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Derr ( 125 Miles South Of Aswan, Right Bank)
RIGHTS are legal , social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement ; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory. Rights
Rights
are of essential importance in such disciplines as law and ethics , especially theories of justice and deontology . Rights
Rights
are often considered fundamental to civilization , for they are regarded as established pillars of society and culture , and the history of social conflicts can be found in the history of each right and its development. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "rights structure the form of governments , the content of laws , and the shape of morality as it is currently perceived"
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Civil Liberties
CIVIL LIBERTIES or PERSONAL FREEDOMS are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation , without due process. Though the scope of the term differs between countries, civil liberties may include the freedom from torture , freedom from forced disappearance , freedom of conscience , freedom of press , freedom of religion , freedom of expression , freedom of assembly , the right to security and liberty , freedom of speech , the right to privacy , the right to equal treatment under the law and due process , the right to a fair trial , and the right to life . Other civil liberties include the right to own property , the right to defend oneself , and the right to bodily integrity . Within the distinctions between civil liberties and other types of liberty, distinctions exist between positive liberty /positive rights and negative liberty /negative rights
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Disability Rights Movement
The DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENT is a global movement to secure equal opportunities and equal rights for all people with disabilities . It is made up of organisations of disability activists around the world working together with similar goals and demands, such as: accessibility and safety in architecture, transportation, and the physical environment; equal opportunities in independent living, employment equity , education, and housing; and freedom from discrimination, abuse , neglect , and from other rights violations. Disability activists are working to break institutional, physical, and societal barriers that prevent people with disabilities from living their lives like other citizens
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Digital Rights
The term DIGITAL RIGHTS describes the human rights that allow individuals to access, use, create, and publish digital media or to access and use computers , other electronic devices , or communications networks . The term is particularly related to the protection and realization of existing rights, such as the right to privacy or freedom of expression , in the context of new digital technologies, especially the Internet
Internet
. Internet
Internet
access is recognized as a right by the laws of several countries
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Linguistic Rights
LINGUISTIC RIGHTS are the human and civil rights concerning the individual and collective right to choose the language or languages for communication in a private or public atmosphere. Other parameters for analyzing linguistic rights include the degree of territoriality, amount of positivity, orientation in terms of assimilation or maintenance, and overtness. Linguistic rights
Linguistic rights
include, among others, the right to one's own language in legal, administrative and judicial acts, language education, and media in a language understood and freely chosen by those concerned. Linguistic rights
Linguistic rights
in international law are usually dealt in the broader framework of cultural and educational rights
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Right To Property
The RIGHT TO PROPERTY or RIGHT TO OWN PROPERTY (cf. ownership ) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions. A general recognition of a right to private property is found more rarely, and is typically heavily constrained insofar as property is owned by legal persons (i.e. corporations ) and where it is used for production rather than consumption. A right to property is recognised in Article 17 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights but is not recognised in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights or the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights . The European Convention on Human Rights , in Protocol 1, article 1 acknowledges a right for natural and legal persons to "peaceful enjoyment of his possessions", subject to the "general interest or to secure the payment of taxes"
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Youth Rights
The YOUTH RIGHTS movement (also known as YOUTH LIBERATION) seeks to grant the rights to young people that are traditionally reserved for adults, due to having reached a specific age or sufficient maturity. This is closely akin to the notion of evolving capacities within the children\'s rights movement, but the youth rights movement differs from the children's rights movement in that the latter places emphasis on the welfare and protection of children through the actions and decisions of adults, while the youth rights movement seeks to grant youth the liberty to make their own decisions autonomously in the ways adults are permitted to, or to lower the legal minimum ages at which such rights are acquired, such as the age of majority and the voting age . Youth
Youth
rights have increased over the last century in many countries. The youth rights movement seeks to further increase youth rights, with some advocating intergenerational equity
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Labor Rights
LABOR RIGHTS or WORKERS\' RIGHTS are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers , usually obtained under labor and employment law . In general, these rights' debates have to do with negotiating workers' pay, benefits, and safe working conditions . One of the most central of these rights is the right to unionize . Unions take advantage of collective bargaining and industrial action to increase their members' wages and otherwise change their working situation. Labor rights can also take in the form of worker\'s control and worker\'s self management in which workers have a democratic voice in decision and policy making. The labor movement initially focused on this "right to unionize", but attention has shifted elsewhere. Critics of the labor rights movement claim that regulation promoted by labor rights activists may limit opportunities for work
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Prisoners' Rights
The rights of civilian and military prisoners are governed by both national and international law. International conventions include the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Rights
; the United Nations ' Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners , the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment , and the Convention on the Rights
Rights
of Persons with Disabilities CONTENTS * 1 Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links PRISON LITIGATION REFORM ACT Main article: Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act In the United States
United States
, the Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act, or PLRA, is a federal statute enacted in 1996 with the intent of limiting "frivolous lawsuits" by prisoners
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Student Rights In Higher Education
STUDENT RIGHTS are those rights , such as civil, constitutional, contractual and consumer rights, which regulate student rights and freedoms and allow students to make use of their educational investment. These include such things as the right to free speech and association, to due process, equality, autonomy, safety and privacy, and accountability in contracts and advertising, which regulate the treatment of students by teachers and administrators. There is very little scholarship about student rights throughout the world. In general most countries have some kind of student rights (or rights that apply in the educational setting) enshrined in their laws and proceduralized by their court precedents. Some countries, like Romania, in the European Union, have comprehensive student bills of rights, which outline both rights and how they are to be proceduralized
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Victims' Rights
VICTIMS\' RIGHTS are legal rights afforded to victims of crime . These may include the right to restitution , the right to a victims' advocate, the right not to be excluded from criminal justice proceedings, and the right to speak at criminal justice proceedings. CONTENTS* 1 United States * 1.1 History * 1.2 Victims\' rights legislation * 1.3 Federal law * 1.3.1 Victims of Crime
Crime
Act (VOCA) * 1.3.2 Crime
Crime
Victims\' Rights Act of 2004 * 1.4 State law * 1.5 U.S
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Women's Rights
WOMEN\'S RIGHTS are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behavior, whereas in others they are ignored and suppressed. They differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls, in favor of men and boys. Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include, though are not limited to, the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy ; to be free from sexual violence ; to vote ; to hold public office; to enter into legal contracts; to have equal rights in family law ; to work ; to fair wages or equal pay ; to have reproductive rights ; to own property ; to education
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Reproductive Rights
REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health that vary amongst countries around the world. The World Health Organization defines reproductive rights as follows: Reproductive rights
Reproductive rights
rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination , coercion and violence
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Self-determination
The right of people to SELF-DETERMINATION is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations
United Nations
as authoritative interpretation of the Charter’s norms. It states that people, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and fair equality of opportunity , have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no interference. The concept was first expressed in the 1860s, and spread rapidly thereafter. During and after World War I, the principle was encouraged by both Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
and Woodrow Wilson