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Differential Diagnosis
In medicine , a DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features. Differential diagnostic procedures are used by physicians and other trained medical professionals to diagnose the specific disease in a patient , or, at least, to eliminate any imminently life-threatening conditions. Often, each individual option of a possible disease is called a differential diagnosis (for example, bronchitis could be a differential diagnosis in the evaluation of a cough that ends up with a final diagnosis of common cold ). More generally, a DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE is a systematic diagnostic method used to identify the presence of a disease entity where multiple alternatives are possible. This method is essentially a process of elimination or at least a process of obtaining information that shrinks the "probabilities" of candidate conditions to negligible levels, by using evidence such as symptoms, patient history, and medical knowledge to adjust epistemic confidences in the mind of the diagnostician (or, for computerized or computer-assisted diagnosis, the software of the system). Differential diagnosis can be regarded as implementing aspects of the hypothetico-deductive method , in the sense that the potential presence of candidate diseases or conditions can be viewed as hypotheses that physicians further determine as being true or false
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Medical Subject Headings
MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MESH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE / PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed . Originally in English, MeSH has been translated into numerous other languages and allows retrieval of documents from different languages. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Descriptor hierarchy * 1.2 Descriptions * 1.3 Qualifiers * 1.4 Supplements * 2 Use in Medline/ PubMed * 3 Use in ClinicalTrials.gov * 4 Categories * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links STRUCTUREThe 2009 version of MeSH contains a total of 25,186 _subject headings_, also known as _descriptors_
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Medicine
MEDICINE is the science and practice of the diagnosis , treatment , and prevention of disease . Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness . Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences , biomedical research , genetics , and medical technology to diagnose , treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery , but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy , external splints and traction , medical devices , biologics , and ionizing radiation , amongst others. Medicine
Medicine
has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, a medicine man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician would apply bloodletting according to the theories of humorism . In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science , most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic and applied , under the umbrella of MEDICAL SCIENCE). While stitching technique for sutures is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science
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Disease
A DISEASE is a particular abnormal condition that affects part or all of an organism and that consists of a disorder of a structure or function. The study of disease is called pathology , which includes the study of cause. Disease
Disease
is often construed as a MEDICAL CONDITION associated with specific symptoms and signs . It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions, particularly of the immune system , such as an immunodeficiency , or by a hypersensitivity , including allergies and autoimmunity . When caused by pathogens (e.g. malaria by _Plasmodium_ ssp.), the term _disease_ is often misleadingly used even in the scientific literature in place of its causal agent, the pathogen. This language habit can cause confusion in the communication of the cause-effect principle in epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged. In humans, _disease_ is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain , dysfunction , distress , social problems , or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries , disabilities , disorders , syndromes , infections , isolated symptoms , deviant behaviors , and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories
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Physician
A PHYSICIAN, MEDICAL PRACTITIONER, MEDICAL DOCTOR, or simply DOCTOR is a professional who practises medicine , which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis , and treatment of disease , injury , and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients and methods of treatment—known as specialities —or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice . Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines (such as anatomy and physiology ) underlying diseases and their treatment—the _science _ of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or _craft _ of medicine. Both the role of the physician and the meaning of the word itself vary around the world. Degrees and other qualifications vary widely, but there are some common elements, such as medical ethics requiring that physicians show consideration, compassion, and benevolence for their patients
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Medical Diagnosis
MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS (abbreviated DX or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs . It is most often referred to as DIAGNOSIS with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES, such as diagnostic tests , are also done during the process. Sometimes Posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific . For example, redness of the skin (erythema ), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus doesn't tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis , in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed. This involves the correlation of various pieces of information followed by the recognition and differentiation of patterns. Occasionally the process is made easy by a sign or symptom (or a group of several) that is pathognomonic . Diagnosis is a major component of the procedure of a doctor\'s visit . From the point of view of statistics , the diagnostic procedure involves classification tests
