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Die (integrated Circuit)
A die (pronunciation: /dʌɪ/) in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated. Typically, integrated circuits are produced in large batches on a single wafer of electronic-grade silicon (EGS) or other semiconductor (such as GaAs) through processes such as photolithography. The wafer is cut (“diced”) into many pieces, each containing one copy of the circuit
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Bipolar Junction Transistor
A bipolar junction transistor (bipolar transistor or BJT) is a type of transistor that uses both electron and hole charge carriers. In contrast, unipolar transistors, such as field-effect transistors, only use one kind of charge carrier. For their operation, BJTs use two junctions between two semiconductor types, n-type and p-type. BJTs are manufactured in two types, NPN and PNP, and are available as individual components, or fabricated in integrated circuits, often in large numbers. The basic function of a BJT is to amplify current
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Ball Bonding
Ball bonding
Ball bonding
is a type of wire bonding, and is the most common way to make the electrical interconnections between a chip and the outside world as part of semiconductor device fabrication. Gold
Gold
or copper wire can be used, though gold is more common because its oxide is not as problematic in making a weld. If copper wire is used, nitrogen must be used as a cover gas to prevent the copper oxides from forming during the wire bonding process. Copper
Copper
is also harder than gold, which makes damage to the surface of the chip more likely. However copper is cheaper than gold and has superior electrical properties,[1] and so remains a compelling choice. Almost all modern ball bonding processes use a combination of heat, pressure, and ultrasonic energy to make a weld at each end of the wire
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Chip Carrier
In electronics, a chip carrier is one of several kinds of surface mount technology packages for integrated circuits (commonly called "chips"). Connections are made on all four edges of a square package; Compared to the internal cavity for mounting the integrated circuit, the package overall size is large.[1]Contents1 Types 2 Plastic
Plastic
leaded chip carrier 3 Leadless 4 See also 5 ReferencesTypes[edit] Chip carriers may have either J-shaped metal leads for connections by solder or by a socket, or may be lead-less with metal pads for connections. If the leads extend beyond the package, the preferred description is "flat pack".[1] Chip carriers are smaller than dual in-line packages and since they use all four edges of the package can have a larger pin count. Chip carriers may be made of ceramic or plastic. Some forms of chip carrier package are standardized in dimensions and registered with trade industry associations such as JEDEC
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YouTube
YouTube
YouTube
is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. The service was created by three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—in February 2005. Google
Google
bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube
YouTube
now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries. YouTube
YouTube
allows users to upload, view, rate, share, add to favorites, report, comment on videos, and subscribe to other users. It offers a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show
TV show
clips, music videos, short and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, and other content such as video blogging, short original videos, and educational videos
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Bond Wire
Wire bonding
Wire bonding
is the method of making interconnections (ATJ) between an integrated circuit (IC) or other semiconductor device and its packaging during semiconductor device fabrication. Although less common, wire bonding can be used to connect an IC to other electronics or to connect from one printed circuit board (PCB) to another. Wire bonding is generally considered the most cost-effective and flexible interconnect technology and is used to assemble the vast majority of semiconductor packages
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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RGB
The RGB color model
RGB color model
is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors. The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors, red, green, and blue. The main purpose of the RGB color model
RGB color model
is for the sensing, representation and display of images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers, though it has also been used in conventional photography. Before the electronic age, the RGB color model already had a solid theory behind it, based in human perception of colors. RGB is a device-dependent color model: different devices detect or reproduce a given RGB value differently, since the color elements (such as phosphors or dyes) and their response to the individual R, G, and B levels vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, or even in the same device over time
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List Of Integrated Circuit Packaging Types
Integrated circuits are put into protective packages to allow easy handling and assembly onto printed circuit boards and to protect the devices from damage. A very large number of different types of package exist. Some package types have standardized dimensions and tolerances, and are registered with trade industry associations such as JEDEC
JEDEC
and Pro Electron. Other types are proprietary designations that may be made by only one or two manufacturers. Integrated circuit
Integrated circuit
packaging is the last assembly process before testing and shipping devices to customers. Occasionally specially-processed integrated circuit dies are prepared for direct connections to a substrate without an intermediate header or carrier. In flip chip systems the IC is connected by solder bumps to a substrate
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Wire Bonding
Wire bonding
Wire bonding
is the method of making interconnections (ATJ) between an integrated circuit (IC) or other semiconductor device and its packaging during semiconductor device fabrication. Although less common, wire bonding can be used to connect an IC to other electronics or to connect from one printed circuit board (PCB) to another. Wire bonding is generally considered the most cost-effective and flexible interconnect technology and is used to assemble the vast majority of semiconductor packages
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Brazing
Brazing
Brazing
is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Brazing
Brazing
differs from welding in that it does not involve melting the work pieces and from soldering in using higher temperatures for a similar process, while also requiring much more closely fitted parts than when soldering. The filler metal flows into the gap between close-fitting parts by capillary action. The filler metal is brought slightly above its melting (liquidus) temperature while protected by a suitable atmosphere, usually a flux
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Printed Circuit Board
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate. Components are generally soldered onto the PCB to both electrically connect and mechanically fasten them to it. Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products. They are also used in some electrical products, such as passive switch boxes. Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction, both once popular but now rarely used. PCBs require additional design effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be automated. Specialized CAD software is available to do much of the work of layout. Mass-producing circuits with PCBs is cheaper and faster than with other wiring methods, as components are mounted and wired in one operation
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Semiconductor Intellectual Property Core
In electronic design a semiconductor intellectual property core, IP core, or IP block is a reusable unit of logic, cell, or integrated circuit (commonly called a "chip") layout design that is the intellectual property of one party. IP cores may be licensed to another party or can be owned and used by a single party alone. The term is derived from the licensing of the patent and/or source code copyright that exist in the design. IP cores can be used as building blocks within application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) designs or field-programmable gate array (FPGA) logic designs.Contents1 History 2 Types of IP cores2.1 Soft cores 2.2 Hard cores3 Sources of IP cores3.1 Licensed functionality 3.2 Vendors3.2.1 IP hardening3.3 Free and open-source 3.4 Aggregators4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The licensing and use of IP cores in chip design came into common practice in the 1990s
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Photolithography
Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate. It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask to a light-sensitive chemical "photoresist", or simply "resist," on the substrate. A series of chemical treatments then either engraves the exposure pattern into, or enables deposition of a new material in the desired pattern upon the material underneath the photo resist. For example, in complex integrated circuits, a modern CMOS
CMOS
wafer will go through the photolithographic cycle up to 50 times. Photolithography
Photolithography
shares some fundamental principles with photography in that the pattern in the etching resist is created by exposing it to light, either directly (without using a mask) or with a projected image using an optical mask
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Gallium Arsenide
Gallium
Gallium
arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic
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