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Dicalcium Phosphate
Dicalcium phosphate
Dicalcium phosphate
is the calcium phosphate with the formula CaHPO4 and its dihydrate. The "di" prefix in the common name arises because the formation of the HPO42– anion involves the removal of two protons from phosphoric acid, H3PO4. It is also known as dibasic calcium phosphate or calcium monohydrogen phosphate. Dicalcium phosphate is used as a food additive, it is found in some toothpastes as a polishing agent and is a biomaterial.[1][2]Contents1 Preparation 2 Structure 3 Uses and occurrence 4 References 5 See alsoPreparation[edit] Dibasic calcium phosphate is produced by the neutralization of calcium hydroxide with phosphoric acid, which precipitates the dihydrate as a solid
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Chemical Nomenclature
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book[1] and the Red Book,[2] respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book,[3] describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book,[4] contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry[5] (the White Book, in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry[6] (the Orange Book), macromolecular chemistry[7] (the Purple Book) and clinical chemistry[8] (the Silver Book)
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Anhydrous
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water. Many processes in chemistry can be impeded by the presence of water, therefore, it is important that water-free reagents and techniques are used. In practice, however, it is very difficult to achieve perfect dryness; anhydrous compounds gradually absorb water from the atmosphere so they must be stored carefully.Contents1 Solids 2 Liquids or solvents 3 Gases 4 See also 5 ReferencesSolids[edit] Many salts and solids can be dried using heat, or under vacuum. Dessicators can also be used to store reagents in dry conditions. Common dessicants include phosphorus pentoxide or silica gel. Chemists may also require dry glassware for sensitive reactions. This can be achieved by drying glassware in an oven, by flame, or under vacuum. Dry solids can be produced by freeze-drying/lyophilisation. Liquids or solvents[edit] In many cases, the presence of water can prevent a reaction from happening, or cause undesirable products to form
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Toothpaste
Toothpaste
Toothpaste
is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. Toothpaste
Toothpaste
is used to promote oral hygiene: it serves as
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Polishing
Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action, leaving a surface with a significant specular reflection (still limited by the index of refraction of the material according to the Fresnel equations.)[1] In some materials (such as metals, glasses, black or transparent stones), polishing is also able to reduce diffuse reflection to minimal values. When an unpolished surface is magnified thousands of times, it usually looks like mountains and valleys
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Biomaterial
A biomaterial is any substance that has been engineered to interact with biological systems for a medical purpose - either a therapeutic (treat, augment, repair or replace a tissue function of the body) or a diagnostic one. As a science, biomaterials is about fifty years old. The study of biomaterials is called biomaterials science or biomaterials engineering. It has experienced steady and strong growth over its history, with many companies investing large amounts of money into the development of new products. Biomaterials
Biomaterials
science encompasses elements of medicine, biology, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science. Note that a biomaterial is different from a biological material, such as bone, that is produced by a biological system. Additionally, care should be exercised in defining a biomaterial as biocompatible, since it is application-specific
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Hydroxyapatite
Hydroxylapatite, also called hydroxyapatite (HA), is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two entities. Hydroxylapatite
Hydroxylapatite
is the hydroxyl endmember of the complex apatite group. The OH− ion can be replaced by fluoride, chloride or carbonate, producing fluorapatite or chlorapatite. It crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system. Pure hydroxylapatite powder is white. Naturally occurring apatites can, however, also have brown, yellow, or green colorations, comparable to the discolorations of dental fluorosis. Up to 50% by volume and 70% by weight of human bone is a modified form of hydroxylapatite, known as bone mineral.[4] Carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxylapatite is the main mineral of which dental enamel and dentin are composed
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Sodium Pyrophosphate
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate, also called sodium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium phosphate or TSPP, is a colorless transparent crystalline chemical compound with the formula Na4P2O7. It is a salt composed of pyrophosphate and sodium ions. Toxicity is approximately twice that of table salt when ingested orally.[3] There is also a hydrated form, Na4P2O7 · 10(H2O).[4] Use[edit] Tetrasodium pyrophosphate
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate
is used as a buffering agent, an emulsifier, a dispersing agent, and a thickening agent, and is often used as a food additive
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Magnesium Phosphate Tribasic
