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Dharma (Jainism)
Jain texts assign a wide range of meaning to the Sanskrit DHARMA or Prakrit DHAMMA. It is often translated as “religion” and as such, Jainism is called Jain Dharma by its adherents. In Jainism, the word Dharma is used to refer the following: * Religion * Dharma as a dravya (substance or a reality) (the principle of motion) * The true nature of a thing * Ten virtues like forgiveness, etc. also called ten forms of DharmaCONTENTS* 1 Religion * 1.1 Ahimsa as Dharma * 1.2 Dharma bhāvanā * 1.3 Conduct * 2 The nature of a substance * 3 Dharma substance * 4 Samyaktva - Rationality of perception, knowledge and conduct * 5 Ten Virtues as Dharma * 6 References * 7 Sources RELIGIONUsage of the word dharma in reference to the religion
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Diwali
DIWALI or DEEPAVALI is the Hindu festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere). It is an official holiday in Fiji , Guyana , India , Malaysia , Mauritius , Myanmar , Nepal , Singapore , Sri Lanka , Suriname , Trinidad and Tobago , and recently Sindh Province in Pakistan. One of the most popular festivals of Hinduism, it spiritually signifies the victory of light over darkness, good over evil, knowledge over ignorance, and hope over despair. Its celebration includes millions of lights shining on housetops, outside doors and windows, around temples and other buildings in the communities and countries where it is observed
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Dilwara Temples
The DILWARA TEMPLES (Gujarati : અાબુના દેલવાડા) of India
India
are located about 2½ kilometres from Mount Abu
Mount Abu
, Rajasthan\'s only hill station. These Jain
Jain
temples were built by Vimal Shah and designed by Vastapul-Tejpal, Jain
Jain
laymen , between the 11th and 13th centuries AD and are famous for their use of marble and intricate marble carvings. The five marble temples of Dilwara
Dilwara
are a sacred pilgrimage place of the Jains. Some consider them to be one of the most beautiful Jain
Jain
pilgrimage sites in the world. The temples have an opulent entranceway, the simplicity in architecture reflecting Jain
Jain
values like honesty and frugality. The temples are in the midst of a range of forested hills. A high wall shrouds the temple complex
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Śvētāmbara
The ŚVēTāMBARA (/ʃwɛˈtʌmbərə/ ; Sanskrit : श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main sects of Jainism
Jainism
, the other being the Digambara . Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
"white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics ' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara "sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity. Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha . Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara
Tirthankara
, Māllīnātha , was a woman
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Jain Agamas
AGAMAS are texts of Jainism
Jainism
based on the discourses of the tirthankara . Agamas exist in Hinduism as well.Originally,'Agama' is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word. The discourse delivered in a samavasarana (divine preaching hall) is called Śhrut Jnāna and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas. The discourse is recorded by Ganadharas (chief disciples), and is composed of twelve angas (departments). It is generally represented by a tree with twelve branches. This forms the basis of the Jaina Agamas or canons. These are believed to have originated from Rishabhanatha , the first tirthankara. The earliest versions of Jain
Jain
Agamas known were composed in Ardhamagadhi Prakrit
Prakrit
language. Agama is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word which signifies the 'coming' of a body of doctrine by means of transmission through a lineage of authoritative teachers
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Tattvartha Sutra
TATTVARTHA SUTRA (also known as TATTVARTH-ADHIGAMA-SUTRA) is an ancient Jain text written by Acharya Umaswati
Umaswati
, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD. It is the one of the Jain scripture written in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language. Tattvartha Sutra
Sutra
is also known in Jainism
Jainism
as the Moksha-shastra (Scripture describing the path of liberation). The Tattvartha Sutra
Sutra
is regarded as one of the earliest, most authoritative books on Jainism, and the only text authoritative in both the Digambara
Digambara
and Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
sects (prior to the Saman Suttam ). Its importance in Jainism
Jainism
is comparable with that of the Brahma Sutras and YogaSutras of Patanjali in Hinduism
Hinduism

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Kalpa Sūtra
The KALPA SūTRA (Sanskrit : कल्पसूत्र) is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain
Jain
Tirthankaras , notably Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
and Mahavira
Mahavira
, including the latter's Nirvāṇa . Bhadrabahu I is considered the author of the text and it is traditionally said to have been composed about one hundred and fifty years after the Nirvāṇa of Mahavira
Mahavira
(traditionally 599 – 527 BCE). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Importance * 3 See also * 4 References * 4.1 Citations * 4.2 Sources * 5 External links HISTORYWithin the six sections of the Jain
Jain
literary corpus belonging to the Svetambara school, it is classed as one of the Cheda Sūtras. This Sutra contains detailed life histories and, from the mid-15th century, was frequently illustrated with miniature painting
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Yashovijaya
YASHOVIJAYA ( IAST : Yaśovijaya, 1624–1688), a seventeenth-century Jain philosopher-monk , was a notable Indian philosopher and logician. He was a thinker, prolific writer and commentator who had a strong and lasting influence on Jainism . He was a disciple of Muni Nayavijaya in the lineage of Jain monk Hiravijaya (belonging to the Tapa Gaccha tradition of Svetambara Jains) who influenced the Mughal Emperor Akbar to give up eating meat . He is also known as YASHOVIJAYJI with honorifics like MAHOPADHYAYA or UPADHYAYA or GANI. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Life as a monk * 3 Philosophy * 3.1 Secular intellect and tolerance * 3.2 Conception of self * 3.3 Intellectual critic and criticisms * 4 Influence and legacy * 5 Works * 6 Notes * 7 References EARLY LIFE Yashovijaya
