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Die (integrated Circuit)
A DIE (pronunciation: /dʌɪ/) in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated. Typically, integrated circuits are produced in large batches on a single wafer of electronic-grade silicon (EGS) or other semiconductor (such as GaAs ) through processes such as photolithography . The wafer is cut (“diced ”) into many pieces, each containing one copy of the circuit. Each of these pieces is called a die. There are three commonly used plural forms: dice, dies, and die. CONTENTS * 1 Images * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links IMAGES* Single NPN bipolar junction transistor die. * Close-up of an RGB
RGB
light-emitting diode , showing the three individual dice. * A small-scale integrated circuit die, with bond wires attached. * A VLSI integrated-circuit die. * Two dice bonded onto one chip carrier . * The "naked" die without chip carrier of a Cell processor. * Intel Xeon E7440 die, mounted on heat spreader. Die is 22×23 mm (506 mm2), and contains 7009190000000000000♠1900000000 transistors
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Integrated Circuit
An INTEGRATED CIRCUIT or MONOLITHIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (also referred to as an IC, a CHIP, or a MICROCHIP) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material , normally silicon . The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components . The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics . Computers , mobile phones , and other digital home appliances and are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs. ICs were made possible by experimental discoveries showing that semiconductor devices could perform the functions of vacuum tubes , and by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication . Since their origins in the 1960s, the size, speed, and capacity of chips have progressed enormously, driven by technical advances that allow more and more transistors on chips of the same size - a modern chip may have several billion transistors in an area the size of a human fingernail
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Semiconducting
A SEMICONDUCTOR material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor , such as copper, and an insulator , such as glass. Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases, which is behavior opposite to that of a metal. Their conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities ("doping ") into the crystal structure . Where two differently-doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created. The behavior of charge carriers which include electrons , ions and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes , transistors and all modern electronics. Semiconductor devices can display a range of useful properties such as passing current more easily in one direction than the other, showing variable resistance, and sensitivity to light or heat. Because the electrical properties of a semiconductor material can be modified by doping, or by the application of electrical fields or light, devices made from semiconductors can be used for amplification, switching, and energy conversion . The modern understanding of the properties of a semiconductor relies on quantum physics to explain the movement of charge carriers in a crystal lattice . Doping greatly increases the number of charge carriers within the crystal
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Wafer (electronics)
A WAFER, also called a SLICE or SUBSTRATE , is a thin slice of semiconductor material , such as a crystalline silicon , used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells . The wafer serves as the substrate for microelectronic devices built in and over the wafer and undergoes many microfabrication process steps such as doping or ion implantation , etching , deposition of various materials, and photolithographic patterning. Finally the individual microcircuits are separated (dicing ) and packaged . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Formation * 3 Cleaning, texturing and etching * 4 Wafer properties * 4.1 Standard wafer sizes * 4.1.1 Historical increases of wafer size * 4.1.2 Proposed 450 mm transition * 4.2 Analytical die count estimation * 4.3 Crystalline orientation * 4.4 Crystallographic orientation notches * 4.5 Impurity doping * 5 Compound semiconductors * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2015)By 1960, silicon wafers were being manufactured in the U.S. by companies such as MEMC / SunEdison . In 1965, American engineers Eric O. Ernst, Donald J. Hurd, and Gerard Seeley, while working under IBM , filed Patent US3423629A for the first high-capacity epitaxial apparatus
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Monocrystalline Silicon
MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON (or "single-crystal silicon", "single-crystal Si", "mono c-Si", or just MONO-SI) is the base material for silicon chips used in virtually all electronic equipment today. Mono-Si also serves as photovoltaic , light-absorbing material in the manufacture of solar cells . It consists of silicon in which the crystal lattice of the entire solid is continuous, unbroken to its edges, and free of any grain boundaries . Mono-Si can be prepared intrinsic , consisting only of exceedingly pure silicon, or doped , containing very small quantities of other elements added to change its semiconducting properties. Most silicon monocrystals are grown by the Czochralski process
Czochralski process
into ingots of up to 2 meters in length and weighing several hundred kilograms. These cylinders are then sliced into thin wafers of a few hundred microns for further processing. Single-crystal silicon is perhaps the most important technological material of the last few decades—the "silicon era", because its availability at an affordable cost has been essential for the development of the electronic devices on which the present-day electronics and IT revolution is based. Monocrystalline silicon
Monocrystalline silicon
differs from other allotropic forms, such as the non-crystalline amorphous silicon —used in thin-film solar cells —and polycrystalline silicon , that consists of small crystals, also known as crystallites
