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Devonian
The Devonian
Devonian
is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, 419.2 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, 358.9 Mya.[9] It is named after Devon, England, where rocks from this period were first studied. The first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land, forming extensive forests which covered the continents. By the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, and by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods also became well-established. Fish
Fish
reached substantial diversity during this time, leading the Devonian
Devonian
to often be dubbed the "Age of Fish"
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Adaptive Radiation
In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.[1][2] Starting with a recent single ancestor, this process results in the speciation and phenotypic adaptation of an array of species exhibiting different morphological and physiological traits. An example of adaptive radiation would be the avian species of the Hawaiian honeycreepers
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Oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen
is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere
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England
England
England
is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea
Irish Sea
lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south
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Landform
A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth
Earth
or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, and their arrangement in the landscape is known as topography. Typical landforms include hills, mountains, plateaus, canyons, and valleys, as well as shoreline features such as bays, peninsulas, and seas,[citation needed] including submerged features such as mid-ocean ridges, volcanoes, and the great ocean basins.Contents1 Physical characteristics 2 Hierarchy of classes 3 Recent developments 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksPhysical characteristics[edit] Landforms are categorized by characteristic physical attributes such as elevation, slope, orientation, stratification, rock exposure, and soil type. Gross physical features or landforms include intuitive elements such as berms, mounds, hills, ridges, cliffs, valleys, rivers, peninsulas, volcanoes, and numerous other structural and size-scaled (i.e. ponds vs
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Continent
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world. Generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in size to smallest, they are: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.[1] Geologically, the continents largely correspond to areas of continental crust that are found on the continental plates. However, some areas of continental crust are regions covered with water not usually included in the list of continents. Zealandia
Zealandia
is one such area (see submerged continents below). Islands are frequently grouped with a neighbouring continent to divide all the world's land into geopolitical regions
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Pteridophyte
A pteridophyte sensu lato is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that reproduces via spores, and therefore was a member of the former and now invalid taxon Pteridophyta. The term is now used only informally to denominate a fern (monilophyte) or lycophyte. Because pteridophytes produce neither flowers nor seeds, they are also referred to as "cryptogams". The pteridophytes include the ferns, horsetails, and the lycophytes (clubmosses, spikemosses, and quillworts). These are not a monophyletic group because ferns and horsetails are more closely related to seed plants than to the lycophytes
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Parts Per Million
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction. Since these fractions are quantity-per-quantity measures, they are pure numbers with no associated units of measurement. Commonly used are ppm (parts-per-million, 10−6), ppb (parts-per-billion, 10−9), ppt (parts-per-trillion, 10−12) and ppq (parts-per-quadrillion, 10−15). This notation is not part of the SI system and its meaning is ambiguous.Contents1 Overview1.1 In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy2 Parts-per expressions 3 Criticism3.1 Long and short scales 3.2 Thousand
Thousand
vs. trillion 3.3 Mass fraction vs. mole fraction vs
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Carbon Dioxide
Carbon
Carbon
dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
as a trace gas. The current concentration is about 0.04% (405 ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas
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Vascular Plant
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species [5]) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (including conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta[6][4]:251 and Tracheobionta.[7]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Phylogeny 3 Nutrient distribution3.1 Transpiration 3.2 Absorption 3.3 Conduction4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyCharacteristics[edit] Vascular plants are distinguished by two primary characteristics:Vascular plants have vascular tissues which distribute resources through the plant
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Fish
Tetrapods Fish
Fish
are the gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals which all descended from within the same ancestry). Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology
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Actinopterygii
Actinopterygii
Actinopterygii
/ˌæktɪnˌɒptəˈrɪdʒi.aɪ/, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.[1] The ray-finned fishes are so called because their fins are webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines ("rays"), as opposed to the fleshy, lobed fins that characterize the class Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish). These actinopterygian fin rays attach directly to the proximal or basal skeletal elements, the radials, which represent the link or connection between these fins and the internal skeleton (e.g., pelvic and pectoral girdles). Numerically, actinopterygians are the dominant class of vertebrates, comprising nearly 99% of the over 30,000 species of fish.[2] They are ubiquitous throughout freshwater and marine environments from the deep sea to the highest mountain streams
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Osteichthyes
Osteichthyes
Osteichthyes
/ˌɒstiːˈɪkθi.iːz/, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage. The vast majority of fish are members of Osteichthyes, which is an extremely diverse and abundant group consisting of 45 orders, and over 435 families and 28,000 species.[1] It is the largest class of vertebrates in existence today. The group Osteichthyes
Osteichthyes
is divided into the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) and lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii). The oldest known fossils of bony fish are about 420 million years ago, which are also transitional fossils, showing a tooth pattern that is in between the tooth rows of sharks and bony fishes.[2] Osteichthyes
Osteichthyes
can be compared to Euteleostomi. In paleontology, the terms are synonymous
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Shark
Carcharhiniformes Heterodontiformes Hexanchiformes Lamniformes Orectolobiformes Pristiophoriformes Squaliformes Squatiniformes † Cladoselachiformes † Hybodontiformes † Symmoriida † Xenacanthida
Xenacanthida
(Xenacantiformes) † = extinctSynonymsPleurotremataSharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head. Modern sharks are classified within the clade Selachimorpha (or Selachii) and are the sister group to the rays
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Mollusca
See text.Diversity[1]85,000 recognized living species. Cornu aspersum
Cornu aspersum
(formerly Helix aspersa) – a common land snail Mollusca
Mollusca
is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusks[Note 1] (/ˈmɒləsk/). Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized.[2] The number of fossil species is estimated between 60,000 and 100,000 additional species.[3] Molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms. Numerous molluscs also live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats. They are highly diverse, not just in size and in anatomical structure, but also in behaviour and in habitat. The phylum is typically divided into 9 or 10 taxonomic classes, of which two are entirely extinct
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Coral Reef
Coral
Coral
reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals. Coral
Coral
reefs are built by colonies of tiny animals found in marine water that contain few nutrients. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, which in turn consist of polyps that cluster in groups. The polyps belong to a group of animals known as Cnidaria, which also includes sea anemones and jellyfish. Unlike sea anemones, corals secrete hard carbonate exoskeletons which support and protect the coral polyps. Most reefs grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated water. Often called "rainforests of the sea", shallow coral reefs form some of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth
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