
EPICUREANISM is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus
Epicurus
, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus
Epicurus
was an atomic materialist , following in the steps of Democritus . His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention . Following Aristippus —about whom very little is known— Epicurus
Epicurus
believed that what he called "pleasure" was the greatest good, but that the way to attain such pleasure was to live modestly, to gain knowledge of the workings of the world, and to limit one's desires. This would lead one to attain a state of tranquility (ataraxia ) and freedom from fear as well as an absence of bodily pain (aponia ). The combination of these two states constitutes happiness in its highest form
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Antiochus Of Ascalon
ANTIOCHUS OF ASCALON (/ænˈtaɪəkəs/ ; Greek : Άντίοχος ὁ Ἀσκαλώνιος; c. 125 – c. 68 BC) was an Academic philosopher . He was a pupil of Philo of Larissa at the Academy , but he diverged from the Academic skepticism of Philo and his predecessors. He was a teacher of Cicero
Cicero
, and the first of a new breed of eclectics among the Platonists; he endeavoured to bring the doctrines of the Stoics and the Peripatetics into Platonism , and stated, in opposition to Philo, that the mind could distinguish true from false. In doing so, he claimed to be reviving the doctrines of the Old Academy. With him began the phase of philosophy known as Middle Platonism . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Philosophy * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links LIFEHe was born in Ashkelon
Ashkelon

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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Leonhard Schmitz
LEONHARD SCHMITZ (1807 – May 1890) was a German-born classical scholar and educator active mainly in the United Kingdom. Schmitz was born in Eupen
Eupen
and attended gymnasium in Aachen
Aachen
. He lost his right arm in an accident at the age of 10, but nonetheless excelled academically. He studied at the University of Bonn
University of Bonn
, where he earned a PhD, and was in particular influenced by Barthold Georg Niebuhr ; Schmitz later published in England a collection of notes taken from Niebuhr's lectures as Lectures on Roman History (1844). He married an English woman, Eliza Mary Machell , and moved to England in 1837; around 1840 they had a daughter, Leonora Schmitz, who would become a noted music critic
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William Smith (lexicographer)
SIR WILLIAM SMITH (20 May 1813 – 7 October 1893) was an English lexicographer . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 2.1 Publications * 3 Honours and death * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFESmith was born in Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. He attended the Madras House school of John Allen in Hackney. Originally destined for a theological career, he instead was articled to a solicitor. In his spare time he taught himself classics , and when he entered University College London
University College London
he carried off both the Greek and Latin prizes. He was entered at Gray\'s Inn in 1830, but gave up his legal studies for a post at University College School and began to write on classical subjects. CAREERSmith next turned his attention to lexicography
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Dictionary Of Greek And Roman Biography And Mythology
The DICTIONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN BIOGRAPHY AND MYTHOLOGY (1849, originally published 1844 under a slightly different title) is an encyclopedia /biographical dictionary . Edited by William Smith , the dictionary spans three volumes and 3,700 pages. It is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography . The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography . CONTENTS * 1 Authors and scope * 2 Use and availability today * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links AUTHORS AND SCOPE Excerpt from Philolaus
Philolaus
Pythagoras book, (Charles Peter Mason, 1870) The work lists thirty-five authors in addition to the editor, who is also an author for some definitions and articles
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Public Domain
The legal term PUBLIC DOMAIN refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable. For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven , and most of the early silent films , are all now in the public domain by either being created before copyrights existed or by their copyright term expiring. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the public domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics , cooking recipes , and all software before 1974. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of cryptographic algorithms , NIH 's ImageJ , and the CIA
CIA
's World Factbook
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