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Detergent
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.[1] These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxylate (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water. In most household contexts, the term detergent by itself refers specifically to laundry detergent or dish detergent, as opposed to hand soap or other types of cleaning agents. Detergents are commonly available as powders or concentrated solutions. Detergents, like soaps, work because they are amphiphilic: partly hydrophilic (polar) and partly hydrophobic (non-polar)
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2] Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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Ion Channel
Ion
Ion
channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore. Their functions include establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across secretory and epithelial cells, and regulating cell volume. Ion
Ion
channels are present in the membranes of all excitable cells.[1] Ion
Ion
channels are one of the two classes of ionophoric proteins, along with ion transporters (including the sodium-potassium pump, sodium-calcium exchanger, and sodium-glucose transport proteins).[2] The study of ion channels often involves biophysics, electrophysiology, and pharmacology, while using techniques including voltage clamp, patch clamp, immunohistochemistry, X-ray crystallography, fluoroscopy, and RT-PCR
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Dish Washing
Dishwashing[1] or dish washing (British English: washing up) is the process of cleaning cooking utensils, dishes, cutlery and other items to prevent foodborne illness.[2] This is either achieved by hand in a sink or using dishwasher and may take place in a kitchen, utility room, scullery or elsewhere. In Britain to do the washing up also includes to dry and put away. There are cultural divisions over rinsing and drying after washing.[3]Contents1 Implements 2 Running water or sink2.1 Separate tub in the sink3 Sanitization 4 Traditional dish-washing practice4.1 Indonesia5 In popular culture 6 ReferencesImplements[edit] Dish washing is usually done using an implement for the washer to wield, unless done using an automated dishwasher. Commonly used implements include cloths, sponges, brushes or even steel wool
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Laundry
Laundry
Laundry
refers to the washing of clothing and other textiles.[1] Laundry
Laundry
processes are often done in a room reserved for that purpose; in an individual home this is referred to as a laundry room or utility room. An apartment building or student hall of residence may have a shared laundry facility such as a tvättstuga. A stand-alone business is referred to as a self-service laundry (laundrette in British English or laundromat in American English). The material that is being washed, or has been laundered, is also generally referred to as laundry. Laundry
Laundry
has been part of history since we began to wear clothes, so the methods by which different cultures have dealt with this universal human need are of interest to several branches of scholarship. Laundry work has traditionally been highly gendered, with the responsibility in most cultures falling to women (known as laundresses or washerwomen)
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Otto Engine
The Otto engine
Otto engine
was a large stationary single-cylinder internal combustion four-stroke engine designed by Nikolaus Otto. It was a low-RPM machine, and only fired every other stroke due to the Otto cycle, also designed by Otto.Contents1 Types 2 Timeline 3 Atmospheric engine 4 The Otto cycle4.1 Carburetor
Carburetor
and low voltage Ignition 4.2 Loss of a patent5 Stationary engines5.1 Spark plug
Spark plug
firing 5.2 Engine speed regulation 5.3 Cylinder cooling6 First use in transportation 7 References 8 External linksTypes[edit] Three types of internal combustion engines were designed by German inventors Nikolaus Otto
Nikolaus Otto
and his partner Eugen Langen
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Fouling
Fouling
Fouling
is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function. The fouling materials can consist of either living organisms (biofouling) or a non-living substance (inorganic and/or organic). Fouling
Fouling
is usually distinguished from other surface-growth phenomena, in that it occurs on a surface of a component, system or plant performing a defined and useful function, and that the fouling process impedes or interferes with this function. Other terms used in the literature to describe fouling include: deposit formation, encrustation, crudding, deposition, scaling, scale formation, slagging, and sludge formation
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Cell (biology)
The cell (from Latin
Latin
cella, meaning "small room"[1]) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the "building blocks of life"
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Cell Membrane
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).[1][2] It consists of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. The cell membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of cells and organelles. In this way, it is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules.[3] In addition, cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signalling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall, the carbohydrate layer called the glycocalyx, and the intracellular network of protein fibers called the cytoskeleton
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Lipopolysaccharide
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The term lipooligosaccharide ("LOS") is used to refer to a low-molecular-weight form of bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Contents1 Discovery 2 Functions in bacteria 3 Composition3.1 O-antigen 3.2 Core 3.3 Lipid
Lipid
A4 Lipooligosaccharides 5 LPS modifications 6 Biosynthesis and transport 7 Biological effects on hosts infected with gram-negative
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N-Octyl Beta-D-thioglucopyranoside
n-Octyl β-D-thioglucopyranoside (octylthioglucoside, OTG) is a mild nonionic detergent that is used for cell lysis or to solubilise membrane proteins without denaturing them.[1][2] This is particularly of use in order to crystallise them or to reconstitute them into lipid bilayers. It has a critical micelle concentration of 9 mM.[3] It is an analog of the commonly used detergent octyl glucoside, the presence of the thioether linkage making it resistant to degradation by beta-glucosidase enzymes.Contents1 Preparation 2 Properties 3 Application 4 References 5 External linksPreparation[edit] N-alkyl thioglycosides of the n-octyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside type are not naturally occurring. However, mustard oil glycosides are common natural S-glycosides. The synthesis of n-octyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside[4] starts from D-glucose (I) which is prepared with acetic anhydride and concentrated sulfuric acid to give α-D-glucopyranose pentaacetate (pentaacetylglucose) (II)[5]
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Membrane Transport Protein
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein[1] involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane. Transport proteins are integral transmembrane proteins; that is they exist permanently within and span the membrane across which they transport substances. The proteins may assist in the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion or active transport. The two main types of proteins involved in such transport are broadly categorized as either channels or carriers
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Photosystem II
Photosystem II (or water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase) is the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis. It is located in the thylakoid membrane of plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Within the photosystem, enzymes capture photons of light to energize electrons that are then transferred through a variety of coenzymes and cofactors to reduce plastoquinone to plastoquinol. The energized electrons are replaced by oxidizing water to form hydrogen ions and molecular oxygen. By replenishing lost electrons with electrons from the splitting of water, photosystem II provides the electrons for all of photosynthesis to occur. The hydrogen ions (protons) generated by the oxidation of water help to create a proton gradient that is used by ATP synthase to generate ATP
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Green Cleaning
Green cleaning refers to using cleaning methods and products with environmentally friendly ingredients and procedures which are designed to preserve human health and environmental quality. Green cleaning techniques and products avoid the use of products which contain toxic chemicals, some of which emit volatile organic compounds causing respiratory, dermatological and other conditions. Green cleaning can also describe the way residential and industrial cleaning products are manufactured, packaged and distributed. If the manufacturing process is environmentally friendly and the products are biodegradable, then the term "green" or "eco-friendly" may apply.Contents1 Product labeling programs 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksProduct labeling programs[edit] Among the product-labeling programs is the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Design for the Environment program which labels products that meet EPA's criteria for chemicals
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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