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Determinism (other)
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Determinism
Determinism
is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes. Determinism
Determinism
is usually understood to preclude free will because it entails that humans cannot act otherwise than they do. The theory holds that the universe is utterly rational because complete knowledge of any given situation assures that unerring knowledge of its future is also possible.[1] Some philosophers suggest variants around this basic definition.[2] Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives and considerations
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Determinism (other)
Determinism
Determinism
is the philosophical position that for every event there exist conditions that could cause it. Determinism
Determinism
has many meanings in different fields:Contents1 Philosophy 2 Computer science 3 Sociology and anthropology 4 Biology 5 Environm
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Interpretations Of Quantum Mechanics
An interpretation of quantum mechanics is an attempt to explain how concepts in quantum mechanics correspond to reality. Although quantum mechanics has held up to rigorous and thorough experimental testing, many of these experiments are open to different interpretations. There exist a number of contending schools of thought, different over whether quantum mechanics can be understood to be deterministic, which elements of quantum mechanics can be considered "real", and other matters. This question is of special interest to philosophers of physics, as physicists continue to show a strong interest in the subject
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Causality
Causality
Causality
(also referred to as causation,[1] or cause and effect) is the natural or worldly agency or efficacy that connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect),[citation needed] where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first. In general, a process has many causes,[2] which are said to be causal factors for it, and all lie in its past. An effect can in turn be a cause of, or causal factor for, many other effects, which all lie in its future. Causality
Causality
is metaphysically prior to notions of time and space.[3][4] Causality
Causality
is an abstraction that indicates how the world progresses, so basic a concept that it is more apt as an explanation of other concepts of progression than as something to be explained by others more basic. The concept is like those of agency and efficacy
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Multiverse
The multiverse (or meta-universe) is a hypothetical set of various possible universes including the universe which humans live in. Together, these universes comprise everything that exists: the entirety of space, time, matter, energy, the physical laws and the constants that describe them.[1][2][3][4] The miscellaneous distinct universes within the multiverse are called the "parallel universes", "other universes" or "alternative universes".[5][6][7]Contents1 History of the concept 2 Brief explanation 3 Search for evidence 4 Proponents and skeptics 5 Arguments against multiverse theories 6 Classification schemes6.1 Max Tegmark's four levels6.1.1 Level I: An extension of our Universe 6.1.2 Level II: Universes with different physical constants 6.1.3 Level III: Many-worlds interpretation
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Compatibilistic
Compatibilism
Compatibilism
is the belief that free will and determinism are mutually compatible and that it is possible to believe in both without being logically inconsistent.[1] Compatibilists believe freedom can be present or absent in situations for reasons that have nothing to do with metaphysics.[2] They define free will as freedom to act according to one's motives without arbitrary hindrance from other individuals or institutions.[citation needed] For example, courts of law make judgments, without bringing in metaphysics, about whether an individual was acting of their own free will in specific circumstances. It is assumed in a court of law that someone could have acted otherwise than in reality
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Incompatibilistic
Incompatibilism
Incompatibilism
is the view that a deterministic universe is completely at odds with the notion that persons have a free will; that there is a dichotomy between determinism and free will where philosophers must choose one or the other
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Self-determination Theory
Self-determination
Self-determination
theory (SDT) is a macro theory of human motivation and personality that concerns people's inherent growth tendencies and innate psychological needs. It is concerned with the motivation behind choices people make without external influence and interference. SDT focuses on the degree to which an individual's behavior is self-motivated and self-determined.[1][2][3] In the 1970s, research on SDT evolved from studies comparing the intrinsic and extrinsic motives, and from growing understanding of the dominant role intrinsic motivation played in an individual's behavior[4] but it was not until the mid-1980s that SDT was formally introduced and accepted as a sound empirical theory
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Prediction
A prediction ( Latin
Latin
præ-, "before," and dicere, "to say"), or forecast, is a statement about an uncertain event. It is often, but not always, based upon experience or knowledge. There is no universal agreement about the exact difference between the two terms; different authors and disciplines ascribe different connotations. (Contrast with estimation.) Although guaranteed accurate information about the future is in many cases impossible, prediction can be useful to assist in making plans about possible developments; Howard H. Stevenson writes that prediction in business "..
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Causa Sui
Causa sui
Causa sui
( Latin
Latin
pronunciation: [kawsa sʊi], meaning "cause of itself" in Latin) denotes something which is generated within itself. This concept was central to the works of Baruch Spinoza, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Ernest Becker, where it relates to the purpose that objects can assign to themselves. In Freud and Becker's case, the concept was often used as an immortality vessel, where something could create meaning or continue to create meaning beyond its own life. Norman O
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Historical Determinism
Historical determinism is the stance that events are historically predetermined or currently constrained by various forces. Historical determinism can be understood in contrast to its negation, i.e. the rejection of historical determinism. Some political philosophies (e.g. Early and Stalinist Marxism) assert a historical materialism of either predetermination or constraint, or both. Used as a pejorative, it is normally meant to designate an overdetermination of present possibilities by historical conditions. See also[edit]Geographic determinism Geopolitics Bad faith (existentialism) Determinism Economic determinism False consciousness False necessity Free Will Human nature Hegelianism Dialectical materialism Self determinationExternal links[edit]Abhijit V. Banerjee and Esther Duflo
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Path Dependence
Path dependence explains how the set of decisions one faces for any given circumstance is limited by the decisions one has made in the past or by the events that one has experienced, even though past circumstances may no longer be relevant.[1] In economics and the social sciences, path dependence can refer either to outcomes at a single moment in time, or to long-run equilibria of a process. In common usage, the phrase implies either:(A) that "history matters" — a broad concept,[2] or (B) that predictable amplifications of small differences are a disproportionate cause of later circumstances, and, in the "strong" form, that this historical hang-over is inefficient.[3]In the first usage, (A), "history matters" is trivially true in many contexts; everything has causes, and sometimes different causes lead to different outcomes
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Quantum Mechanics
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.[2] Classical physics
Classical physics
(the physics existing before quantum mechanics) is a set of fundamental theories which describes nature at ordinary (macroscopic) scale
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Thought Experiment
A thought experiment (German: Gedankenexperiment,[1] Gedanken-Experiment[2] or Gedankenerfahrung[3]) considers some hypothesis, theory,[4] or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences
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Event (philosophy)
In philosophy, events are objects in time or instantiations of properties in objects.Contents1 Kim’s property-exemplification 2 Davidson 3 Lewis 4 Badiou 5 Deleuze 6 Kirkeby 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksKim’s property-exemplification[edit] Jaegwon Kim theorized that events are structured. They are composed of three things:Object(s) [x], a property [P] and time or a temporal interval [t].Events are defined using the operation [x, P, t]. A unique event is defined by two principles:a) the existence condition and b) the identity condition.The existence condition states “[x, P, t] exists if and only if object x exemplifies the n-adic P at time t”. This means a unique event exists if the above is met
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Laplace's Demon
In the history of science, Laplace's demon was the first published articulation of causal or scientific determinism by Pierre-Simon Laplace in 1814.[1] According to determinism, if someone (the Demon) knows the precise location and momentum of every atom in the universe, their past and future values for any given time are entailed; they can be calculated from the laws of classical mechanics.[2] A desire to confirm or refute Laplace's demon played a vital motivating role[citation needed] in the subsequent development of statistical thermodynamics, the first of several repudiations developed by later generations of physicists to the assumption of causal determinacy that
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