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Diagnostic Method
MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS (abbreviated DX or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs . It is most often referred to as DIAGNOSIS with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES, such as diagnostic tests , are also done during the process. Sometimes Posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific . For example, redness of the skin (erythema ), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus doesn't tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis , in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed. This involves the correlation of various pieces of information followed by the recognition and differentiation of patterns. Occasionally the process is made easy by a sign or symptom (or a group of several) that is pathognomonic . Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is a major component of the procedure of a doctor\'s visit . From the point of view of statistics , the diagnostic procedure involves classification tests
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Radiography
RADIOGRAPHY is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal structure of an object. To create the image, a beam of X-rays, a form of electromagnetic radiation , is produced by an X-ray generator and is projected toward the object. A certain amount of X-ray is absorbed by the object, dependent its density and composition. The X-rays that pass through the object are captured behind the object by a detector (either photographic film or a digital detector). The generation of flat two dimensional images by this technique is called projectional radiography . Computed tomography
Computed tomography
(CT scanning) is where multiple 2D images from different angles undergo computer processing to generate 3D representations. Applications of radiography include medical (or "diagnostic") radiography and industrial radiography . Similar techniques are used in airport security (where "body scanners" generally use backscatter X-ray )
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Disease
A DISEASE is a particular abnormal condition that affects part or all of an organism and that consists of a disorder of a structure or function. The study of disease is called pathology , which includes the study of cause. Disease
Disease
is often construed as a MEDICAL CONDITION associated with specific symptoms and signs . It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions, particularly of the immune system , such as an immunodeficiency , or by a hypersensitivity , including allergies and autoimmunity . When caused by pathogens (e.g. malaria by _Plasmodium_ ssp.), the term _disease_ is often misleadingly used even in the scientific literature in place of its causal agent, the pathogen. This language habit can cause confusion in the communication of the cause-effect principle in epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged. In humans, _disease_ is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain , dysfunction , distress , social problems , or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries , disabilities , disorders , syndromes , infections , isolated symptoms , deviant behaviors , and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories
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Symptom
A SYMPTOM (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient , reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease . A symptom is subjective, observed by the patient, and cannot be measured directly, whereas a sign is objectively observable by others. For example, paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), whereas erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual). Symptoms and signs are often nonspecific , but often combinations of them are at least suggestive of certain diagnoses , helping to narrow down what may be wrong. In other cases they are specific even to the point of being pathognomonic . Main symptoms of acute HIV infection The term is sometimes also applied to physiological states outside the context of disease , as for example when referring to "symptoms of pregnancy ". CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Non-specific symptoms * 1.2 Positive and negative * 2 Possible causes * 3 Symptom versus sign * 4 See also * 5 References TYPESSymptoms may be briefly acute or a more prolonged but acute or chronic , relapsing or remitting . Asymptomatic conditions also exist (e.g
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Medical Sign
A MEDICAL SIGN is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician , before or during a physical examination of a patient . For example, whereas a tingling paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual). Symptoms and signs are often nonspecific , but often combinations of them are at least suggestive of certain diagnoses , helping to narrow down what may be wrong. In other cases they are specific even to the point of being pathognomonic
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Medicine
MEDICINE is the science and practice of the diagnosis , treatment , and prevention of disease . Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness . Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences , biomedical research , genetics , and medical technology to diagnose , treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery , but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy , external splints and traction , medical devices , biologics , and ionizing radiation , amongst others. Medicine
Medicine
has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, a medicine man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician would apply bloodletting according to the theories of humorism . In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science , most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic and applied , under the umbrella of MEDICAL SCIENCE). While stitching technique for sutures is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science