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Gallium Arsenide
GALLIUM ARSENIDE (GAAS) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic . It is a III -V direct bandgap semiconductor with a zinc blende crystal structure. Gallium
Gallium
arsenide is used in the manufacture of devices such as microwave frequency integrated circuits , monolithic microwave integrated circuits , infrared light-emitting diodes , laser diodes , solar cells and optical windows. GaAs is often used as a substrate material for the epitaxial growth of other III-V semiconductors including indium gallium arsenide , aluminum gallium arsenide and others. CONTENTS* 1 Preparation and chemistry * 1.1 Semi-insulating crystals * 1.2 Etching * 2 Electronics * 2.1 GaAs digital logic * 2.2 Comparison with silicon for electronics * 2.3 GaAs advantages * 2.4 Silicon
Silicon
advantages * 3 Other applications * 3.1 Solar cells
Solar cells
and detectors * 3.2 Light-emission devices * 3.3 Fiber optic temperature measurement * 3.4 Spin-charge converters * 4 Safety * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links PREPARATION AND CHEMISTRYIn the compound, gallium has a +3 oxidation state . Gallium
Gallium
arsenide single crystals can be prepared by three industrial processes: * The vertical gradient freeze (VGF) process (most GaAs wafers are produced using this process)
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Photolithography
PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY, also termed OPTICAL LITHOGRAPHY or UV LITHOGRAPHY, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate . It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask to a light-sensitive chemical "photoresist ", or simply "resist," on the substrate. A series of chemical treatments then either engraves the exposure pattern into, or enables deposition of a new material in the desired pattern upon the material underneath the photo resist. For example, in complex integrated circuits , a modern CMOS
CMOS
wafer will go through the photolithographic cycle up to 50 times. Photolithography
Photolithography
shares some fundamental principles with photography in that the pattern in the etching resist is created by exposing it to light , either directly (without using a mask) or with a projected image using an optical mask . This procedure is comparable to a high precision version of the method used to make printed circuit boards . Subsequent stages in the process have more in common with etching than with lithographic printing . It is used because it can create extremely small patterns (down to a few tens of nanometers in size), it affords exact control over the shape and size of the objects it creates, and because it can create patterns over an entire surface cost-effectively
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Wafer Dicing
In the context of manufacturing integrated circuits , WAFER DICING is the process by which die are separated from a wafer of semiconductor following the processing of the wafer. The dicing process can involve scribing and breaking, mechanical sawing (normally with a machine called a dicing saw) or laser cutting . All methods are typically automated to ensure precision and accuracy. Following the dicing process the individual silicon chips are encapsulated into chip carriers which are then suitable for use in building electronic devices such as computers , etc. During dicing, wafers are typically mounted on dicing tape which has a sticky backing that holds the wafer on a thin sheet metal frame. Dicing tape has different properties depending on the dicing application. UV curable tapes are used for smaller sizes and non-UV dicing tape for larger die sizes. Once a wafer has been diced, the pieces left on the dicing tape are referred to as die, dice or dies. Each will be packaged in a suitable package or placed directly on a printed circuit board substrate as a "bare die". The areas that have been cut away, called die streets, are typically about 75 micrometres (0.003 inch) wide. Once a wafer has been diced, the die will stay on the dicing tape until they are extracted by die-handling equipment, such as a die bonder or die sorter, further in the electronics assembly process
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Bipolar Junction Transistor
A BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR (BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR or BJT) is a type of transistor that uses both electron and hole charge carriers. In contrast, unipolar transistors, such as field-effect transistors , only use one kind of charge carrier. For their operation, BJTs use two junctions between two semiconductor types, n-type and p-type. BJTs are manufactured in two types, NPN and PNP, and are available as individual components, or fabricated in integrated circuits , often in large numbers. The basic function of a BJT is to amplify current. This allows BJTs to be used as amplifiers or switches, giving them wide applicability in electronic equipment, including computers, televisions, mobile phones, audio amplifiers, industrial control, and radio transmitters
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RGB
The RGB COLOR MODEL is an additive color model in which red , green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors . The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors , red, green and blue. The main purpose of the RGB color model is for the sensing, representation and display of images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers, though it has also been used in conventional photography . Before the electronic age , the RGB color model already had a solid theory behind it, based in human perception of colors . RGB is a _device-dependent_ color model: different devices detect or reproduce a given RGB value differently, since the color elements (such as phosphors or dyes ) and their response to the individual R, G and B levels vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, or even in the same device over time. Thus a RGB value does not define the same _color_ across devices without some kind of color management . Typical RGB input devices are color TV and video cameras , image scanners , and digital cameras . Typical RGB output devices are TV sets of various technologies (CRT , LCD , plasma , OLED , Quantum-Dots etc.), computer and mobile phone displays, video projectors , multicolor LED displays and large screens such as JumboTron