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Patient
A PATIENT is any recipient of health care services. The patient is most often ill or injured and in need of treatment by a physician , advanced practice registered nurse , physiotherapist, physician assistant , psychologist , dentist , podiatrist , veterinarian , or other health care provider . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Outpatients and inpatients * 3 Day patient * 4 Alternative terminology * 5 Patient-centered healthcare * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word PATIENT originally meant 'one who suffers'. This English noun comes from the Latin
Latin
word patiens, the present participle of the deponent verb, patior, meaning 'I am suffering,' and akin to the Greek verb πάσχειν (= paskhein, to suffer) and its cognate noun πάθος (= pathos). OUTPATIENTS AND INPATIENTSAn OUTPATIENT (or OUT-PATIENT) is a patient who is hospitalized for less than 24 hours
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Bronchitis
BRONCHITIS is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs . Symptoms include coughing up mucus , wheezing , shortness of breath , and chest discomfort. Bronchitis is divided into two types: acute and chronic . Acute bronchitis is also known as a chest cold. Acute bronchitis usually has a cough that lasts around three weeks. In more than 90% of cases the cause is a viral infection . These viruses may be spread through the air when people cough or by direct contact. Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke , dust, and other air pollution . A small number of cases are due to high levels of air pollution or bacteria such as _ Mycoplasma pneumoniae _ or _ Bordetella pertussis _. Treatment of acute bronchitis typically involves rest, paracetamol (acetaminophen), and NSAIDs to help with the fever. Chronic bronchitis is defined as a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years. Most people with chronic bronchitis have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Tobacco smoking is the most common cause, with a number of other factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role. Treatments include quitting smoking , vaccinations , rehabilitation , and often inhaled bronchodilators and steroids . Some people may benefit from long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation
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Common Cold
COMMON COLD, also known simply as a COLD, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose . The throat , sinuses , and voice box may also be affected. Signs and symptoms may begin less than two days following exposure. They include coughing , sore throat , runny nose , sneezing , headache, and fever . People usually recover in seven to ten days. Some symptoms may last up to three weeks. In those with other health problems, pneumonia may occasionally develop. Well over 200 virus strains are implicated in the cause of the common cold; the rhinoviruses are the most common. They spread through the air during close contact with infected people and indirectly through contact with objects in the environment followed by transfer to the mouth or nose. Risk factors include going to daycare , not sleeping well, and psychological stress . Symptoms are mostly due to the body's immune response to the infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves. People with influenza often show similar symptoms as people with a cold, though symptoms are usually more severe in the former. Influenza is less likely to result in a runny nose. There is no vaccine for the common cold. The primary methods of prevention are hand washing ; not touching the eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands; and staying away from other sick people. Some evidence supports the use of face masks
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Diagnostic Method
MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS (abbreviated DX or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs . It is most often referred to as DIAGNOSIS with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES, such as diagnostic tests , are also done during the process. Sometimes Posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific . For example, redness of the skin (erythema ), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus doesn't tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis , in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed. This involves the correlation of various pieces of information followed by the recognition and differentiation of patterns. Occasionally the process is made easy by a sign or symptom (or a group of several) that is pathognomonic . Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is a major component of the procedure of a doctor\'s visit . From the point of view of statistics , the diagnostic procedure involves classification tests
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Disease Entity
An ENDOTYPE is a subtype of a condition, which is defined by a distinct functional or pathobiological mechanism. This is distinct from a phenotype , which is any observable characteristic or trait of a disease , such as morphology , development, biochemical or physiological properties, or behavior, without any implication of a mechanism. It is envisaged that patients with a specific endotype present themselves within phenotypic clusters of diseases. One example is asthma, which is considered to be a syndrome , consisting of a series of endotypes. This is related to the concept of disease entity CONTENTS * 1 Disease entity * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References DISEASE ENTITYThe main concept in nosology is the disease entity. Normally there are two ways to define a disease entity: Manifestational criteria and causal criteria. * MANIFESTATIONAL CRITERIA. These are a set of criteria based n signs, symptoms and laboratory findings that define a disease. They define a disease by its symptoms and medical findings. * CAUSAL CRITERIA. These are a causal chain of events that defines the disease describing how it develops. They describe the disease by its etiology .Following Fred Gifford , these criteria lead one to view any disease entity in three different forms: * DISEASE AS SYMPTOMS: The disease is defined by the symptoms and signs that it produces. In fact, it can be said that the disease is the collection of them
