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Dimensional Analysis
In engineering and science , DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantities (such as length , mass , time , and electric charge ) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms vs. grams) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed. Converting from one dimensional unit to another is often somewhat complex. Dimensional analysis, or more specifically the FACTOR-LABEL METHOD, also known as the UNIT-FACTOR METHOD, is a widely used technique for such conversions using the rules of algebra . The concept of PHYSICAL DIMENSION was introduced by Joseph Fourier in 1822
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Furnace
A FURNACE is a device used for high-temperature heating. The name derives from Greek word fornax, which means oven . The heat energy to fuel a furnace may be supplied directly by fuel combustion , by electricity such as the electric arc furnace , or through induction heating in induction furnaces . In American English
American English
and Canadian English
Canadian English
usage, the term furnace refers to the household heating systems based upon a central furnace, otherwise known either as a boiler , or a heater in British English. Furnace
Furnace
may also be a synonym for kiln , a device used in the production of ceramics . In British English
British English
, a furnace is an industrial furnace used for many things, such as the extraction of metal from ore (smelting ) or in oil refineries and other chemical plants, for example as the heat source for fractional distillation columns
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Engineering
ENGINEERING is the application of mathematics , as well as scientific , economic , social, and practical knowledge in order to invent , innovate , design , build, maintain , research , and improve structures , machines , tools , systems , components , materials , processes , solutions, and organizations . The discipline of engineering is extremely broad and encompasses a range of more specialized fields of engineering , each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied science, technology and types of application. The term Engineering
Engineering
is derived from the Latin
Latin
ingenium, meaning "cleverness" and ingeniare, meaning "to contrive, devise"
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Flue Gas
FLUE GAS is the gas exiting to the atmosphere via a flue , which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace , boiler or steam generator . Quite often, the flue gas refers to the combustion exhaust gas produced at power plants . Its composition depends on what is being burned, but it will usually consist of mostly nitrogen (typically more than two-thirds) derived from the combustion of air, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor as well as excess oxygen (also derived from the combustion air). It further contains a small percentage of a number of pollutants, such as particulate matter (like soot ), carbon monoxide , nitrogen oxides , and sulfur oxides . SCRUBBINGAt power plants, flue gas is often treated with a series of chemical processes and scrubbers , which remove pollutants
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Coulomb
The COULOMB (symbol: C) is the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) unit of electric charge . It is the charge (symbol: Q or q) transported by a constant current of one ampere in one second : 1 C = 1 A 1 s {displaystyle 1~{text{C}}=1~{text{A}}cdot 1~{text{s}}} Thus, it is also the amount of excess charge on a capacitor of one farad charged to a potential difference of one volt : 1 C = 1 F 1 V {displaystyle 1~{text{C}}=1~{text{F}}cdot 1~{text{V}}} It is equivalent to the charge of approximately 7018624200000000000♠6.242×1018 (6995103600000000000♠1.036×10−5 mol ) protons , and −1 C is equivalent to the charge of approximately 7018624200000000000♠6.242×1018 electrons
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Electric Current
An ELECTRIC CURRENT is a flow of electric charge . In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire . It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte , or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma ). The SI unit
SI unit
for measuring an electric current is the ampere , which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current
Electric current
is measured using a device called an ammeter . Electric currents cause Joule heating , which creates light in incandescent light bulbs . They also create magnetic fields , which are used in motors, inductors and generators. The moving charged particles in an electric current are called charge carriers
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System Of Measurement
A SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT is a collection of units of measurement and rules relating them to each other. Systems of measurement have historically been important, regulated and defined for the purposes of science and commerce . Systems of measurement in modern use include the metric system , the imperial system , and United States
United States
customary units
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Volume
VOLUME is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface , for example, the space that a substance (solid , liquid , gas , or plasma ) or shape occupies or contains. Volume
Volume
is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit
SI derived unit
, the cubic metre . The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container, i. e. the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straight-edged, and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas . Volumes of a complicated shape can be calculated by integral calculus if a formula exists for the shape's boundary
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Ampere
The AMPERE (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp", is the base unit of electric current in the International System of Units (SI). It is named after André-Marie Ampère
André-Marie Ampère
(1775–1836), French mathematician and physicist, considered the father of electrodynamics . SI defines the ampere in terms of other base units by measuring the electromagnetic force between electrical conductors carrying electric current. The earlier CGS measurement system had two different definitions of current, one essentially the same as the SI's and the other using electric charge as the base unit, with the unit of charge defined by measuring the force between two charged metal plates. The ampere was then defined as one coulomb of charge per second. In SI, the unit of charge, the coulomb, is defined as the charge carried by one ampere during one second
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NOx
In atmospheric chemistry , NOX is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution , namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). These gases contribute to the formation of smog and acid rain , as well as tropospheric ozone . NOx gases are usually produced from the reaction among nitrogen and oxygen during combustion of fuels, such as hydrocarbons , in air; especially at high temperatures, such as occur in car engines. In areas of high motor vehicle traffic, such as in large cities, the nitrogen oxides emitted can be a significant source of air pollution. NOx gases are also produced naturally by lightning . The term NOx is chemistry shorthand for molecules containing one nitrogen and one or more oxygen atom
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Nitrogen Oxides
NITROGEN OXIDE may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen , or a mixture of such compounds: * Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide
, also known as nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide * Nitrogen
Nitrogen
dioxide (NO2), nitrogen(IV) oxide *
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Metre
The METRE (international spelling ) or METER (American spelling ) (from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI). The SI unit symbol is M. The metre is defined as the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum in 1/299 792 458 seconds . The metre was originally defined in 1793 as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole
North Pole
. In 1799, it was redefined in terms of a prototype metre bar (the actual bar used was changed in 1889). In 1960, the metre was redefined in terms of a certain number of wavelengths of a certain emission line of krypton-86 . In 1983, the current definition was adopted. The imperial inch is defined as 0.0254 metres (2.54 centimetres or 25.4 millimetres). One metre is about  3 3⁄8 inches longer than a yard , i.e. about  39 3⁄8 inches
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Yard
The YARD (abbreviation: YD) is an English unit of length , in both the British imperial and US customary systems of measurement , that comprises 3 feet or 36 inches . It is by international agreement in 1959 standardized as exactly 0.9144 meters . A metal yardstick originally formed the physical standard from which all other units of length were officially derived in both English systems. In the 19th and 20th centuries, increasingly powerful microscopes and scientific measurement detected variation in these prototype yards which became significant as technology improved. In 1959, the United States , United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Australia
Australia
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, and South Africa agreed to adopt the Canadian compromise value of 0.9144 meters per yard
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