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Die (integrated Circuit)
A DIE (pronunciation: /dʌɪ/) in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated. Typically, integrated circuits are produced in large batches on a single wafer of electronic-grade silicon (EGS) or other semiconductor (such as GaAs ) through processes such as photolithography . The wafer is cut (“diced ”) into many pieces, each containing one copy of the circuit. Each of these pieces is called a die. There are three commonly used plural forms: dice, dies, and die. CONTENTS * 1 Images * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links IMAGES* Single NPN bipolar junction transistor die. * Close-up of an RGB
RGB
light-emitting diode , showing the three individual dice. * A small-scale integrated circuit die, with bond wires attached. * A VLSI integrated-circuit die. * Two dice bonded onto one chip carrier
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Chip Carrier
In electronics , a CHIP CARRIER is one of several kinds of surface mount technology packages for integrated circuits (commonly called "chips"). Connections are made on all four edges of a square package; Compared to the internal cavity for mounting the integrated circuit, the package overall size is large. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Plastic
Plastic
leaded chip carrier * 3 Leadless * 4 See also * 5 References TYPESChip carriers may have either J-shaped metal leads for connections by solder or by a socket, or may be lead-less with metal pads for connections. If the leads extend beyond the package, the preferred description is "flat pack ". Chip carriers are smaller than dual in-line packages and since they use all four edges of the package can have a larger pin count. Chip carriers may be made of ceramic or plastic
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YouTube
YOUTUBE is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California . The service was created by three former PayPal employees — Chad Hurley , Steve Chen , and Jawed Karim — in February 2005. Google
Google
bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube
YouTube
now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries . YouTube
YouTube
allows users to upload, view, rate, share, add to favorites, report, comment on videos, and subscribe to other users . It uses WebM , H.264/MPEG-4 AVC , and Adobe Flash Video technology to display a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips , TV show clips, music videos , short and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers and other content such as video blogging , short original videos, and educational videos
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Bond Wire
WIRE BONDING is the method of making interconnections (ATJ) between an integrated circuit (IC) or other semiconductor device and its packaging during semiconductor device fabrication . Although less common, wire bonding can be used to connect an IC to other electronics or to connect from one printed circuit board (PCB) to another. Wire bonding is generally considered the most cost-effective and flexible interconnect technology and is used to assemble the vast majority of semiconductor packages. If properly designed, wire bonding can be used at frequencies above 100 GHz
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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Integrated Circuit Design
INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN, or IC DESIGN, is a subset of electronics engineering , encompassing the particular logic and circuit design techniques required to design integrated circuits , or ICs. ICs consist of miniaturized electronic components built into an electrical network on a monolithic semiconductor substrate by photolithography . IC design can be divided into the broad categories of digital and analog IC design. Digital IC design is to produce components such as microprocessors , FPGAs , memories (RAM , ROM , and flash ) and digital ASICs . Digital design focuses on logical correctness, maximizing circuit density, and placing circuits so that clock and timing signals are routed efficiently. Analog IC design also has specializations in power IC design and RF IC design. Analog IC design is used in the design of op-amps , linear regulators , phase locked loops , oscillators and active filters
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Wire Bonding
WIRE BONDING is the method of making interconnections (ATJ) between an integrated circuit (IC) or other semiconductor device and its packaging during semiconductor device fabrication . Although less common, wire bonding can be used to connect an IC to other electronics or to connect from one printed circuit board (PCB) to another. Wire bonding is generally considered the most cost-effective and flexible interconnect technology and is used to assemble the vast majority of semiconductor packages. If properly designed, wire bonding can be used at frequencies above 100 GHz
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Semiconductor Intellectual Property Core
In electronic design a SEMICONDUCTOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY CORE, IP CORE, or IP BLOCK is a reusable unit of logic, cell, or integrated circuit (commonly called a "chip") layout design that is the intellectual property of one party. IP cores may be licensed to another party or can be owned and used by a single party alone. The term is derived from the licensing of the patent and/or source code copyright that exist in the design. IP cores can be used as building blocks within application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) designs or field-programmable gate array (FPGA) logic designs. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Types of IP cores * 2.1 Soft cores * 2.2 Hard cores * 3 Sources of IP cores * 3.1 Licensed functionality * 3.2 Vendors * 3.2.1 IP hardening * 3.3 Free and open-source * 3.4 Aggregators * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe licensing and use of IP cores in chip design came into common practice in the 1990s
