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Deuxieme Bureau
The Deuxième Bureau de l'État-major général ("Second Bureau of the General Staff") was France's external military intelligence agency from 1871 to 1940. It was dissolved together with the Third Republic upon the armistice with Germany. However the term "Deuxième Bureau" (French: [døzjɛm byʁo]), like "MI5" or "SMERSH", outlived the original organization as a general label for the country's intelligence service. French military intelligence was composed of two separate bureaus prior to World War II. The Premier Bureau was charged with informing the high command about the state of French, allied and friendly troops, while the Deuxième Bureau developed intelligence concerning enemy troops
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Military Intelligence
Military intelligence
Military intelligence
is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions. This aim is achieved by providing an assessment of data from a range of sources, directed towards the commanders' mission requirements or responding to questions as part of operational or campaign planning
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Office Of Strategic Services
The Office of Strategic Services
Office of Strategic Services
(OSS) was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States
United States
during World War II, and a predecessor of the modern Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA). The OSS was formed as an agency of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff
(JCS)[3] to coordinate espionage activities behind enemy lines for all branches of the United States Armed Forces. Other OSS functions included the use of propaganda, subversion, and post-war planning
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Cipher
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. An alternative, less common term is encipherment. To encipher or encode is to convert information into cipher or code. In common parlance, "cipher" is synonymous with "code," as they are both a set of steps that encrypt a message; however, the concepts are distinct in cryptography, especially classical cryptography. Codes generally substitute different length strings of characters in the output, while ciphers generally substitute the same number of characters as are input
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Erich Ludendorff
DVFP NSFB NSDAPSpouse(s) Margarethe Schmidt Mathilde von KemnitzAwards Pour le Mérite Iron Cross
Iron Cross
First classMilitary serviceAllegiance  German EmpireService/branch Imperial German ArmyYears of service 1883–1918Rank General der InfanterieBattles/wars World War I German RevolutionErich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège
Battle of Liège
and the Battle of Tannenberg. From August 1916, his appointment as Quartermaster general (German: Erster Generalquartiermeister) made him the leader (along with Paul von Hindenburg) of the German war efforts during World War I
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Montdidier, Somme
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Montdidier (French pronunciation: ​[mɔ̃didje]) is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de- France
France
in northern France.Contents1 Geography 2 Population 3 History 4 Main sights 5 Personalities 6 See also 7 References7.1 Bibliography8 External linksGeography[edit] Montdidier is on the D935 road, some 30
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Compiègne
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Compiègne
Compiègne
(French pronunciation: ​[kɔ̃pjɛɲ]) is a commune in the Oise
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Hans-Thilo Schmidt
Hans-Thilo Schmidt
Hans-Thilo Schmidt
(13 May 1888 – 19 September 1943) codenamed Asché or Source D, was a spy who, during the 1930s, sold secrets about the Germans' Enigma machine
Enigma machine
to the French
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Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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Verviers
Verviers
Verviers
(French pronunciation: ​[vɛʁvje]; Walloon: Vervî) is a Walloon city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. The Verviers
Verviers
municipality includes the old communes of Ensival, Lambermont, Petit-Rechain, Stembert, and Heusy. It is also the center of an agglomeration that includes Dison
Dison
and Pepinster
Pepinster
making it the second biggest in the province and an important regional center, located roughly halfway between Liège
Liège
and the German border. Water has played an important role in the town's economy, notably in the development first of its textile and later tourist industries
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Enigma Machine
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication. Enigma was invented by the German engineer Arthur Scherbius
Arthur Scherbius
at the end of World War I.[1] Early models were used commercially from the early 1920s, and adopted by military and government services of several countries, most notably Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
before and during World War II.[2] Several different Enigma models were produced, but the German military models, having a plugboard, were the most complex. Japanese and Italian models were also in use. Around December 1932, Marian Rejewski, a Polish mathematician and cryptanalyst, while working at the Polish Cipher Bureau, used the theory of permutations and flaws in the German military message encipherment procedures to break the message keys of the plugboard Enigma machine
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Invasion Of Poland
German and Soviet victoryBeginning of World War IITerritorial changes Polish territory divided among Germany, the Soviet Union, Lithuania and Slovakia
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Josephine Baker
Josephine Baker
Josephine Baker
(born Freda Josephine McDonald; 3 June 1906 – 12 April 1975) was an entertainer, activist, and French Resistance
French Resistance
agent. Her career was centered primarily in Europe, mostly in her adopted France. During her early career she was renowned as a dancer, and was among the most celebrated performers to headline the revues of the Folies Bergère
Folies Bergère
in Paris. Her performance in the revue Un Vent de Folie in 1927 caused a sensation in Paris. Her costume, consisting of only a girdle of bananas, became her most iconic image and a symbol of the Jazz Age
Jazz Age
and the 1920s.[citation needed] Baker was celebrated by artists and intellectuals of the era, who variously dubbed her the "Black Pearl", the "Bronze Venus", and the "Creole Goddess". Born in St
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Geneva
Geneva
Geneva
(/dʒɪˈniːvə/, French: Genève [ʒənɛv], Arpitan: Genèva [dzəˈnɛva], German: Genf [ɡɛnf], Italian: Ginevra [dʒiˈneːvra], Romansh: Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland
Switzerland
(after Zürich) and is the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland
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Hubert-Joseph Henry
Hubert-Joseph Henry
Hubert-Joseph Henry
(2 June 1846 in Pogny, Marne
Marne
– 31 August 1898 at Fort Mont-Valérien) was a French Lieutenant-Colonel in 1897 involved in the Dreyfus affair. Arrested for having forged evidence against Alfred Dreyfus, he was found dead in his prison cell. He was considered a hero by the Anti-Dreyfusards.Contents1 Early life and career 2 Dreyfus affair 3 Imprisonment and death 4 Post-death and the Henry Monument 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksEarly life and career[edit] Hubert-Joseph Henry
Hubert-Joseph Henry
was born into a farming family. He enlisted in the French Army as an infantryman in 1865. Promoted to sergeant-major in 1868 Henry served in the Franco-Prussian War, escaping twice as a prisoner of war. In 1870 he was commissioned as a lieutenant in an infantry regiment. In 1875 Henry was appointed as an aide to General de Miribel, Chief of the General Staff
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Postage Stamps
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage. Typically, stamps are printed on special custom-made paper, show a national designation and a denomination (value) on the front, and have an adhesive gum on the back or are self-adhesive. Postage stamps are purchased from a postal administration (post office) or other authorized vendor, and are used to pay for the costs involved in moving mail, as well as other business necessities such as insurance and registration. They are sometimes a source of net profit to the issuing agency, especially when sold to collectors who will not actually use them for postage. Stamps are usually rectangular, but triangles or other shapes are occasionally used. The stamp is affixed to an envelope or other postal cover (e.g., packet, box, mailing cylinder) the customer wishes to send
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