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Devanagari Script
Devanagari
Devanagari
(/ˌdeɪvəˈnɑːɡəri/ DAY-və-NAH-gə-ree; देवनागरी, IAST: Devanāgarī, a compound of "deva" दे
and "nāgarī" नागरी; Hindi
Hindi
pronunciation: [d̪eːʋˈnaːɡri]), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),[5] is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India
India
and Nepal
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Nagari (other)
Nagari, or Devanagari, is a writing system used in India and Nepal. Nagari
Nagari
may also refer to:Contents1 Geography 2 Language 3 Automobiles 4 See alsoGeography[edit] Nagari
Nagari
(settlement), administrative unit in Minan
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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Indus Script
The Indus script
Indus script
(also known as the Harappan script) is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
during the Kot Diji and Mature Harappan
Mature Harappan
periods between 3500 and 1900 BCE. Most inscriptions containing these symbols are extremely short, making it difficult to judge whether or not these symbols constituted a script used to record a language, or even symbolise a writing system.[4] In spite of many attempts,[5] 'the script' has not yet been deciphered, but efforts are ongoing. There is no known bilingual inscription to help decipher the script, nor does the script show any significant changes over time
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Brāhmī Script
Brahmi (IAST: Brāhmī) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India
Ancient India
and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.[2] Brahmi is an abugida that thrived in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and uses a system of diacritical marks to associate vowels with consonant symbols. It evolved into a host of other scripts that continue in use.[3][4][5] Brahmi is related to the ancient Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
script, which was used in what is now eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan. Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
died out in ancient times.[6] The best-known Brahmi inscriptions are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka in north-central India, dating to 250–232 BCE
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Gupta Script
The Gupta script
Gupta script
(sometimes referred to as Gupta Brahmi Script or Late Brahmi Script[2]) was used for writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and is associated with the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
of India
India
which was a period of material prosperity and great religious and scientific developments. The Gupta script
Gupta script
was descended from Brahmi and gave rise to the Nāgarī, Sharada and Siddham scripts
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Gurmukhi Script
Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
(IPA: [ɡʊɾmʊkʰi]; Gurmukhi(literary means "from Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh
Sikh
script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh
Sikh
Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).[1][3][4] It is used by Sikhs
Sikhs
and Punjabi Hindus as one of two scripts to write the Punjabi language, the other being the Perso-Arabic Shahmukhi script
Shahmukhi script
used by Punjabi Muslims.[3][4] The primary scripture of Sikhism, Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
is written in Gurmukhī, in various dialects often coalesced under the generic title of Sant Bhasha.[5] Modern Gurmukhī
Gurmukhī
has thirty-eight consonants (akhar), 10 vowel symbols (lāga mātrā), two symbols for nasal sounds (pair bindi and ṭippī), and one symbol which duplicates the sound of any consonant (addak)
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ISO 15924
ISO 15924, Codes for the representation of names of scripts, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). Each script is given both a four-letter code and a numeric one.[1] Script is defined as "set of graphic characters used for the written form of one or more languages".[1] Where possible the codes are derived from ISO 639-2 where the name of a script and the name of a language using the script are identical (example: Gujarātī ISO 639 guj, ISO 15924 Gujr). Preference is given to the 639-2 Bibliographical codes, which is different from the otherwise often preferred use of the Terminological codes.[1] 4-letter ISO 15924 codes are incorporated into the Language Subtag Registry for IETF language tags and so can be used in file formats that make use of such language tags
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Unicode Range
The Unicode Consortium
Unicode Consortium
(UC) and the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) collaborate on the Universal Character Set (UCS). The UCS is an international standard to map characters used in natural language, mathematics, music, and other domains to machine readable values. By creating this mapping, the UCS enables computer software vendors to interoperate and transmit UCS encoded text strings from one to another. Because it is a universal map, it can be used to represent multiple languages at the same time. This avoids the confusion of using multiple legacy character encodings, which can result in the same sequence of codes having multiple meanings and thus be improperly decoded if the wrong one is chosen. UCS has a potential capacity to encode over 1 million characters
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Brahmic Scripts
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
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Santali Language
Santali (Ol Chiki: ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ; Eastern Nagari: সাঁওতালি) is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austroasiatic languages, related to Ho and Mundari. It is spoken by around 6.2 million people in India (ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ), Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱮᱥ), Bhutan (ᱵᱷᱩᱴᱟᱱ) and Nepal
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Inherent Vowel
An inherent vowel is part of an abugida (or alphasyllabary) script. It is a vowel sound which is used with each unmarked or basic consonant symbol. For example, if the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
used 'i' as an inherent vowel, we might write as "Wkpeda".[1] There are many known abugida scripts, including most of the Brahmic scripts and Kharosthi, the cursive Meroitic script, which developed in Nubia
Nubia
(today in Southern Egypt and Northern Sudan), and the Ge'ez script. Many of them are still used today. Old Persian cuneiform
Old Persian cuneiform
also uses a device similar to an inherent vowel, though only with a subset of its consonants, so some authors do not consider it to be a true abugida
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Transliteration
Transliteration
Transliteration
is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another[1] that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e). For instance, for the Modern Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic", the usual transliteration to Latin script
Latin script
is "Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía", and the name for Russia
Russia
in Cyrillic script, "Россия", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya". Transliteration
Transliteration
is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously
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International Alphabet Of Sanskrit Transliteration
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Transliteration
Transliteration
(I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and related Indic languages. It is based on a scheme that emerged during the nineteenth century from suggestions by Charles Trevelyan, William Jones, Monier Monier-Williams and other scholars, and formalised by the Transliteration
Transliteration
Committee of the Geneva Oriental Congress, in September 1894.[1] IAST makes it possible for the reader to read the Indic text unambiguously, exactly as if it were in the original Indic script
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