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Digambara Monk
Digambara
Digambara
monk (also muni, sādhu) is a monk in the Digambara tradition of Jainism, and as such an occupant of the highest limb of the four-fold sangha. They are also called nirgrantha which means "one without any bonds". Digambara
Digambara
monks have 28 primary attributes which includes observance of the five supreme vows of ahimsa (non-injury), truth, non-thieving, celibacy and non-possession. A Digambara
Digambara
monk is allowed to keep only a feather whisk, a water gourd and scripture with him.The Ascetic (Sādhu) keeps with him a feather-whisk (picchī) – implement of compassion, a water-pot (kamaņdalu) – implement of purity, and scriptural treatise (śāstra) – implement of knowledge.[1]In Jainism, those śrāvakas (householders) who wish to attain moksha (liberation) renounce all possessions and become an ascetic
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Dharma (Jainism)
Dharma
Dharma
(/ˈdɑːrmə/;[8] Sanskrit: धर्म, translit. dharma, pronounced [dʱəɾmə] ( listen); Pali: धम्म, translit. dhamma, translit
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Diwali
Diwali
Diwali
or Deepavali is the Hindu
Hindu
festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).[4][5] It is an official holiday in Fiji, Guyana, India,[6] Malaysia, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago
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Pancastikayasara
Pañcastikayasara (en: the essence of reality), is an ancient Jain text authored by Acharya Kundakunda.[1] Kundakunda
Kundakunda
explains the Jain concepts of dravya (substance) and Ethics. The work serves as a brief version of the Jaina philosophy. There are total 180 verses written in Prakrit
Prakrit
language.[2] The text is about five (panch) āstikāya, substances that have both characteristics, viz
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Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
(Pārśvanātha), also known as Parshva (Pārśva), was the 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras (ford-maker, teacher) of Jainism.[6] He is the earliest Jain Tirthankara
Tirthankara
who is generally acknowledged as a historical figure.[7][8] His biography is uncertain, with Jain sources placing him between the 9th and 8th century BC, and historians stating he may have lived in 8th or 7th century BC
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Niyamasara
Niyamasara is a Jain text authored by Acharya Kundakunda, a Digambara Jain acharya.[2] It is described by its commentators as the Bhagavat Shastra. It expounds the path to liberation. Subject matter[edit] Niyamasara deals with the three ethico-spiritual standpoints of understanding ultimate Reality – the Nishcaya naya, the Vyavahara naya and the Shuddha Naya. Niyamasara effectively removes doubts related to Parayayarthika naya and Dravyarthika nayas and elaborates on Vyavahara caritra. He stresses that Vyavahara caritra is based on samyama (self-restraint) and hence rooted in appropriate psychic disposition. He places great emphasis on cleansing the soul of vibhavas, internal impurities, through self-discipline. A unique feature of the Niyamasara is that Kundakunda characterises both Nichcaya caritra and Vyavahara caritra as tapa, or practice of austerity from their respective nayas
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Arihant (Jainism)
Arihant (Jain Prakrit: arihant, Sanskrit: árhat "conqueror"), is a soul who has conquered inner passions such as attachment, anger, pride and greed.[1] Arihant are also called kevalins (omniscient beings) as they possess Kevala Jnana
Kevala Jnana
(pure infinite knowledge).[2][3] An arihant is also called a jina "victor". At the end of their life, arihants destroy all four gathiya karmas and attain moksha (liberation) and become siddhas, liberated souls
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Śvētāmbara
The Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
(/ʃwɛˈtʌmbərə/; Sanskrit: श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara. Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
"white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara
Digambara
"sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity.[1] Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha. Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara, Māllīnātha, was a woman.Contents1 History 2 Denominations 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
tradition follows the lineage of Sthulabhadra
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Samayasāra
Samayasāra
Samayasāra
(The Nature of the Self) is a famous Jain text
Jain text
composed by Acharya Kundakunda
Kundakunda
in 439 verses.[1] Its ten chapters discuss the nature of Jīva (pure self/soul), its attachment to Karma and Moksha (liberation)
