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Diogenes Of Babylon
DIOGENES OF BABYLON (also known as DIOGENES OF SELEUCIA; Greek : Διογένης Βαβυλώνιος; Latin
Latin
: Diogenes Babylonius; c. 230 – c. 150/140 BC ) was a Stoic philosopher. He was the head of the Stoic school in Athens
Athens
, and he was one of three philosophers sent to Rome
Rome
in 155 BC. He wrote many works, but none of his writings survive , except as quotations by later writers. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 Notes * 4 References LIFEBorn in Seleucia on the Tigris
Seleucia on the Tigris
in Babylonia
Babylonia
, Diogenes was educated at Athens
Athens
under the auspices of Chrysippus
Chrysippus
and succeeded Zeno of Tarsus as head (scholarch ) of the Stoic school there in the 2nd century BC. Among his pupils were Panaetius and Antipater of Tarsus who succeeded him as scholarch
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Diogenes Of Seleucia
DIOGENES OF SELEUCIA (Greek : Διογένης; fl. 2nd century BC) was an Epicurean philosopher, who has sometimes been confused with Diogenes of Babylon
Diogenes of Babylon
, who was also a native of Seleucia on the Tigris . He lived at the court of Syria , and was friends with king Alexander Balas , the supposed son of Antiochus Epiphanes . Athenaeus relates that Diogenes asked the king for a golden crown and a purple robe so that he could represent himself as the priest of Virtue. The king, apparently, agreed, but Diogenes subsequently gave the crown and robe to a female singer he was in love with, and the king hearing of this, summoned the girl to a banquet wearing the robe and crown, to the general mirth of the other guests. After Alexander was pushed off the throne c
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine
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Stoicism
STOICISM is a school of Hellenistic philosophy that flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD. Stoicism is predominantly a philosophy of personal ethics which is informed by its system of logic and its views on the natural world. According to its teachings, as social beings, the path to happiness for humans is found in accepting that which we have been given in life, by not allowing ourselves to be controlled by our desire for pleasure or our fear of pain, by using our minds to understand the world around us and to do our part in nature's plan, and by working together and treating others in a fair and just manner. It was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC
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Scholarch
A SCHOLARCH ( Ancient Greek : σχολάρχης, scholarchēs) was the head of a school in ancient Greece . The term is especially remembered for its use to mean the heads of schools of philosophy, such as the Platonic Academy in ancient Athens . Its first scholarch was Plato
Plato
himself, the founder and proprietor. He held the position for forty years, appointing his nephew Speussipus as his successor; later scholarchs were elected by members of the Academy. The Greek word is a produced compound of scholē (σχολή), "school," and archē (ἀρχή), "ruler." The Romans did not choose to Latinize the word, perhaps because they had no archons. They used scholasticus instead, "savant," which always applied to headmasters
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Athens
ATHENS (/ˈæθᵻnz/ ; Modern Greek : Αθήνα, _Athína_ , Ancient Greek : Ἀθῆναι, _Athênai_, modern pronunciation _Athínai_) is the capital and largest city of Greece . Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world\'s oldest cities , with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years, and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th century BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus , which had been a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens
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Rome
ROME (/ˈroʊm/ _ROHM_ ; Italian : _Roma_ (_ listen ), Latin : Rōma_) is the capital of Italy and a special comune (named _ Comune di Roma Capitale_). Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region . With 2,877,215 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome , which has a population of 4.3 million residents. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula , within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber . The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states
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Lost Books
A LOST WORK is a document, literary work, or piece of multimedia produced some time in the past of which no surviving copies are known to exist. In contrast, surviving copies of old or ancient works may be referred to as extant. Works may be lost to history either through the destruction of the original manuscript, or through the loss of all later copies of a work. The term most commonly applies to works from the classical world , although it is increasingly used in relation to more modern works. Works or fragments may survive, either found by archaeologists , or accidentally by anyone, as in the case of the spectacular find of the Nag Hammadi library scrolls. Works also survived when they were reused as bookbinding materials; when they were quoted or included in other works; or as palimpsests , which are documents made of materials that originally had one work written on them, but which were then cleaned and reused
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Seleucia On The Tigris
SELEUCIA (/sɪˈluːʃə/ ), also known as SELEUCIA-ON-TIGRIS or SELEUCIA ON THE TIGRIS, was a major Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
city of the Seleucid , Parthian , and Sasanian empires. It stood on the west bank of the Tigris River opposite Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
, within the present-day Babil Governorate in Iraq
