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Determinism (other)
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e DETERMINISM is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes. Determinism
Determinism
is usually understood to preclude free will because it entails that humans cannot act otherwise than they do. The theory holds that the universe is utterly rational because complete knowledge of any given situation assures that unerring knowledge of its future is also possible. Some philosophers suggest variants around this basic definition. Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives and considerations
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Historical Determinism
HISTORICAL DETERMINISM is the stance that events are historically predetermined or currently constrained by various forces. Historical determinism can be understood in contrast to its negation, i.e. the rejection of historical determinism. Some political philosophies (e.g. Early and Stalinist Marxism
Marxism
) assert a historical materialism of either predetermination or constraint, or both. Used as a pejorative, it is normally meant to designate an overdetermination of present possibilities by historical conditions
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Causa Sui
CAUSA SUI ( Latin
Latin
pronunciation: , meaning "cause of itself" in Latin ) denotes something which is generated within itself. This concept was central to the works of Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
, Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
, Jean-Paul Sartre , and Ernest Becker , where it relates to the purpose that objects can assign to themselves. In Freud and Becker's case, the concept was often used as an immortality vessel, where something could create meaning or continue to create meaning beyond its own life. Norman O. Brown , in his masterpiece, Life Against Death , argues Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
's Oedipal complex is essentially the causa Sui (father-of-oneself) project where, after the traumatic recognition that we are separate from the mother; that we are 'other,' we seek for reunification with the mother
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Path Dependence
PATH DEPENDENCE explains how the set of decisions one faces for any given circumstance is limited by the decisions one has made in the past, even though past circumstances may no longer be relevant. In economics and the social sciences , path dependence can refer either to outcomes at a single moment in time, or to long-run equilibria of a process. In common usage, the phrase implies either: * (A) that "history matters" — a broad concept, or * (B) that predictable amplifications of small differences are a disproportionate cause of later circumstances. And, in the "strong" form, that this historical hang-over is inefficient . The first usage, (A): "history matters" is trivially true in the explanatory context; everything has causes. And in these fields, the direct influence of earlier states isn't notable (unlike "path-dependent" options in finance , where the influence of history can be non-standard )
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Quantum Mechanics
QUANTUM MECHANICS (QM; also known as QUANTUM PHYSICS or QUANTUM THEORY), including quantum field theory , is a branch of physics which is the fundamental theory of nature at the small scales and energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles . Classical physics (the physics existing before quantum mechanics) derives from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid only at large (macroscopic ) scales. Quantum mechanics
Quantum mechanics
differs from classical physics in that: energy , momentum and other quantities are often restricted to discrete values (quantization ), objects have characteristics of both particles and waves (i.e. wave-particle duality ), and there are limits to the precision with which quantities can be known (uncertainty principle )
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Interpretations Of Quantum Mechanics
An INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS is a set of statements which attempt to explain how quantum mechanics informs our understanding of nature . Although quantum mechanics has held up to rigorous and thorough experimental testing, many of these experiments are open to different interpretations. There exist a number of contending schools of thought, differing over whether quantum mechanics can be understood to be deterministic , which elements of quantum mechanics can be considered "real", and other matters. This question is of special interest to philosophers of physics , as physicists continue to show a strong interest in the subject. They usually consider an interpretation of quantum mechanics as an interpretation of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, specifying the physical meaning of the mathematical entities of the theory
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Prediction
A PREDICTION ( Latin præ-, "before," and dicere, "to say"), or FORECAST , is a statement about an uncertain event . It is often, but not always, based upon experience or knowledge. There is no universal agreement about the exact difference between the two terms; different authors and disciplines ascribe different connotations . Although guaranteed accurate information about the future is in many cases impossible, prediction can be useful to assist in making plans about possible developments; Howard H. Stevenson writes that prediction in business "..
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Incompatibilistic
INCOMPATIBILISM is the view that a deterministic universe is completely at odds with the notion that persons have a free will ; that there is a dichotomy between determinism and free will where philosophers must choose one or the other. This view is pursued in at least three ways: libertarians deny that the universe is deterministic, the hard determinists deny that any free will exists, and pessimistic incompatibilists (hard indeterminists) deny both that the universe is determined and that free will exists. Incompatiblism is contrasted with compatibilism , which rejects the determinism/free will dichotomy. CONTENTS * 1 Libertarianism * 2 Hard determinism * 2.1 Moral implications * 3 Hard incompatibilism * 4 Experimental research * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links LIBERTARIANISM Main article: libertarianism (metaphysics) Metaphysical libertarianism argues that free will is real and that determinism is false
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Paradigm
In science and philosophy , a PARADIGM /ˈpærədaɪm/ is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field
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Causality
CAUSALITY (also referred to as CAUSATION, or CAUSE AND EFFECT) is the natural or worldly agency or efficacy that connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect ), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first. In general, a process has many causes, which are said to be causal factors for it, and all lie in its past. An effect can in turn be a cause of, or causal factor for, many other effects, which all lie in its future. Causality
Causality
is metaphysically prior to notions of time and space. Causality
Causality
is an abstraction that indicates how the world progresses, so basic a concept that it is more apt as an explanation of other concepts of progression than as something to be explained by others more basic. The concept is like those of agency and efficacy. For this reason, a leap of intuition may be needed to grasp it
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Multiverse
The MULTIVERSE (or META-UNIVERSE) is the hypothetical set of possible universes , including the universe in which we live. Together, these universes comprise everything that exists: the entirety of space , time , matter , energy , and the physical laws and constants that describe them. The various universes within the multiverse are called "parallel universes", "other universes", or "alternative universes"
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Compatibilistic
COMPATIBILISM is the belief that free will and determinism are compatible ideas, and that it is possible to believe in both without being logically inconsistent. Compatibilists believe freedom can be present or absent in situations for reasons that have nothing to do with metaphysics . They define free will as freedom to act according to one's motives without arbitrary hindrance from other individuals or institutions. For example, courts of law make judgments, without bringing in metaphysics, about whether an individual was acting of their own free will in specific circumstances. It is assumed in a court of law that someone could have done otherwise than they did—otherwise no crime would have been committed. Similarly, political liberty is a non-metaphysical concept. Statements of political liberty, such as the United States Bill of Rights , assume moral liberty, i.e. the ability to choose to do otherwise than one does
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Thought Experiment
A THOUGHT EXPERIMENT (German : Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken experiment or Gedankenerfahrung ) considers some hypothesis , theory , or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences. Given the structure of the experiment , it may not be possible to perform it, and even if it could be performed, there need not be an intention to perform it. The common goal of a thought experiment is to explore the potential consequences of the principle in question: "A thought experiment is a device with which one performs an intentional, structured process of intellectual deliberation in order to speculate, within a specifiable problem domain, about potential consequents (or antecedents) for a designated antecedent (or consequent)" (Yeates, 2004, p. 150)
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Laplace's Demon
In the history of science , LAPLACE\'S DEMON was the first published articulation of causal or scientific determinism by Pierre-Simon Laplace in 1814. According to determinism, if someone (the Demon) knows the precise location and momentum of every atom in the universe, their past and future values for any given time are entailed; they can be calculated from the laws of classical mechanics . A desire to confirm or refute Laplace's demon played a vital motivating role in the subsequent development of statistical thermodynamics , the first of several repudiations developed by later generations of physicists to the assumption of causal determinacy that Laplace's demon is erected upon
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Predestination
PREDESTINATION, in theology, is the doctrine