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Differential GPS
Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) are enhancements to the Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System
(GPS) which provide improved location accuracy, in the range of operations of each system, from the 15-meter nominal GPS
GPS
accuracy to about 10 cm in case of the best implementations. Each D GPS
GPS
uses a network of fixed ground-based reference stations to broadcast the difference between the positions indicated by the GPS satellite systems and known fixed positions. These stations broadcast the difference between the measured satellite pseudoranges and actual (internally computed) pseudoranges, and receiver stations may correct their pseudoranges by the same amount
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CLAAS
Claas
Claas
is an agricultural machinery manufacturer founded in 1913, based in Harsewinkel, Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Germany, in the state of North Rhine Westphalia. The product range includes combine harvesters, forage harvesters, balers, mowers, rakes, tractors, tedders and other harvesting machines. Claas
Claas
produced its 450,000th machine in 2013.Contents1 History1.1 Modern era 1970s 1.2 Since 20002 In Argentina 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] Claas
Claas
was created in 1913[2] when August Claas
Claas
developed the company in Clarholz, Germany. In 1919, the business was transferred to Harsewinkel, Germany, where the company focused on the production of reapers. Two years later the company obtained their first patent – for a knotter to efficiently bind straw
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Channel Islands
The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
(Norman: Îles d'la Manche, French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche[note 1]) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two Crown dependencies: the Bailiwick of Jersey, the largest of the islands; and the Bailiwick of Guernsey, consisting of Guernsey, Alderney, Sark
Sark
and some smaller islands
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Clock Drift
Clock
Clock
drift refers to several related phenomena where a clock does not run at exactly the same rate as a reference clock. That is, after some time the clock "drifts apart" or gradually desynchronizes from the other clock i.e. the crystal-based clocks used in computers, like any other clocks, subject to clock drift, which means that they count time at different rates and so they diverge. This phenomenon is used, for instance, in computers to build random number generators. On the negative side, clock drift can be exploited by timing attacks.Contents1 In non-atomic clocks 2 Atomic clocks 3 Relativity 4 Random number generators 5 Timing attack 6 See also 7 ReferencesIn non-atomic clocks[edit] Main article: Frequency drift Everyday clocks such as wristwatches have finite precision. Eventually they require correction to remain accurate
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Ephemeris
In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris (plural: ephemerides; from Latin ephemeris, meaning 'diary', from Greek εφημερίς (ephemeris), meaning 'diary, journal'[1][2][3][4]) gives the positions of naturally occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky at a given time or times. Historically, positions were given as printed tables of values, given at regular intervals of date and time. Modern ephemerides are often computed electronically from mathematical models of the motion of astronomical objects and the Earth
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Troposphere
The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place. It contains approximately 75% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of the total mass of water vapor and aerosols.[2] The average depths of the troposphere are 20 km (12 mi) in the tropics, 17 km (11 mi) in the mid latitudes, and 7 km (4.3 mi) in the polar regions in winter. The lowest part of the troposphere, where friction with the Earth's surface influences air flow, is the planetary boundary layer. This layer is typically a few hundred meters to 2 km (1.2 mi) deep depending on the landform and time of day. Atop the troposphere is the tropopause, which is the border between the troposphere and stratosphere
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International Association Of Lighthouse Authorities
The International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation
Navigation
and Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Authorities (IALA, previously known as International Association of Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Authorities) is an Intergovernmental organization founded in 1957 to collect and provide nautical expertise and advice.Contents1 Background 2 Main recommendations 3 IALA sea mark regions 4 Sources 5 See also 6 Notes 7 External linksBackground[edit] IALA brings together representatives of the aids to navigation services of about 80 countries for technical coordination, information sharing, and coordination of improvements to aids to navigation throughout the world. It was established in 1957 to provide a permanent organization to support the goals of the Technical Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Conferences, which had been convening since 1929. The General Assembly of IALA meets about every 4 years
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Decca Navigator System
The Decca Navigator System
Decca Navigator System
was a hyperbolic radio navigation system which allowed ships and aircraft to determine their position by receiving radio signals from fixed navigational beacons. The system used phase comparison of low frequencies from 70 to 129 kHz, as opposed to pulse timing systems like Gee and LORAN. This made it much easier to implement the receivers using 1940s electronics. The system was invented in the US, but development was carried out by Decca in the UK. It was first deployed by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
during World War II when the Allied forces needed a system which could be used to achieve accurate landings and was not known to the Germans and thus free of jamming. After the war it was extensively developed around the UK and later used in many areas around the world
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Trinity House
Coordinates: 51°30′36″N 0°04′37″W / 51.51°N 0.077°W / 51.51; -0.077 Trinity
Trinity
House, London (January 2007)A meeting at Trinity
Trinity
House circa 1808The Corporation of Trinity
Trinity
House of Deptford
Deptford
Strond,[1] known as Trinity
Trinity
House (formally The Master Wardens and Assistants of the Guild Fraternity or Brotherhood of the most glorious and undivided Trinity and of St
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England
England
England
is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[5][6][7] It shares land borders with Wales
Wales
to the west and Scotland
Scotland
to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England
England
and the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south
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Wales
Wales
Wales
(/ˈweɪlz/ ( listen); Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəmri] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the island of Great Britain.[8] It is bordered by England
England
to the east, the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon
Snowdon
(Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Executive Order (United States)
In the United States, an executive order is a directive issued by the President of the United States
United States
that manages operations of the federal government, and have the force of law.[1] The legal or constitutional basis for executive orders has multiple sources. Article Two of the United States
United States
Constitution gives the president broad executive and enforcement authority to use their discretion to determine how to enforce the law or to otherwise manage the resources and staff of the executive branch
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Isle Of Man
The Isle of Man
Isle of Man
(Manx: Ellan Vannin [ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn]), also known simply as Mann (/mæn/; Manx: Mannin [ˈmanɪn]), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann
Lord of Mann
and is represented by a Lieutenant Governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Ranked by the World Bank
World Bank
as the 5th richest nation in the world by GDP per capita,[6] the largest sectors are insurance and eGaming with 17% of GNP each, followed by ICT and banking with 9% each.[7] The island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century and the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged
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Commissioners Of Irish Lights
The Commissioners of Irish Lights
Commissioners of Irish Lights
(Irish: Coimisinéirí Soilse na hÉireann ) is the body that serves as the General Lighthouse Authority for the island of Ireland
Ireland
plus its adjacent seas and islands. As the Irish Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Authority it oversees the coastal lights and navigation marks provided by the local lighthouse authorities; the county councils and port authorities. It is funded by light dues paid by ships calling at ports in the Republic of Ireland, pooled with dues raised similarly in the United Kingdom. This recognises that a large volume of shipping, typically transatlantic, relies on the lights provided by the Irish Lights.Contents1 History 2 Finance 3 Ships3.1 Granuaile III 3.2 Other vessels4 Flags 5 Infrastructure5.1 Buoys 5.2 Lighthouses6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Signal fires to guide shipping have long existed
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Ireland
Ireland
Ireland
(/ˈaɪərlənd/ ( listen); Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] ( listen); Ulster-Scots: Airlann [ˈɑːrlən]) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain
Great Britain
to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland
Ireland
is the third-largest island in Europe. Politically, Ireland
Ireland
is divided between the Republic of Ireland (officially named Ireland), which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland
Ireland
was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe
Europe
after Great Britain
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