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Differential Diagnosis
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.[1] Differential diagnostic procedures are used by physicians and other trained medical professionals to diagnose the specific disease in a patient, or, at least, to eliminate any imminently life-threatening conditions. Often, each individual option of a possible disease is called a differential diagnosis (for example, acute bronchitis could be a differential diagnosis in the evaluation of a cough that ends up with a final diagnosis of common cold). More generally, a differential diagnostic procedure is a systematic diagnostic method used to identify the presence of a disease entity where multiple alternatives are possible
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Medical Subject Headings
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/ PubMed
PubMed
article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov
registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only.[2] It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed
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ABC (medicine)
ABC and its variations are initialism mnemonics for essential steps used by both medical professionals and lay persons (such as first aiders) when dealing with a patient. In its original form it stands for Airway, Breathing, and Circulation.[1] The protocol was originally developed as a memory aid for rescuers performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the most widely known use of the initialism is in the care of the unconscious or unresponsive patient, although it is also used as a reminder of the priorities for assessment and treatment of patients in many acute medical and trauma situations, from first-aid to hospital medical treatment.[2] Airway, breathing, and circulation are all vital for life, and each is required, in that order, for the next to be effective
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Autoimmune Disease
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.[1] There are at least 80 types of autoimmune diseases.[1] Nearly any body part can be involved.[3] Common symptoms include low grade fever and feeling tired.[1] Often symptoms come and go.[1] The cause is generally unknown.[3] Some autoimmune diseases such as lupus run in families, and certain cases may be triggered by infections or other environmental factors.[1] Some common diseases that are generally considered autoimmune include celiac disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, Graves' disease, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.[1][4] The diagnosis can be difficult to determine.[1] Treatment depends on the type and severity of the condition.[1]
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Anatomic
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.[1] Anatomy is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times.[2] Anatomy is inherently tied to embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny,[3] as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine.[4] Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together. The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight
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Trauma (medicine)
Major trauma
Major trauma
is any injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.[1] There are many causes of major trauma, blunt and penetrating, including falls, motor vehicle collisions, stabbing wounds, and gunshot wounds. Depending on the severity of injury, quickness of management and transportation to an appropriate medical facility (called a trauma center) may be necessary to prevent loss of life or limb. The initial assessment is critical, and involves a physical evaluation and also may include the use of imaging tools to determine the types of injuries accurately and to formulate a course of treatment. In 2002, unintentional and intentional injuries were the fifth and seventh leading causes of deaths worldwide, accounting for 6.23% and 2.84% of all deaths
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Environmental Epidemiology
Environmental epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology concerned with the discovery of the environmental exposures that contribute to or protect against injuries, illnesses, developmental conditions, disabilities, and deaths; and identification of public health and health care actions to manage the risks associated with harmful exposures. Environmental epidemiology studies external factors that affect the incidence, prevalence, and geographic range of health conditions
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Metabolic Disorder
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.[3] It can also be defined as inherited single gene anomaly, most of which are autosomal recessive.[4]Contents1 Symptoms 2 Causes2.1 Types3 Diagnosis 4 Screening 5 Management 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksSymptoms[edit] Some of the possible symptoms that can occur with metabolic disorders are: lethargy, weight loss, jaundice, seizures, to name a few.[medical citation needed] The symptoms expressed would vary with the type of metabolic disorder.[medical citation needed] There are four categories of symptoms: acute symptoms, late-onset acute symptoms, progressive general symptoms and permanent symptoms.[5] Causes[edit] See also: Inborn error of metabolismProtein involved in
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Medical Algorithm
A medical algorithm is any computation, formula, statistical survey, nomogram, or look-up table, useful in healthcare
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Medical Emergency
A medical emergency is an acute injury or illness that poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health. These emergencies may require assistance from another person, who should ideally be suitably qualified to do so, although some of these emergencies such as cardiovascular (heart), respiratory, and gastrointestinal cannot be dealt with by the victim themselves.[1] Dependent on the severity of the emergency, and the quality of any treatment given, it may require the involvement of multiple levels of care, from first aiders to Emergency Medical Technicians and emergency physicians. Any response to an emergency medical situation will depend strongly on the situation, the patient involved and availability of resources to help them
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Sine Qua Non
Sine qua non (/ˌsaɪni kweɪ ˈnɒn, ˌsɪni kwɑː ˈnoʊn/; Latin: [ˈsine kwaː ˈnoːn])[1] or condicio sine qua non (plural: condiciones sine quibus non) is an indispensable and essential action, condition, or ingredient. It was originally a Latin legal term for "[a condition] without which it could not be", or "but for..." or "without which [there is] nothing"
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Substance Intoxication
Substance intoxication is a type of substance use disorder[1] which is potentially maladaptive and impairing, but reversible,[2] and associated with recent use of a substance.[3] If the symptoms are severe, the term "substance intoxication delirium" may be used.[4] Slang terms include: getting high (generic) or being stoned or blazed (usually in reference to cannabis[citation needed]), with many more specific slang terms for each particular type of intoxicant
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Indication (medicine)
In medicine, an indication is a valid reason to use a certain test, medication, procedure, or surgery.[1] The opposite of an indication is a contraindication,[2] a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment because it could harm a patient. Drugs[edit]The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Most countries and jurisdictions have a licensing body whose duty is to determine whether to approve a drug for a specific indication, based on the relative safety of the drug and its efficacy for the particular use. In the United States, indications for medications are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and are included in the package insert under the phrase "Indications and Usage"
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Bayes' Theorem
In probability theory and statistics, Bayes’ theorem (alternatively Bayes’ law or Bayes' rule, also written as Bayes’s theorem) describes the probability of an event, based on prior knowledge of conditions that might be related to the event. For example, if cancer is related to age, then, using Bayes’ theorem, a person’s age can be used to more accurately assess the probability that they have cancer, compared to the assessment of the probability of cancer made without knowledge of the person's age. One of the many applications of Bayes' theorem
Bayes' theorem
is Bayesian inference, a particular approach to statistical inference. When applied, the probabilities involved in Bayes' theorem
Bayes' theorem
may have different probability interpretations. With the Bayesian probability interpretation the theorem expresses how a subjective degree of belief should rationally change to account for availability of related evidence
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Dice
Dice
Dice
(singular die or dice;[1] from Old French
Old French
dé; from Latin
Latin
datum "something which is given or played"[2]) are small throwable objects with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers. Dice
Dice
are suitable as gambling devices for games like craps and are also used in non-gambling tabletop games. A traditional die is a cube, with each of its six faces showing a different number of dots (pips) from 1 to 6. When thrown or rolled, the die comes to rest showing on its upper surface a random integer from one to six, each value being equally likely. A variety of similar devices are also described as dice; such specialized dice may have polyhedral or irregular shapes and may have faces marked with symbols instead of numbers. They may be used to produce results other than one through six
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