Iraq
. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 History * 2.1 Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
* 2.2 Sasanian rule * 3 Archaeology * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links NAME Seleucia
Seleucia
(Greek : Σελεύκεια, Seleúkeia) is named for Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator
, who enlarged an earlier settlement and made it the capital of his empire around 305 BC
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Babylonia
BABYLONIA was an ancient Akkadian -speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq ). A small Amorite -ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained at this time the minor administrative town of Babylon . Babylon greatly expanded from the small provincial town that it had originally been during the Akkadian Empire (2335-2154 BC) during the reign of Hammurabi in the first half of the 18th century BC, becoming a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi and afterwards, Babylonia was called _Māt Akkadī_ "the country of Akkad" in the Akkadian language. It was often involved in rivalry with its older fellow Akkadian-speaking state of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia, as well as Elam to the east, in Ancient Iran
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Chrysippus
CHRYSIPPUS OF SOLI (/kraɪˈsɪpəs, krɪ-/ ; Greek : Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, Chrysippos ho Soleus; c. 279 – c. 206 BC ) was a Greek Stoic philosopher . He was a native of Soli, Cilicia
Cilicia
, but moved to Athens
Athens
as a young man, where he became a pupil of Cleanthes in the Stoic school. When Cleanthes died, around 230 BC, Chrysippus
Chrysippus
became the third head of the school. A prolific writer, Chrysippus
Chrysippus
expanded the fundamental doctrines of Zeno of Citium , the founder of the school, which earned him the title of Second Founder of Stoicism. Chrysippus
Chrysippus
excelled in logic , the theory of knowledge , ethics and physics . He created an original system of propositional logic in order to better understand the workings of the universe and role of humanity within it
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Zeno Of Tarsus
ZENO OF TARSUS (Greek : Ζήνων ὁ Ταρσεύς, Zenon ho Tarseus; fl. 200 BC) was a Stoic philosopher and the son of Dioscorides . BIOGRAPHYZeno was a pupil of Chrysippus
Chrysippus
, and when Chrysippus
Chrysippus
died c. 206 BC, he succeeded him to become the fourth scholarch of the Stoic school in Athens
Athens
. According to Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
, he wrote very few books, but left a great number of disciples. From what little is known about his philosophical views, he was an orthodox Stoic, but doubted the doctrine of the conflagration of the universe . This was a considerable modification of the physical theory of the Stoics, who held that the universe periodically dissolved into fire. It is not known when he died. He was succeeded as head of the Stoic school by Diogenes of Babylon
Diogenes of Babylon

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Panaetius
PANAETIUS (/pəˈniːʃiəs/ ; Greek : Παναίτιος; c. 185 - c. 110/109 BC ) of Rhodes
Rhodes
was a Stoic philosopher. He was a pupil of Diogenes of Babylon
Diogenes of Babylon
and Antipater of Tarsus in Athens
Athens
, before moving to Rome
Rome
where he did much to introduce Stoic doctrines to the city. After the death of Scipio in 129 BC, he returned to the Stoic school in Athens, and was its last undisputed scholarch . With Panaetius, Stoicism
Stoicism
became much more eclectic. His most famous work was his On Duties, the principal source used by Cicero
Cicero
in his own work of the same name. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Philosophy * 3 Writings * 3.1 On Duties * 3.2 Other works * 4 Notes * 5 References LIFEPanaetius, son of Nicagoras, was born around 185-180 BC, into an old and eminent Rhodian family
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Antipater Of Tarsus
ANTIPATER (Greek : Ἀντίπατρος ὁ Ταρσεύς; died 130/129 BC ) of Tarsus was a Stoic philosopher . He was the pupil and successor of Diogenes of Babylon
Diogenes of Babylon
as leader of the Stoic school, and was the teacher of Panaetius . He wrote works on the gods and on divination , and in ethics he took a higher moral ground than that of his teacher Diogenes. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Philosophy * 3 Notes * 4 References LIFEVery little is known about his life, except that he was the disciple and successor of Diogenes of Babylon
Diogenes of Babylon
as leader of the Stoic school in Athens
Athens
, and he was the teacher of Panaetius . The few extant accounts of his philosophical opinions would not be sufficient grounds for any great reputation, if it were not for the testimony of ancient authors to his merit
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Dialectic
DIALECTIC or DIALECTICS (Greek : διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ), also known as the DIALECTICAL METHOD, is a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments. In philosophy , dialectic or dialectical method implied a methodology used for examining and cognition of philosophical objects. Dialectical methods demands the users to examine the objects in relation to other objects and to the whole system, and examine the objects within a dynamic, evolutionary environment. Dialectical method is usually contrasted with metaphysical method, which examine the objects in a separated, isolated and static environment. Dialectical method has three main forms corresponding to three developmental stages. Naive dialectic, emerging in ancient history , mainly relied on intuition and personal experience with limited supporting scientific evidences
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