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Desmostylia
The Desmostylia
Desmostylia
(from Greek δεσμά desma, "bundle", and στῦλος stylos, "pillar")[1] are an extinct order of aquatic mammals that existed from the early Oligocene
Oligocene
(Rupelian) to the late Miocene
Miocene
(Tortonian) (30.8 to 7.25 million years ago). Desmostylians are the only known extinct order of marine mammals[2] (Thalassocnus, a genus of marine sloths, became extinct more recently). The Desmostylia, together with Sirenia
Sirenia
and Proboscidea
Proboscidea
(and possibly Embrithopoda), have traditionally been assigned to the afrotherian clade Tethytheria, a group named after the paleoocean Tethys around which they originally evolved
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Steller's Sea Cow
Steller's sea cow
Steller's sea cow
( Hydrodamalis
Hydrodamalis
gigas) is an extinct sirenian discovered by Europeans in 1741. At that time, it was found only around the Commander Islands
Commander Islands
in the Bering Sea
Bering Sea
between Alaska
Alaska
and Russia; its range was more extensive during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch, and it is possible that the animal and humans previously interacted. Eighteenth century adults would reach weights of 8–10 metric tons (8.8–11.0 short tons) and lengths up to 9 meters (30 ft). It was a part of the order Sirenia
Sirenia
and a member of the family Dugongidae, of which its closest living relative, the 3-meter (9.8 ft) long dugong ( Dugong
Dugong
dugon), is the sole surviving member
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Chordate
And see textA chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates with metameric segmentation and a circulatory system. In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development. Taxonomically, the phylum includes the following subphyla: the Vertebrata, which includes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals; the Tunicata, which includes salps and sea squirts; and the Cephalochordata, which include the lancelets. There are also additional extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia
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Order (biology)
In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) isa taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes.What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Extinct
In biology and ecology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Myr
The abbreviation myr, "million years", is a unit of a quantity of 7006100000000000000♠1,000,000 (i.e. 7006100000000000000♠1×106) years, or 31.6 teraseconds.Contents1 Usage 2 Debate 3 See also 4 ReferencesUsage[edit] Myr
Myr
is in common use where the term is often written, such as in Earth science and cosmology. Myr
Myr
is seen with mya, "million years ago". Together they make a reference system, one to a quantity, the other to a particular place in a year numbering system that is time before the present. Myr
Myr
is deprecated in geology, but in astronomy myr is standard
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Thalassocnus
Thalassocnus
Thalassocnus
is an extinct genus of apparently semiaquatic (for the geologically oldest species) or fully aquatic (for the geologically most recent species) marine sloth from the Miocene
Miocene
and Pliocene
Pliocene
of South America. Fossils found to date have been from the coast of Peru (Pisco Formation) and Chile
Chile
(Bahía Inglesa Formation).[1][2] They were apparently grazers of sea grass and seaweed. The various species of this genus provides the best-documented case of gradual adaptation to a secondarily aquatic lifestyle. This is documented both at the morphological level, such as a progressive flattening of the radius,[3] and at the microanatomical level, which shows a progressive increase in thickness (pachyostosis) and compactness (osteosclerosis) of the long limb bones and ribs,[4] providing ballast
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Proboscidea
†Eritherium †Moeritherium †Plesielephantiformes ElephantiformesThe Proboscidea
Proboscidea
(from the Greek προβοσκίς and the Latin proboscis) are a taxonomic order of afrotherian mammals containing one living family, Elephantidae, and several extinct families. This order, first described by J. Illiger in 1811, encompasses the trunked mammals.[1] In addition to their enormous size, later proboscideans are distinguished by tusks and long, muscular trunks; these features were less developed or absent in the smaller early proboscideans. Beginning in the mid Miocene, most members of this order were very large animals
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Miocene
The Miocene
Miocene
( /ˈmaɪəˌsiːn/[2][3]) is the first geological epoch of the Neogene
Neogene
Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.333 million years ago (Ma). The Miocene
Miocene
was named by Charles Lyell; its name comes from the Greek words μείων (meiōn, “less”) and καινός (kainos, “new”)[4] and means "less recent" because it has 18% fewer modern sea invertebrates than the Pliocene. The Miocene follows the Oligocene
Oligocene
and is followed by the Pliocene. As the earth went from the Oligocene
Oligocene
through the Miocene
Miocene
and into the Pliocene, the climate slowly cooled towards a series of ice ages
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Embrithopoda
[1]Scientific classification Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaClade: PaenungulataOrder: †Embrithopoda Andrews 1906Families†Arsinoitheriidae †Palaeoamasiidae Embrithopoda
Embrithopoda
("heavy-footed") is an order of extinct mammals known from Asia, Africa and eastern Europe. Most of the embrithopod genera are known exclusively from jaws and teeth dated from the late Paleocene
Paleocene
to the late Eocene, but the order is best known from its terminal member, the elephantine Arsinoitherium.[2]Contents1 Description 2 Classification 3 Notes 4 ReferencesDescription[edit] While embrithopods bore a superficial resemblance to rhinoceroses, their horns had bony cores covered in keratinized skin and were not made of hair. Not all embrithopods possessed horns, either
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Clade
A clade (from Ancient Greek: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".[1] The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further. Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms.[2] Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Tethys Ocean
The Tethys Ocean
Tethys Ocean
(Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era located between the ancient continents of
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Pacific Rim
The Pacific Rim
Pacific Rim
comprises the lands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean
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Laurasiatheria
Laurasiatheria
Laurasiatheria
is a superorder of placental mammals that originated on the northern supercontinent of Laurasia
Laurasia
99 million years ago.[citation needed] The superorder includes shrews, pangolins, bats, whales, carnivorans, odd-toed and even-toed ungulates, among others.Contents1 Classification and phylogeny 2 See also 3 References3.1 Further reading4 External linksClassification and phylogeny[edit] Laurasiatheria
Laurasiatheria
was discovered on the basis of the similar gene sequences shared by the mammals belonging to it; no anatomical features have yet been found that unite the group. Laurasiatheria
Laurasiatheria
is a clade usually discussed without a Linnaean rank, but has been assigned the rank of cohort or magnorder, and superorder. The Laurasiatheria clade is based on DNA sequence analyses and retrotransposon presence/absence data
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Placentalia
Placentalia
Placentalia
("Placentals") is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata
Monotremata
and Marsupialia. The Placentals are partly distinguishable from other mammals in that the fetus is carried in the uterus of its mother to a relatively late stage of development
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