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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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OECD ILibrary
OECD iLibrary is OECD’s Online Library for books, papers and statistics and the gateway to OECD’s analysis and data. It replaced SourceOECD in July 2010. OECD iLibrary contains content released by OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development), International Energy Agency (IEA), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), OECD Development Centre, PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment), and International Transport Forum (ITF)
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Handle (computing)
In computer programming, a handle is an abstract reference to a resource. Handles are used when application software references blocks of memory or objects managed by another system, such as a database or an operating system. A resource handle can be an opaque identifier, in which case it is often an integer number (often an array index in an array or "table" that is used to manage that type of resource), or it can be a pointer that allows access to further information. Common resource handles are file descriptors, network sockets, database connections, process identifiers (PIDs), and job IDs. Process IDs and job IDs are explicitly visible integers, while file descriptors and sockets (which are often implemented as a form of file descriptor) are represented as integers, but are typically considered opaque
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Tsinghua University
Tsinghua University (abbreviated THU; Chinese: 清华大学, pinyin: Qīnghuá Dàxué) is a research university located in Beijing and a member of the C9 League of Chinese universities.

Uniform Resource Identifier
In information technology, a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters used to identify a resource. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network, typically the World Wide Web, using specific protocols. Schemes specifying a concrete syntax and associated protocols define each URI
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Airiti
Airiti Incorporation (華藝數位) headquartered in Taipei, Taiwan, is the leading Chinese e-content provider of Chinese academic e-journals, Taiwanese academic e-journals, classical art images to more than 450 libraries in 2006 and has extended to more than 72,000 libraries in 112 countries and territories around the world.

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Web Browser
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web
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GS1
GS1 or Global Standards One is a not-for-profit organisation that develops and maintains global standards for business communication. The best known of these standards is the barcode, a symbol printed on products that can be scanned electronically. GS1 barcodes are scanned more than six billion times every day. GS1 has 112 local member organisations and 1.5 million user companies. GS1 standards are designed to improve the efficiency, safety and visibility of supply chains across physical and digital channels in 25 sectors
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Uniform Resource Locator
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), although many people use the two terms interchangeably. URLs occur most commonly to reference web pages (http), but are also used for file transfer (ftp), email (mailto), database access (JDBC), and many other applications. Most web browsers display the URL of a web page above the page in an address bar
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Uniform Resource Name
A Uniform Resource Name (URN) is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that uses the urn scheme.

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Unicode
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646, and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings, a set of reference data files, and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization, decomposition, collation, rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew, and left-to-right scripts). As of June 2017, the most recent version is Unicode 10.0
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