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Pravachanasara
Pravachanasara, is a text composed by Jain monk, Kundakunda, in about the mid-second century BC. It means "Essence of Scriptures" or "Essence of Sermons" or "Essence of Doctrine". In the text, Kundakunda shows how the correct understanding of the duality of self and others leads to that defining characteristic of Digambara
Digambara
mendicant praxis, nudity.[2] It consists of three chapters and 275 verses. First chapter consists of 92 verses and it describes attributes of Supreme Beings and outlines the first steps in the process of transforming oneself into a Supreme Being. Second chapter consists of 108 verses and it describes laws of interaction between space, time particles, elementary matter particles, compound matter particles, motion and souls in the Cosmos
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Jain Agamas
Agamas are texts of Jainism
Jainism
based on the discourses of the tirthankara. The discourse delivered in a samavasarana (divine preaching hall) is called Śhrut Jnāna and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas.[1] The discourse is recorded by Ganadharas (chief disciples), and is composed of twelve angas (departments). It is generally represented by a tree with twelve branches.[2] This forms the basis of the Jaina Agamas or canons. These are believed to have originated from Rishabhanatha, the first tirthankara.[3] The earliest versions of Jain
Jain
Agamas known were composed in Ardhamagadhi Prakrit
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Tattvartha Sutra
Tattvartha Sutra
Sutra
(also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra) is an ancient Jain text
Jain text
written by Acharya Umaswami, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD.[3][4][1] It is one of the first Jain scriptures written in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language instead of the Jain liturgical language of Ardha Magadhi.[5] Tattvartha Sutra
Sutra
is also known in Jainism
Jainism
as the Moksha-shastra (Scripture describing the path of liberation). The Tattvartha Sutra
Sutra
is regarded as one of the earliest, most authoritative books on Jainism, and the only text authoritative in both the Digambara
Digambara
and Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
sects (prior to the Saman Suttam)
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Dravyasamgraha
Dravyasaṃgraha (Devnagari: द्रव्यसंग्रह) (Compendium of substances) is a 10th-century Jain text
Jain text
in Jain Sauraseni Prakrit
Prakrit
by Acharya Nemicandra
Nemicandra
belonging to the Digambara Jain
Jain
tradition. It is a composition of 58 gathas (verses) giving an exposition of the six dravyas (substances) that characterize the Jain view of the world: sentient (jīva), non-sentient (pudgala), principle of motion (dharma), principle of rest (adharma), space (ākāśa) and time (kāla).[1] It is one of the most important Jain
Jain
works and has gained widespread popularity
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Tirthankara
In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit: tīrthaṅkara; English: literally a 'Ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).[1] The word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha[2], which is a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths, the saṃsāra. According to Jains, a tirthankara is a rare individual who has conquered the saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth, on his own and made a path for others to follow. After understanding the true nature of the Self or soul, the Tīrthaṅkara attains Kevala Jnana
Kevala Jnana
(omniscience), and the first Tirthankara
Tirthankara
refounds Jainism
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Kalpa Sūtra
The Kalpa Sūtra
Kalpa Sūtra
(Sanskrit: कल्पसूत्र) is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain
Jain
Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
and Mahavira.[1] Traditionally ascribed to Bhadrabahu, which would place it in the 4th century BCE.[2], it was probably put to writing only after 980 or 993 years after the Nirvana(Moksha) of Mahavira.Contents1 History 2 Importance 3 See also 4 References4.1 Citations 4.2 Sources5 External linksHistory[edit] Within the six sections of the Jain
Jain
literary corpus belonging to the Svetambara
Svetambara
school, it is classed as one of the Cheda Sūtras. This Sutra contains detailed life histories and, from the mid-15th century, was frequently illustrated with miniature painting
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History Of Jainism
History of Jainism
Jainism
concerns a religion founded in Ancient India
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