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Medical History
The MEDICAL HISTORY or (medical) CASE HISTORY (also called EPICRISIS – typically discharge summary to referring GP, or ANAMNESIS, especially historically) (often abbreviated HX or HX) of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information (in this case, it is sometimes called HETEROANAMNESIS), with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient . The medically relevant complaints reported by the patient or others familiar with the patient are referred to as symptoms , in contrast with clinical signs , which are ascertained by direct examination on the part of medical personnel. Most health encounters will result in some form of history being taken. Medical histories vary in their depth and focus. For example, an ambulance paramedic would typically limit their history to important details, such as name, history of presenting complaint, allergies, etc. In contrast, a psychiatric history is frequently lengthy and in depth, as many details about the patient's life are relevant to formulating a management plan for a psychiatric illness. The information obtained in this way, together with the physical examination, enables the physician and other health professionals to form a diagnosis and treatment plan
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Physical Examination
A PHYSICAL EXAMINATION, MEDICAL EXAMINATION, or CLINICAL EXAMINATION (more popularly known as a CHECK-UP) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease . It generally follows the taking of the medical history —an account of the symptoms as experienced by the patient. Together with the medical history, the physical examination aids in determining the correct diagnosis and devising the treatment plan. This data then becomes part of the medical record . A Cochrane Collaboration meta-study found that routine annual physicals did not measurably reduce the risk of illness or death, and conversely, could lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The authors concluded that routine physicals were unlikely to do more good than harm. CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Routine physicals * 1.2 Comprehensive physicals * 1.3 Pre-employment examinations * 1.4 Insurance exams * 2 Uses * 2.1 Diagnosis * 2.2 Screening * 2.3 Establishing doctor-patient relationship * 3 Format and interpretation * 3.1 What is checked * 3.2 Example * 4 History * 5 Society and culture * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links TYPES A resident physician at the Granada Relocation Center , examining a patient's throat ROUTINE PHYSICALSRoutine physicals are physical examinations performed on asymptomatic patients for medical screening purposes
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Diagnostic Test
A MEDICAL TEST is a kind of medical procedure performed to detect , diagnose , or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment. It is related to clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics , and the procedures are typically performed in a medical laboratory . CONTENTS* 1 Types of tests * 1.1 By utilization * 1.1.1 Diagnostic * 1.1.2 Screening * 1.1.3 Monitoring * 1.2 By method * 1.3 By sample location * 2 Accuracy and precision * 3 Detection and quantification * 3.1 Positive or negative * 3.2 Continuous values * 4 Interpretation * 5 Risks * 6 Indications * 7 Standard for the reporting and assessment * 8 See also * 9 Notes and references TYPES OF TESTSBY UTILIZATIONMedical tests can be classified by what the test result will be used for, mainly including usage for diagnosis, screening or evaluation, as separately detailed below. Diagnostic Lung scintigraphy evaluating lung cancer A diagnostic test is a procedure performed to confirm, or determine the presence of disease in an individual suspected of having the disease, usually following the report of symptoms, or based on the results of other medical tests
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Posthumous Diagnosis
A RETROSPECTIVE DIAGNOSIS (also RETRODIAGNOSIS or POSTHUMOUS DIAGNOSIS) is the practice of identifying an illness after the death of the patient, sometimes in a historical figure using modern knowledge, methods and disease classifications . Alternatively, it can be the more general attempt to give a modern name to an ancient and ill-defined scourge or plague. CONTENTS * 1 Historical research * 2 Postmortem diagnosis * 3 Examples * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading HISTORICAL RESEARCH Retrospective diagnosis is practised by medical historians, general historians and the media with varying degrees of scholarship. At its worst it may become "little more than a game, with ill-defined rules and little academic credibility". The process often requires "translating between linguistic and conceptual worlds separated by several centuries", and assumes our modern disease concepts and categories are privileged. Crude attempts at retrospective diagnosis fail to be sensitive to historical context, may treat historical and religious records as scientific evidence, or ascribe pathology to behaviours that require none. The understanding of the history of illness can benefit from modern science. For example, knowledge of the insect vectors of malaria and yellow fever can be used to explain the changes in extent of those diseases caused by drainage or urbanisation in historical times
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Sensitivity And Specificity