Yashovijaya
was born in a village called Kanoda in the Mehsana district in Gujarat
Gujarat
in 1624 CE
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Siddhasena
SIDDHASēNA DIVāKARA (Magadhi Prakrit
Prakrit
: सिद्दसेन दिवाकर) was an Digambara monk in the fifth century CE who wrote works on Jain philosophy and epistemology. He was like the illuminating lamp of the Jain order and therefore came to be known as Divākara "Lamp-Maker". He is credited with the authorship of many books, most of which are not available. Sanmatitarka (‘The Logic of the True Doctrine’) is the first major Jain work on logic written in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Thought * 3 Works * 4 Notes * 5 References LIFE Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara is said to have lived from 500 CE to 610 CE. He was a Brahmin by birth and a scholar. He was initiated by Acharya Vruddhavadi
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Samantabhadra (Jain Monk)
SAMANTABHADRA was a Digambara
Digambara
acharya (head of the monastic order) who lived about the later part of the second century CE He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada
Anekantavada
. The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived after Umaswami
Umaswami
but before Pujyapada . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Thought * 3 Works * 4 Praise * 5 References * 6 Sources LIFESamantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE. He was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
. He was a poet, logician, eulogist and an accomplished linguist. He is credited with spreading Jainism
Jainism
in southern India. Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka (the condition of insatiable hunger)
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Haribhadra
HARIBHADRA SURI was a Svetambara
Svetambara
mendicant Jain leader and author. There are multiple contradictory dates assigned to his birth. According to tradition, he lived c. 459–529 CE. However, in 1919, a Jain monk named Jinavijayi pointed out that given his familiarity with Dharmakirti
Dharmakirti
, a more likely choice would be sometime after 650. In his writings, Haribhadra
Haribhadra
identifies himself as a student of Jinabhadra and Jinadatta of the Vidyadhara Kula. There are several, somewhat contradictory, accounts of his life. He wrote several books on Yoga, such as the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya and on comparative religion, outlining and analyzing the theories of Hindus, Buddhists and Jains
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History Of Jainism
HISTORY OF JAINISM concerns a religion founded in Ancient India
Ancient India
. Jains trace their history through twenty-four tirthankara and revere Rishabhanatha as the first tirthankara (in the present time-cycle). The last two tirthankara, the 23rd tirthankara Parshvanatha (c. 872 – c. 772 BCE) and the 24th tirthankara Mahavira (c. 599 – c. 527 BCE) are considered historical figures, though many historians date them both about a century later because the Mahavira is widely accepted as a contemporary of the Buddha
Buddha
, and significantly more historical evidence is available for the Buddha. According to Jain texts, the 22nd Tirthankara
Tirthankara
arsth-Nami lived about 85,000 years ago and was the cousin of Hindu god Krishna
Krishna
. Jains consider their religion to be eternal
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Digambara
_DIGAMBARA_ (/dɪˈɡʌmbərə/ ; "sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism
Jainism
, the other being _ Śvētāmbara _ (white-clad). The word _Digambara_ ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
) is a combination of two words: _dig_ (directions) and _ambara_ (sky), referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. _ Digambara
Digambara
monks _ do not wear any clothes. The monks carry _picchi_, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers (for clearing the place before walking or sitting), _kamandalu _ (a water container made of wood), and _shastra _ (scripture). One of the most important scholar-monks of _Digambara_ tradition was Kundakunda . He authored Prakrit texts such as the _ Samayasāra _ and the _ Pravacanasāra _
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Jain Symbols
JAIN SYMBOLS are symbols based on the Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
. CONTENTS * 1 Swastika
Swastika
* 2 Symbol
Symbol
of Ahimsa * 3 Jain emblem * 3.1 Fundamental concepts * 3.2 Usage * 4 Jain flag
Jain flag
* 5 Om * 6 Om * 6.1 Other symbols * 7 Photo gallery * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References SWASTIKA Main article: Swastika
Swastika
The swastika is an important Jain symbol. The four arms of the swastika symbolize the four states of existence as per Jainism
Jainism
: * Heavenly beings (devas encantadia") * Human beings * Hellish being * Tiryancha (subhuman like flora or fauna)It represents the perpetual nature of the universe in the material world, where a creature is destined to one of those states based on their karma
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Samvatsari
SAṃVATSARī (INTERNATIONAL FORGIVENESS DAY) is the last day of Paryushana —the eight days festival of Switember Jain and ten days festival of Digamber Jain . It is the holiest day of the Jain calendar . Many Jains observe a complete fast on this day. The whole day is spent in prayers and contemplation. A yearly, elaborate penitential retreat called saṃvatsarī pratikramana is performed on this day. After the pratikramana Jains seek forgiveness from all the creatures of the world whom they may have harmed knowingly or unknowingly by uttering the phrase— Micchami Dukkadam
Micchami Dukkadam
, "Khamau Sa" , or "Khamat Khamna". As a matter of ritual, they personally greet their friends and relatives Micchami Dukkadam
Micchami Dukkadam
. No private quarrel or dispute may be carried beyond Saṃvatsarī and messages , telephone calls are made to the outstation friends and relatives asking their forgiveness
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Tirtha (Jainism)
In Jainism , a TīRTHA (Sanskrit : तीर्थ "ford , a shallow part of a body of w