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Light-emitting Diode
A LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source . It is a p–n junction diode that emits light when activated. When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons . This effect is called electroluminescence , and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are typically small (less than 1 mm2) and integrated optical components may be used to shape the radiation pattern . Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light. Infrared LEDs are still frequently used as transmitting elements in remote-control circuits, such as those in remote controls for a wide variety of consumer electronics. The first visible-light LEDs were also of low intensity and limited to red. Modern LEDs are available across the visible , ultraviolet , and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. Early LEDs were often used as indicator lamps for electronic devices, replacing small incandescent bulbs. They were soon packaged into numeric readouts in the form of seven-segment displays and were commonly seen in digital clocks. Recent developments have produced LEDs suitable for environmental and task lighting
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Bond Wire
WIRE BONDING is the method of making interconnections (ATJ) between an integrated circuit (IC) or other semiconductor device and its packaging during semiconductor device fabrication . Although less common, wire bonding can be used to connect an IC to other electronics or to connect from one printed circuit board (PCB) to another. Wire bonding is generally considered the most cost-effective and flexible interconnect technology and is used to assemble the vast majority of semiconductor packages. If properly designed, wire bonding can be used at frequencies above 100 GHz. CONTENTS * 1 Materials * 2 Attachment techniques * 3 Testing * 4 See also * 5 References MATERIALSBondwires usually consist of one of the following materials: * Aluminum
Aluminum
* Copper
Copper
* Silver
Silver
* Gold
Gold
Wire diameters start at 15 µm and can be up to several hundred micrometres for high-powered applications. The wire bonding industry is transitioning from gold to copper. This change has been instigated by the rising cost of gold and the comparatively stable, and much lower, cost of copper. While possessing higher thermal and electrical conductivity than gold, copper had previously been seen as less reliable due to its hardness and susceptibility to corrosion. By 2015, it is expected that more than a third of all wire bonding machines in use will be set up for copper
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Very-large-scale Integration
VERY-LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip. VLSI began in the 1970s when complex semiconductor and communication technologies were being developed. The microprocessor is a VLSI device. Before the introduction of VLSI technology most ICs had a limited set of functions they could perform. An electronic circuit might consist of a CPU , ROM , RAM and other glue logic . VLSI lets IC designers add all of these into one chip. A VLSI integrated-circuit die CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Developments * 3 Structured design * 4 Struggles * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORYThe History of the transistor dates to the mid-1920s when several inventors attempted devices that were intended to control current in solid-state diodes and convert them into triodes. Success came after World War II, when the use of silicon and germanium crystals as radar detectors led to improvements in fabrication and theory. Scientists who had worked on radar returned to solid-state device development. With the invention of transistors at Bell Labs in 1947, the field of electronics shifted from vacuum tubes to solid-state devices. With the small transistor at their hands, electrical engineers of the 1950s saw the possibilities of constructing far more advanced circuits
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Chip Carrier
In electronics , a CHIP CARRIER is one of several kinds of surface mount technology packages for integrated circuits (commonly called "chips"). Connections are made on all four edges of a square package; Compared to the internal cavity for mounting the integrated circuit, the package overall size is large. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Plastic
Plastic
leaded chip carrier * 3 Leadless * 4 See also * 5 References TYPESChip carriers may have either J-shaped metal leads for connections by solder or by a socket, or may be lead-less with metal pads for connections. If the leads extend beyond the package, the preferred description is "flat pack ". Chip carriers are smaller than dual in-line packages and since they use all four edges of the package can have a larger pin count. Chip carriers may be made of ceramic or plastic. Some forms of chip carrier package are standardized in dimensions and registered with trade industry associations such as JEDEC . Other forms are proprietary to one or two manufacturers. Sometimes the term "chip carrier" is used to refer generically to any package for an integrated circuit. Types of chip-carrier package are usually referred to by initialisms and include: * BCC: Bump Chip Carrier * CLCC: Ceramic
Ceramic
Leadless Chip Carrier * Leadless chip carrier (LCC): Leadless Chip Carrier, contacts are recessed vertically
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Cell (microprocessor)
CELL is a multi-core microprocessor microarchitecture that combines a general-purpose Power Architecture core of modest performance with streamlined coprocessing elements which greatly accelerate multimedia and vector processing applications, as well as many other forms of dedicated computation. It was developed by Sony
Sony
, Toshiba
Toshiba