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Process Of Elimination
PROCESS OF ELIMINATION is a method to identify an entity of interest among several ones by excluding all other entities. In educational testing , the process of elimination is a process of deleting options whereby the possibility of an option being correct is close to zero or significantly lower compared to other options. The process does not guarantee success, even if only 1 option remains. CONTENTS * 1 Method * 2 Application * 3 In medicine * 4 See also * 5 References METHODThe method of elimination is iterative . One looks at the answers, determines that several answers are unfit, eliminates these, and repeats, until one cannot eliminate any more. This iteration is most effectively applied when there is logical structure between the answers – that is to say, when by eliminating an answer one can eliminate several others. In this case one can find the answers which one cannot eliminate by eliminating any other answers and test them alone – the others are eliminated as a logical consequence . (This is the idea behind optimizations for computerized searches when the input is sorted – as, for instance, in binary search ). APPLICATION This article CONTAINS INSTRUCTIONS, ADVICE, OR HOW-TO CONTENT . The purpose of is to present facts, not to train. Please help improve this article either by rewriting the how-to content or by moving it to Wikiversity, Wikibooks or Wikivoyage
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Epistemology
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e EPISTEMOLOGY (/ᵻˌpɪstᵻˈmɒlədʒi/ (_ listen ); from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē_, meaning 'knowledge', and λόγος_, logos _, meaning 'logical discourse') is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge . Epistemology
Epistemology
studies the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. Much of the debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth , belief , and justification , (2) various problems of skepticism , (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification. The term 'Epistemology' was first used by Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier in 1854. However, according to Brett Warren, King James VI of Scotland had previously personified this philosophical concept as the character EPISTEMON in 1591
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Hypothetico-deductive Method
The HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE MODEL or METHOD is a proposed description of scientific method . According to it, scientific inquiry proceeds by formulating a hypothesis in a form that could conceivably be falsified by a test on observable data. A test that could and does run contrary to predictions of the hypothesis is taken as a falsification of the hypothesis. A test that could but does not run contrary to the hypothesis corroborates the theory. It is then proposed to compare the explanatory value of competing hypotheses by testing how stringently they are corroborated by their predictions. CONTENTS * 1 Example * 2 Discussion * 3 See also * 3.1 Types of inference * 4 Citations * 5 References EXAMPLE Main article: Scientific method One example of an algorithmic statement of the hypothetico-deductive method is as follows: 1. Use your experience: Consider the problem and try to make sense of it. Gather data and look for previous explanations. If this is a new problem to you, then move to step 2. 2. Form a conjecture (hypothesis ): When nothing else is yet known, try to state an explanation, to someone else, or to your notebook. 3. Deduce predictions from the hypothesis: if you assume 2 is true, what consequences follow? 4. Test (or experiment ): Look for evidence (observations) that conflict with these predictions in order to disprove 2
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Diagnostic Procedure
DIAGNOSIS is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. Diagnosis is used in many different disciplines with variations in the use of logic , analytics , and experience to determine "cause and effect ". In systems engineering and computer science , it is typically used to determine the causes of symptoms, mitigations, and solutions
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Mnemonic
A MNEMONIC (/nəˈmɒnᵻk/ , the first "m" is silent) DEVICE, or MEMORY DEVICE, is any learning technique that aids information retention in the human memory . Mnemonics make use of elaborative encoding, retrieval cues, and imagery as specific tools to encode any given information in a way that allows for efficient storage and retrieval. Mnemonics aid original information in becoming associated with something more meaningful—which, in turn, allows the brain to have better retention of the information. Commonly encountered mnemonics are often used for lists and in auditory form, such as short poems, acronyms , or memorable phrases, but mnemonics can also be used for other types of information and in visual or kinesthetic forms. Their use is based on the observation that the human mind more easily remembers spatial, personal, surprising, physical, sexual, humorous, or otherwise "relatable" information, rather than more abstract or impersonal forms of information. The word "mnemonic" is derived from the Ancient Greek word μνημονικός (_mnēmonikos_), meaning "of memory, or relating to memory" and is related to Mnemosyne ("remembrance"), the name of the goddess of memory in Greek mythology . Both of these words are derived from μνήμη (_mnēmē_), "remembrance, memory". Mnemonics in antiquity were most often considered in the context of what is today known as the art of memory
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