SENSITIVITY and SPECIFICITY are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test , also known in statistics as classification function : * SENSITIVITY (also called the TRUE POSITIVE RATE, the RECALL , or PROBABILITY OF DETECTION in some fields) measures the proportion of positives that are correctly identified as such (i.e. the percentage of sick people who are correctly identified as having the condition). * SPECIFICITY (also called the TRUE NEGATIVE RATE) measures the proportion of negatives that are correctly identified as such (i.e., the percentage of healthy people who are correctly identified as not having the condition).Another way to understand in the context of medical tests is that sensitivity is the extent to which true positives are not missed/overlooked (so false negatives are few) and specificity is the extent to which positives really represent the condition of interest and not some other condition being mistaken for it (so false positives are few)
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Erythema
ERYTHEMA (from the Greek _erythros_, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries. It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation. Examples of erythema not associated with pathology include nervous blushes. CONTENTS * 1 Causes * 2 Diagnosis * 3 Types * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CAUSESIt can be caused by infection , massage , electrical treatment, acne medication, allergies , exercise, solar radiation (sunburn ), cutaneous radiation syndrome , mercury toxicity, blister agents , niacin administration, or waxing and tweezing of the hairs—any of which can cause the capillaries to dilate, resulting in redness. Erythema is a common side effect of radiotherapy treatment due to patient exposure to ionizing radiation . DIAGNOSIS Erythema disappears on finger pressure (blanching ), while purpura or bleeding in the skin and pigmentation do not. There is no temperature elevation, unless it is associated with the dilation of arteries in the deeper layer of the skin
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Differential Diagnosis
In medicine , a DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features. Differential diagnostic procedures are used by physicians and other trained medical professionals to diagnose the specific disease in a patient , or, at least, to eliminate any imminently life-threatening conditions. Often, each individual option of a possible disease is called a differential diagnosis (for example, bronchitis could be a differential diagnosis in the evaluation of a cough that ends up with a final diagnosis of common cold ). More generally, a DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE is a systematic diagnostic method used to identify the presence of a disease entity where multiple alternatives are possible. This method is essentially a process of elimination or at least a process of obtaining information that shrinks the "probabilities" of candidate conditions to negligible levels, by using evidence such as symptoms, patient history, and medical knowledge to adjust epistemic confidences in the mind of the diagnostician (or, for computerized or computer-assisted diagnosis, the software of the system). Differential diagnosis can be regarded as implementing aspects of the hypothetico-deductive method , in the sense that the potential presence of candidate diseases or conditions can be viewed as hypotheses that physicians further determine as being true or false
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Correlation
In statistics , DEPENDENCE or ASSOCIATION is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data . CORRELATION is any of a broad class of statistical relationships involving dependence, though in common usage it most often refers to the extent to which two variables have a linear relationship with each other. Familiar examples of dependent phenomena include the correlation between the physical statures of parents and their offspring, and the correlation between the demand for a product and its price. Correlations are useful because they can indicate a predictive relationship that can be exploited in practice. For example, an electrical utility may produce less power on a mild day based on the correlation between electricity demand and weather. In this example, there is a causal relationship , because extreme weather causes people to use more electricity for heating or cooling. However, in general, the presence of a correlation is not sufficient to infer the presence of a causal relationship (i.e., correlation does not imply causation ). Formally, random variables are _dependent_ if they do not satisfy a mathematical property of probabilistic independence . In informal parlance, _correlation_ is synonymous with _dependence_. However, when used in a technical sense, _correlation_ refers to any of several specific types of relationship between mean values
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Pathognomonic
PATHOGNOMONIC (often misspelled as _pathognomic_ and sometimes as _pathomnemonic_) is a term, often used in medicine , that means _characteristic for a particular disease _. A pathognomonic sign is a particular sign whose presence means that a particular disease is present beyond any doubt. Labelling a sign or symptom "pathognomonic" represents a marked intensification of a "diagnostic" sign or symptom. The word is an adjective of Greek origin derived from πάθος _pathos_ "disease" and γνώμων _gnomon_ "indicator" (from γιγνώσκω _gignosko_ "I know, I recognize"). CONTENTS * 1 Practical use * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PRACTICAL USEWhile some findings may be classic, typical or highly suggestive in a certain condition, they may not occur _uniquely_ in this condition and therefore may not directly imply a specific diagnosis. A pathognomonic sign or symptom has very high specificity but does not need to have high sensitivity : for example it can sometimes be absent in a certain disease, since the term only implies that, when it is present, the doctor instantly knows the patient's illness. The presence of a pathognomonic finding allows immediate diagnosis, since there are no other conditions in the differential diagnosis . Singular pathognomonic signs are relatively uncommon
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