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Brazing
BRAZING is a metal -joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Brazing differs from welding in that it does not involve melting the work pieces and from soldering in using higher temperatures for a similar process, while also requiring much more closely fitted parts than when soldering. The filler metal flows into the gap between close-fitting parts by capillary action . The filler metal is brought slightly above its melting (liquidus ) temperature while protected by a suitable atmosphere, usually a flux . It then flows over the base metal (known as wetting) and is then cooled to join the work pieces together. It is similar to soldering , except for the use of higher temperatures. A major advantage of brazing is the ability to join the same or different metals with considerable strength
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RGB
The RGB COLOR MODEL is an additive color model in which red , green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors . The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors , red, green and blue. The main purpose of the RGB color model is for the sensing, representation and display of images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers, though it has also been used in conventional photography . Before the electronic age , the RGB color model already had a solid theory behind it, based in human perception of colors . RGB is a _device-dependent_ color model: different devices detect or reproduce a given RGB value differently, since the color elements (such as phosphors or dyes ) and their response to the individual R, G and B levels vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, or even in the same device over time
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Monocrystalline Silicon
MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON (or "single-crystal silicon", "single-crystal Si", "mono c-Si", or just MONO-SI) is the base material for silicon chips used in virtually all electronic equipment today. Mono-Si also serves as photovoltaic , light-absorbing material in the manufacture of solar cells . It consists of silicon in which the crystal lattice of the entire solid is continuous, unbroken to its edges, and free of any grain boundaries . Mono-Si can be prepared intrinsic , consisting only of exceedingly pure silicon, or doped , containing very small quantities of other elements added to change its semiconducting properties. Most silicon monocrystals are grown by the Czochralski process
Czochralski process
into ingots of up to 2 meters in length and weighing several hundred kilograms. These cylinders are then sliced into thin wafers of a few hundred microns for further processing
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Main Page
The 1983 ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON was the least active Atlantic hurricane season in 53 years. Although the season begins by convention on June 1, there were no tropical depressions until July 23, and only four of the season's seven depressions became tropical storms . Tropical Depression Three became Hurricane Alicia_(satellite image pictured)_ on August 17 and made landfall in Texas the next day, breaking thousands of glass windows in Houston's skyscrapers, killing 22 people and causing $1.7 billion in damage. The storm that became Hurricane Barry formed on August 25, crossed Florida, and made landfall near Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville, Texas
, dissipating five days later. Hurricane Chantal stayed out at sea, and was absorbed by a front on September 15. Tropical Depression Six formed on September 19 and caused heavy rains in the Caribbean
Caribbean

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Semiconducting
A SEMICONDUCTOR material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor , such as copper, and an insulator , such as glass. Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases, which is behavior opposite to that of a metal. Their conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities ("doping ") into the crystal structure . Where two differently-doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created. The behavior of charge carriers which include electrons , ions and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes , transistors and all modern electronics. Semiconductor
Semiconductor
devices can display a range of useful properties such as passing current more easily in one direction than the other, showing variable resistance, and sensitivity to light or heat
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Gallium Arsenide
GALLIUM ARSENIDE (GAAS) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic . It is a III -V direct bandgap semiconductor with a zinc blende crystal structure. Gallium
Gallium
arsenide is used in the manufacture of devices such as microwave frequency integrated circuits , monolithic microwave integrated circuits , infrared light-emitting diodes , laser diodes , solar cells and optical windows. GaAs is often used as a substrate material for the epitaxial growth of other III-V semiconductors including indium gallium arsenide , aluminum gallium arsenide and others
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Photolithography
PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY, also termed OPTICAL LITHOGRAPHY or UV LITHOGRAPHY, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate . It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask to a light-sensitive chemical "photoresist ", or simply "resist," on the substrate. A series of chemical treatments then either engraves the exposure pattern into, or enables deposition of a new material in the desired pattern upon the material underneath the photo resist. For example, in complex integrated circuits , a modern