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Dialectical Materialism
DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM (sometimes abbreviated DIAMAT) is a philosophy of science and nature , based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
, and developed largely in Russia and the Soviet Union . Inspired by dialectic and materialist philosophical traditions, it accepts evolution of the natural world and the emergence of new qualities of being at new stages of evolution. As Z. A
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Wage Labour
WAGE LABOUR (also WAGE LABOR in American English ) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer , where the worker sells his or her labour power under a formal or informal employment contract . These transactions usually occur in a labour market where wages are market determined. In exchange for the wages paid, the work product generally becomes the undifferentiated property of the employer, except for special cases such as the vesting of intellectual property patents in the United States where patent rights are usually vested in the employee personally responsible for the invention. A WAGE LABOURER is a person whose primary means of income is from the selling of his or her labour power in this way. In modern mixed economies such as those of the OECD countries, it is currently the most common form of work arrangement
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Das Kapital
CAPITAL: CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY (German : Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, pronounced ; 1867–1883) by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
is a foundational theoretical text in communist philosophy, economics and politics. Marx aimed to reveal the economic patterns underpinning the capitalist mode of production , in contrast to classical political economists such as Adam Smith , Jean-Baptiste Say , David Ricardo
David Ricardo
and John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill

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Historical Determinism
HISTORICAL DETERMINISM is the stance that events are historically predetermined or currently constrained by various forces. Historical determinism can be understood in contrast to its negation, i.e. the rejection of historical determinism. Some political philosophies (e.g. Early and Stalinist Marxism
Marxism
) assert a historical materialism of either predetermination or constraint, or both. Used as a pejorative, it is normally meant to designate an overdetermination of present possibilities by historical conditions
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Capital (economics)
In economics , CAPITAL consists of anything that can enhance a person's power to perform economically useful work. CAPITAL GOODS, REAL CAPITAL, or capital assets are already-produced, durable goods or any non-financial asset that is used in production of goods or services . Adam Smith defines capital as "That part of a man's stock which he expects to afford him revenue". The term "stock" is derived from the Old English word for stump or tree trunk. It has been used to refer to all the moveable property of a farm since at least 1510. How a capital good is maintained or returned to its pre-production state varies with the type of capital involved. In most cases capital is replaced after a depreciation period as newer forms of capital make continued use of current capital non profitable. It is also possible that advances make an obsolete form of capital practical again
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Class In Marxist Theory
In Marxism, MARXIAN CLASS THEORY asserts that an individual’s position within a class hierarchy is determined by his or her role in the production process, and argues that political and ideological consciousness is determined by class position. A class is those who share common economic interests, are conscious of those interests, and engage in collective action which advances those interests. Within Marxian class theory, the structure of the production process forms the basis of class construction. To Marx, a class is a group with intrinsic tendencies and interests that differ from those of other groups within society, the basis of a fundamental antagonism between such groups
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Class Conflict
CLASS CONFLICT, frequently referred to as CLASS WARFARE or CLASS STRUGGLE, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes . The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin . Class conflict
Class conflict
can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles
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A Contribution To The Critique Of Political Economy
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY (German : Zur Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie) is a book by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
, first published in 1859. The book is mainly an analysis of capitalism and quantity theory of money , achieved by critiquing the writings of the leading theoretical exponents of capitalism at that time: these were the political economists , nowadays often referred to as the classical economists ; Adam Smith (1723–90) and David Ricardo
David Ricardo
(1772–1823) are the foremost representatives of the genre. CONTENTS * 1 Significance * 2 Editions * 3 Notes * 4 References SIGNIFICANCEMuch of the Critique was later incorporated by Marx into his magnum opus, Capital
Capital
(Volume I) , published in 1867, and the Critique is generally considered to be of secondary importance among Marx's writings. This does not apply, however, to the Preface of the Critique
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Working Class
