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Dihydrate
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements. The chemical state of the water varies widely between different classes of hydrates, some of which were so labeled before their chemical structure was understood.Contents1 Chemical nature1.1 Organic chemistry 1.2 Inorganic chemistry 1.3 Clathrate
Clathrate
hydrates2 Stability 3 See also 4 ReferencesChemical nature[edit] Organic chemistry[edit] In organic chemistry, a hydrate is a compound formed by the addition of water or its elements to another molecule. For example: ethanol, CH3–CH2–OH, is the product of the hydration reaction of ethene, CH2=CH2, formed by the addition of H to one C and OH to the other C, and so can be considered as the hydrate of ethene. A molecule of water may be eliminated, for example by the action of sulfuric acid
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Chemical Compounds
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together:molecules held together by covalent bonds ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds.Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service
Chemical Abstracts Service
(CAS): its CAS number. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved
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Tetrahydrofuran
Tetrahydrofuran
Tetrahydrofuran
(THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O. The compound is classified as heterocyclic compound, specifically a cyclic ether. It is a colorless, water-miscible organic liquid with low viscosity. It is mainly used as a precursor to polymers.[5] Being polar and having a wide liquid range, THF is a versatile solvent.Contents1 Production1.1 Other methods2 Applications2.1 Polymerization 2.2 As a solvent2.2.1 Laboratory use3 Reactions 4 Precautions 5 See also 6 References 7 General reference 8 External linksProduction[edit] About 200,000 tonnes of tetrahydrofuran are produced annually.[6] The most widely used industrial process involves the acid-catalyzed dehydration of 1,4-butanediol. Ashland/ISP is one the biggest producers of this chemical route. The method is similar to the production of diethyl ether from ethanol
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Inorganic Anhydride
An inorganic anhydride is a chemical compound that is related to another by the loss of the elements of water, H2O. It shares this definition with acid anhydrides but inorganic anhydrides do not contain any organic moiety. For example, carbon dioxide is the anhydride of carbonic acid:H2CO3 –> H2O + CO2Although the term is somewhat archaic, it survives in current use in the name of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which catalyzes this reaction. Other inorganic acids have anhydrides which are oxides. Examples include:silicon dioxide is the anhydride of silicic acid: Si(OH)4 –> 2H2O + SiO2 phosphorus pentoxide is the anhydride of phosphoric acid: 2H3PO4 –> 3H2O + P2O5. vanadium pentoxide is the anhydride of vanadic acid: 2H3VO4 –> 3H2O + V2O5. sulfur trioxide is the anhydride of sulfuric acid: H2SO4 --> SO3 + H2O
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Hygroscopic
Hygroscopy
Hygroscopy
is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature. This is achieved through either absorption or adsorption with the absorbing or adsorbing substance becoming physically changed somewhat
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Desiccant
A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant. Commonly encountered pre-packaged desiccants are solids that absorb water. Desiccants for specialized purposes may be in forms other than solid, and may work through other principles, such as chemical bonding of water molecules. They are commonly encountered in foods to retain crispness. Industrially, desiccants are widely used to control the level of water in gas streams.Contents1 Types of desiccants1.1 Performance efficiency 1.2 Colored saturation indicators2 Applications 3 Drying of solvents 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingTypes of desiccants[edit] Main article: List of desiccants Although some desiccants are chemically inert, others are extremely reactive and require specialized handling techniques. The most common desiccant is silica, an otherwise inert, nontoxic, water-insoluble white solid
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Clathrate Hydrate
Clathrate
Clathrate
hydrates, or gas clathrates, gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates, etc., are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small non-polar molecules (typically gases) or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded, frozen water molecules. In other words, clathrate hydrates are clathrate compounds in which the host molecule is water and the guest molecule is typically a gas or liquid. Without the support of the trapped molecules, the lattice structure of hydrate clathrates would collapse into conventional ice crystal structure or liquid water
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Clathrate Hydrates
Clathrate
Clathrate
hydrates, or gas clathrates, gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates, etc., are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small non-polar molecules (typically gases) or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded, frozen water molecules. In other words, clathrate hydrates are clathrate compounds in which the host molecule is water and the guest molecule is typically a gas or liquid. Without the support of the trapped molecules, the lattice structure of hydrate clathrates would collapse into conventional ice crystal structure or liquid water
