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Dimethylheptylpyran
Dimethylheptylpyran
Dimethylheptylpyran
(DMHP, 3-(1,2-dimethylheptyl)-Δ6a,10a-THC, 1,2-dimethylheptyl-Δ3THC, A-40824, EA-2233) is a synthetic analogue of THC, which was invented in 1949 during attempts to elucidate the structure of Δ9-THC, one of the active components of cannabis.[1] DMHP is a pale yellow, viscous oil which is insoluble in water, but dissolves in alcohol or non-polar solvents.Contents1 Effects 2 Investigation as non-lethal incapacitating agent 3 Isomerism 4 ReferencesEffects[edit] DMHP is similar in structure to THC, differing only in the position of one double bond, and the replacement of the 3-pentyl chain with a 3-(1,2-dimethylheptyl) chain.[2] It produces similar activity to THC, such as sedative effects, but is considerably more potent,[3] especially having much stronger analgesic and anticonvulsant effects than THC, although comparatively weaker psychological effects
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The Anatomical Therapeutic
Therapeutic
Chemical (ATC) Classification System
System
is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976.[1] This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use)
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Fainting
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.[1] It is caused by a decrease in blood flow to the brain, usually from low blood pressure.[1] There are sometimes symptoms before the loss of consciousness such as lightheadedness, sweating, pale skin, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, or feeling warm
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Regulation Of Therapeutic Goods
The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. In some countries, such as the United States, they are regulated at the national level by a single agency. In other jurisdictions they are regulated at the state level, or at both state and national levels by various bodies, as is the case in Australia. The role of therapeutic goods regulation is designed mainly to protect the health and safety of the population. Regulation is aimed at ensuring the safety, quality, and efficacy of the therapeutic goods which are covered under the scope of the regulation. In most jurisdictions, therapeutic goods must be registered before they are allowed to be marketed
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Stereoisomer
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.[1][2] This contrasts with structural isomers, which share the same molecular formula, but the bond connections or their order differs. By definition, molecules that are stereoisomers of each other represent the same structural isomer.Contents1 Enantiomers 2 Diastereomers2.1 Cis–trans and E-Z isomerism3 Conformers 4 Anomers 5 Atropisomers 6 More definitions 7 Le Bel-van't Hoff rule 8 ReferencesEnantiomers[edit] Main articles: Chirality (chemistry)
Chirality (chemistry)
and Enantiomer Enantiomers, also known as optical isomers, are two stereoisomers that are related to each other by a reflection: they are mirror images of each other that are non-superimposable. Human hands are a macroscopic analog of this
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Racemic
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate /reɪˈsimeɪt/, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule. The first known racemic mixture was racemic acid, which Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found to be a mixture of the two enantiomeric isomers of tartaric acid. A sample with only a single enantiomer is an enantiomerically pure, enantiopure or homochiral compound.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Nomenclature 3 Properties 4 Crystallization 5 Resolution 6 Synthesis 7 Racemic
Racemic
pharmaceuticals 8 Wallach's rule 9 See also 10 ReferencesEtymology[edit] From racemic acid found in grapes; from Latin racemus, meaning a bunch of grapes. Nomenclature[edit] A racemic mixture is denoted by the prefix (±)- or dl- (for sugars the prefix dl- may be used), indicating an equal (1:1) mixture of dextro and levo isomers
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Lipophilicity
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene. These non-polar solvents are themselves lipophilic (translated as "fat-loving" or "fat-liking"[1][2])—the axiom that "like dissolves like" generally holds true. Thus lipophilic substances tend to dissolve in other lipophilic substances, while hydrophilic ("water-loving") substances tend to dissolve in water and other hydrophilic substances. Lipophilicity, hydrophobicity, and non-polarity can describe the same tendency towards participation in the London dispersion force
London dispersion force
as the terms are often used interchangeably
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Sedation
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure
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Hypotension
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.[1] Blood pressure
Blood pressure
is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. A systolic blood pressure of less than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or diastolic of less than 60 mm Hg is generally considered to be hypotension.[2][3] However, in practice, blood pressure is considered too low only if noticeable symptoms are present.[4] Hypotension is the opposite of hypertension, which is high blood pressure. It is best understood as a physiological state, rather than a disease
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Dizziness
Dizziness
Dizziness
is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.[1] Because the term dizziness is imprecise,[2] it can refer to vertigo, presyncope, disequilibrium,[3] or a non-specific feeling such as giddiness or foolishness.[4] One can induce dizziness by engaging in disorientating activities such as spinning. Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or having one's surroundings spin about them. Many people find vertigo very disturbing and often report associated nausea and vomiting. It represents about 25% of cases of occurrences of dizziness.[5] Disequilibrium is the sensation of being off balance, and is most often characterized by frequent falls in a specific direction. This condition is not often associated with nausea or vomiting. Presyncope is lightheadedness, muscular weakness and feeling faint as opposed to a syncope, which is actually fainting. Non-specific dizziness is often psychiatric in origin
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Ataxia
Ataxia
Ataxia
is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality. Ataxia
Ataxia
is a non-specific clinical manifestation implying dysfunction of the parts of the nervous system that coordinate movement, such as the cerebellum. Ataxia
Ataxia
can be limited to one side of the body, which is referred to as hemiataxia. Several possible causes exist for these patterns of neurological dysfunction. Dystaxia is a mild degree of ataxia
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Acetate
An acetate /ˈæsɪteɪt/ is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, or metallic base. "Acetate" also describes the conjugate base or ion (specifically, the negatively charged ion called an anion) typically found in aqueous solution and written with the chemical formula C2H3O2−. The neutral molecules formed by the combination of the acetate ion and a positive ion (called a cation) are also commonly called "acetates" (hence, acetate of lead, acetate of aluminum, etc.). The simplest of these is hydrogen acetate (called acetic acid) with corresponding salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion CH3CO2−, or CH3COO−. Most of the approximately 5 billion kilograms of acetic acid produced annually in industry are used in the production of acetates, which usually take the form of polymers. In nature, acetate is the most common building block for biosynthesis
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Muscle Weakness
Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength. The causes are many and can be divided into conditions that have either true or perceived muscle weakness. True muscle weakness is a primary symptom of a variety of skeletal muscle diseases, including muscular dystrophy and inflammatory myopathy. It occurs in neuromuscular junction disorders, such as myasthenia gravis. Muscle weakness can also be caused by low levels of potassium and other electrolytes within muscle cells
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Therapeutic Index
The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.[1] The related terms therapeutic window or safety window refer to a range of doses which optimize between efficacy and toxicity, achieving the greatest therapeutic benefit without resulting in unacceptable side-effects or toxicity. Classically, in an established clinical indication setting of an approved drug, TI refers to the ratio of the dose of drug that causes adverse effects at an incidence/severity not compatible with the targeted indication (e.g. toxic dose in 50% of subjects, TD50) to the dose that leads to the desired pharmacological effect (e.g. efficacious dose in 50% of subjects, ED50)
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Hypothermia
Hypothermia
Hypothermia
is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs. In humans, it is defined as a body core temperature below 35.0 °C (95.0 °F).[2] Symptoms depend on the temperature.[2] In mild hypothermia there is shivering and mental confusion.[2] In moderate hypothermia shivering stops and confusion increases.[2] In severe hypothermia, there may be paradoxical undressing, in which a person removes his or her clothing, as well as an increased risk of the heart stopping.[2] Hypothermia
Hypothermia
has two main types of causes
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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