Trimagnesium phosphate is a compound with formula Mg3(PO4)2. It is a magnesium acid salt of phosphoric acid. It can be formed by reaction of stoichiometric quantities of monomagnesium phosphate with magnesium hydroxide.Mg(H2PO4)2+2 Mg(OH)2→Mg3(PO4)2•8H2O [1]Found in nature in octohydrate form as the mineral bobierrite.[2] The anhydrous compound is isostructural with cobalt(II) phosphate. The metal ions occupy both octahedral (six-coordinate) and pentacoordinate sites in a 1:2 ratio.[3]Safety[edit] Magnesium phosphate tribasic is listed on the FDA's generally recognized as safe, or GRAS, list of substances.[4] See also[edit]Magnesium phosphateReferences[edit]^ "EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION A process for the manufacture of highly pure trimagnesium phosphate octahydrate" (.html). Retrieved 28 May 2012.  ^ "magnesium phosphate - Compound Summary". Retrieved 29 May 2012.  ^ Nord, A. G.; Stefanidis, T. (1983)
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Diammonium Phosphate
Diammonium phosphate
Diammonium phosphate
(DAP) (chemical formula (NH4)2HPO4, IUPAC
IUPAC
name diammonium hydrogen phosphate) is one of a series of water-soluble ammonium phosphate salts that can be produced when ammonia reacts with phosphoric acid. Solid diammonium phosphate shows a dissociation pressure of ammonia as given by the following expression and equation:[2](NH4)2HPO4(s) ⇌ NH3(g) + NH4H2PO4(s)log PmmHg = −3063 / T + 175 log T + 3.3where:P = the resultant dissociation pressure of ammonia T = absolute temperature (K)At 100 °C, the dissociation pressure of diammonium phosphate is approximately 5 mmHg.[3] Accordingly, to MSDS of DiammoniumPhosphate from CF Industries inc. decomposition starts as low as 70*C "Hazardous Decomposition Products: Gradually loses ammonia when exposed to air at room temperature. Decomposes to ammonia and monoammonium phosphate at around 70°C (158°F)
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Dihydrate
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements. The chemical state of the water varies widely between different classes of hydrates, some of which were so labeled before their chemical structure was understood.Contents1 Chemical nature1.1 Organic chemistry 1.2 Inorganic chemistry 1.3 Clathrate
Clathrate
hydrates2 Stability 3 See also 4 ReferencesChemical nature[edit] Organic chemistry[edit] In organic chemistry, a hydrate is a compound formed by the addition of water or its elements to another molecule. For example: ethanol, CH3–CH2–OH, is the product of the hydration reaction of ethene, CH2=CH2, formed by the addition of H to one C and OH to the other C, and so can be considered as the hydrate of ethene. A molecule of water may be eliminated, for example by the action of sulfuric acid
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Brushite
Brushite
Brushite
is a phosphate mineral with the chemical formula CaHPO4·2H2O. It forms colorless to pale yellow monoclinic prismatic crystals and as powdery or earthy masses.[2][4] It is the phosphate analogue of the arsenate pharmacolite and the sulfate gypsum. Discovery and occurrence[edit] Brushite
Brushite
was first described in 1865 for an occurrence on Aves Island, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela, and named for the American mineralogist George Jarvis Brush (1831–1912).[3] It is believed to be a precursor of apatite and is found in guano-rich caves, formed by the interaction of guano with calcite and clay at a low pH. It occurs in phosphorite deposits and forms encrustations on old bones
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X-ray Crystallography
X-ray
X-ray
crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays
X-rays
to diffract into many specific directions. By measuring the angles and intensities of these diffracted beams, a crystallographer can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal. From this electron density, the mean positions of the atoms in the crystal can be determined, as well as their chemical bonds, their disorder, and various other information. Since many materials can form crystals—such as salts, metals, minerals, semiconductors, as well as various inorganic, organic, and biological molecules— X-ray
X-ray
crystallography has been fundamental in the development of many scientific fields
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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Coordination Number
In chemistry, crystallography, and materials science the coordination number, also called ligancy, of a central atom in a molecule or crystal is the number of atoms, molecules or ions bonded to it. The ion/molecule/atom surrounding the central ion/molecule/atom is called a ligand. This number is determined somewhat differently for molecules than for crystals. For molecules and polyatomic ions the coordination number of an atom is determined by simply counting the other atoms to which it is bonded (by either single or multiple bonds).[1] For example, [Cr(NH3)2Cl2Br2]− has Cr3+ as its central cation, and has a coordination number of 6. However the solid-state structures of crystals often have less clearly defined bonds, and in these cases a count of neighboring atoms is employed. The simplest method is one used in materials science. The usual value of the coordination number for a given structure refers to an atom in the interior of a crystal lattice with neighbors in all directions
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Dietary Supplement
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.[2] A supplement can provide nutrients either extracted from food sources or synthetic, individually or in combination, in order to increase the quantity of their consumption. The class of nutrient compounds includes vitamins, minerals, fiber, fatty acids and amino acids. Dietary supplements can also contain substances that have not been confirmed as being essential to life, but are marketed as having a beneficial biological effect, such as plant pigments or polyphenols. Animals can also be a source of supplement ingredients, as for example collagen from chickens or fish. These are also sold individually and in combination, and may be combined with nutrient ingredients. In the United States
United States
and Canada, dietary supplements are considered a subset of foods, and are regulated accordingly
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