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Clathrate
A clathrate is a chemical substance consisting of a lattice that traps or contains molecules. The word clathrate is derived from the Latin clatratus meaning with bars or a lattice.[1] Traditionally, clathrate compounds are polymeric and completely envelop the guest molecule, but in modern usage clathrates also include host-guest complexes and inclusion compounds.[2] According to IUPAC, clathrates are "Inclusion compounds in which the guest molecule is in a cage formed by the host molecule or by a lattice of host molecules."[3]Structure of the 3:1 inclusion complex of urea and 1,6-dichlorohexane. The framework is composed of molecules of urea that are linked by hydrogen bonds, leaving approximately hexagonal channels into which align the molecules of the chlorocarbon
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Methane Hydrate
Methane
Methane
clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.[1] Originally thought to occur only in the outer regions of the Solar System, where temperatures are low and water ice is common, significant deposits of methane clathrate have been found under sediments on the ocean floors of the Earth.[2] Methane
Methane
clathrates are common constituents of the shallow marine geosphere and they occur in deep sedimentary structures and form outcrops on the ocean floor
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Hydrogen Bond
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons. Hydrogen
Hydrogen
bonds can occur between molecules (intermolecular) or within different parts of a single molecule (intramolecular).[1] Depending on the nature of the donor and acceptor atoms which constitute the bond, their geometry, and environment, the energy of a hydrogen bond can vary between 1 and 40 kcal/mol.[2] This makes them somewhat stronger than a van der Waals interaction, and weaker than fully covalent or ionic bonds
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Bjerrum Defect
A Bjerrum defect is a crystallographic defect which is specific to ice, and which is partly responsible for the electrical properties of ice.[1] It was first proposed by Niels Bjerrum in 1952 in order to explain the electrical polarization of ice in an electric field.[2] A hydrogen bond normally has one proton, but a hydrogen bond with a Bjerrum defect will have either two protons (D defect) or no proton (L defect). The unfavorable defect strain is resolved when a water molecule pivots about an oxygen atom to produce hydrogen bonds with single protons. Dislocations of ice Ih along a slip plane create pairs of Bjerrum defects, one D defect and one L defect.[3] Nonpolar molecules such as methane can form clathrate hydrates with water, especially under high pressure
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Formula Unit
A formula unit in chemistry is the empirical formula of any ionic or covalent network solid compound used as an independent entity for stoichiometric calculations. It is the lowest whole number ratio of ions represented in an ionic compound.[1] Examples include ionic NaCl and K2O and covalent networks such as SiO2 and C (as diamond or graphite).[2] Ionic compounds do not exist as individual molecules; a formula unit thus indicates the lowest reduced ratio of ions in the compound. A chemical formula shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance. In mineralogy, as minerals are almost exclusively either ionic or network solids, the formula unit is used. The number of formula units (Z) and the dimensions of the crystallographic axes are used in defining the unit cell.[3] The formula unit is a very important unit of measurement in chemistry. References[edit]^ Molecular Formula on science.jrank.org ^ Steven S. Zumdahl; Susan A
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Deliquescent
Hygroscopy
Hygroscopy
is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature. This is achieved through either absorption or adsorption with the absorbing or adsorbing substance becoming physically changed somewhat
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Efflorescent
In chemistry, efflorescence (which means "to flower out" in French) is the migration of a salt to the surface of a porous material, where it forms a coating. The essential process involves the dissolving of an internally held salt in water, or occasionally in another solvent. The water, with the salt now held in solution, migrates to the surface, then evaporates, leaving a coating of the salt. In what has been described as "primary efflorescence," the water is the invader and the salt was already present internally. Some people describe a reverse process, where the salt is originally present externally and is then carried inside in solution, as "secondary efflorescence." However, others would give this latter phenomenon another name entirely. Efflorescences can occur in natural and built environments
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Hydrational Fluid
Oral rehydration therapy
Oral rehydration therapy
(ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea.[1] It involves drinking water with modest amounts of sugar and salts, specifically sodium and potassium.[1] Oral rehydration therapy
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