The WORKING CLASS (also LABOURING CLASS and PROLETARIAT ) are the people employed for wages , especially in manual-labour occupations and in skilled, industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most service-work jobs. The working class only rely upon their earnings from wage labour , thereby, the category includes most of the working population of industrialized economies , of the urban areas (cities, towns, villages) of non-industrialized economies , and of the rural workforce. In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is often used interchangeably with the term proletariat, and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour (salaried knowledge workers and white-collar workers ) to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production (the bourgeoisie in Marxist literature)
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The Communist Manifesto
THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO (originally MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. Commissioned by the Communist League
Communist League
and originally published in London (in German as Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the problems of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms
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Private Property
PRIVATE PROPERTY is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities . Private property
Private property
is distinguishable from public property , which is owned by a state entity; and from collective (or cooperative ) property, which is owned by a group of non-governmental entities . Private property
Private property
is further distinguished from personal property , which refers to property for personal use and consumption. Private property
Private property
is a legal concept defined and enforced by a country's political system. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Economics * 3 Criticism * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Gate with a private property sign. Prior to the 18th century, English-speakers generally used the word "property" in reference to land ownership
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Theses On Feuerbach
The "THESES ON FEUERBACH" are eleven short philosophical notes written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
as a basic outline for the first chapter of the book The German Ideology in 1845. Like the book for which they were written, the theses were never published in Marx's lifetime, seeing print for the first time in 1888 as an appendix to a pamphlet by his co-thinker Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. The document is best remembered for the epigrammatic 11th thesis and final line: "Philosophers have hitherto only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it." CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Background * 1.2 Content * 1.3 Publication history * 1.4 Uses of the text * 2 See also * 3 Footnotes * 4 External links HISTORYBACKGROUNDIn February 1845 Karl Marx
Karl Marx
was deported from France at the behest of minister of foreign affairs François Guizot
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Capitalist Mode Of Production (Marxist Theory)
In Karl Marx 's critique of political economy and subsequent Marxian analyses, the CAPITALIST MODE OF PRODUCTION refers to the systems of organizing production and distribution within capitalist societies . Private money-making in various forms (renting, banking, merchant trade, production for profit , etc.) preceded the development of the capitalist mode of production as such. The capitalist mode of production proper, based on wage-labour and private ownership of the means of production, and on industrial technology, began to grow rapidly in Western Europe from the industrial revolution , later extending to most of the world. The capitalist mode of production is characterized by private ownership of the means of production , extraction of surplus value by the owning class for the purpose of capital accumulation , wage-based labour , and, at least as far as commodities are concerned, being market-based
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Surplus Value
SURPLUS VALUE is a central concept in Karl Marx
Karl Marx
's critique of political economy. Marx did not himself invent the term: he developed the concept. "Surplus value" is a translation of the German word "Mehrwert", which simply means value added (sales revenue less the cost of materials used up). Conventionally, value-added is equal to the sum of gross wage income and gross profit income. However, Marx's use of this concept is different, because for Marx, the Mehrwert refers to the yield, profit or return on production capital invested, i.e. the amount of the increase in the value of capital. Hence, Marx's use of Mehrwert has always been translated as "surplus value", distinguishing it from "value-added". According to Marx's theory, surplus value is equal to the new value created by workers in excess of their own labor-cost, which is appropriated by the capitalist as profit when products are sold
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Surplus Product
SURPLUS PRODUCT (German: Mehrprodukt) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy . Marx first began to work out his idea of surplus product in his 1844 notes on James Mill 's Elements of political economy. Notions of "surplus produce" have been used in economic thought and commerce for a long time (notably by the Physiocrats ), but in Das Kapital , Theories of Surplus Value and the Grundrisse Marx gave the concept a central place in his interpretation of economic history. Nowadays the concept is mainly used in Marxian economics
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Value-form
The VALUE-FORM or FORM OF VALUE (German : Wertform) is a concept in Karl Marx 's critique of political economy, Marxism and post-Marxism . It refers to the social form of a commodity (any product traded in markets) as a symbol of value, which contrasts with its physical features, as a product which can satisfy some human need. The physical appearance of a commodity is directly observable, but the meaning of its social form is not. Narrating the paradoxical oddities and metaphysical niceties of ordinary things when they become instruments of trade, Marx seeks to provide a brief morphology of the category of economic value as such - what its substance really is, the forms which this substance takes, and how its magnitude is determined or expressed
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