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Dequalinium
Dequalinium
Dequalinium
is a quaternary ammonium cation and bolaamphiphile commonly available as the dichloride salt. The bromide, iodide, acetate, and undecenoate salts are known as well. Dequalinium
Dequalinium
chloride is the active ingredient of several medications: Dequadin an antiseptic and disinfectant. It is a topical bacteriostat. It is used in wound dressings and mouth infections and may also have antifungal action. It may cause skin ulceration. Fluomizin, vaginal tablets containing 10 mg dequalinium chloride, are used for treating vaginal bacterial conditions (i.e
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Chemical Nomenclature
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book[1] and the Red Book,[2] respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book,[3] describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book,[4] contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry[5] (the White Book, in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry[6] (the Orange Book), macromolecular chemistry[7] (the Purple Book) and clinical chemistry[8] (the Silver Book)
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Standard State
In chemistry, the standard state of a material (pure substance, mixture or solution) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions. In principle, the choice of standard state is arbitrary, although the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) recommends a conventional set of standard states for general use.[1] IUPAC
IUPAC
recommends using a standard pressure po = 105 Pa.[2] Strictly speaking, temperature is not part of the definition of a standard state. For example, as discussed below, the standard state of a gas is conventionally chosen to be unit pressure (usually in bar) ideal gas, regardless of the temperature
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Biphenylol
2-Phenylphenol, or o-phenylphenol, is an organic compound that consists of two linked benzene rings and a phenolic hydroxyl group.[1][2] It is a white or buff-colored, flaky crystalline solid with a melting point of about 57 °C. It is a biocide used as a preservative with E number E231 and under the trade names Dowicide, Torsite, Fungal, Preventol, Nipacide and many others.Contents1 History 2 Uses 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] 2-Phenylphenol
2-Phenylphenol
(ortho-phenylphenol, OPP), and sodium o-phenylphenate, SOPP, were first evaluated by the 1962 JECFA for their use for the post-harvest treatment of fruits and vegetables to protect against microbial damage during storage and distribution in commerce.[3] Uses[edit] The primary use of 2-phenylphenol is as an agricultural fungicide. It is generally applied post-harvest. It is a fungicide used for waxing citrus fruits
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Triclocarban
Triclocarban
Triclocarban
is an antibacterial agent common in personal care products like soaps and lotions as well as in the medical field, for which it was originally developed.[2] Studies on its antibacterial qualities and mechanisms are growing. Research suggests that it is similar in its mechanism to triclosan and is effective in fighting infections by targeting the growth of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus
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Amidine
Amidines are a class of oxoacid derivatives. The oxoacid from which an amidine is derived must be of the form RnE(=O)OH, where R is a substituent. The −OH group is replaced by an −NH2 group and the =O group is replaced by =NR, giving amidines the general structure RnE(=NR)NR2.[1][2][3]Contents1 Carboxamidines 2 Properties 3 Derivatives3.1 Formamidinium cations 3.2 Amidinate salts4 See also 5 ReferencesCarboxamidines[edit]The skeletal formula of acetamidine (acetimidamide)When the parent oxoacid is a carboxylic acid, the resulting amidine is a carboxamidine or carboximidamide ( IUPAC
IUPAC
name), and has the following general structure:Carboxamidines are frequently referred to simply as amidines, as they are the most commonly encountered type of amidine in organic chemistry
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Biguanide
Biguanide
Biguanide
(/baɪˈɡwɒnaɪd/) is the organic compound with the formula HN(C(NH)NH2)2. It is a colorless solid that dissolves in water to give highly basic solution
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Acridine
Acridine
Acridine
is an organic compound and a nitrogen heterocycle with the formula C13H9N. Acridines are substituted derivatives of the parent ring. It is a planar molecule that is structurally related to anthracene with one of the central CH groups replaced by nitrogen. Like the related molecule pyridine and quinoline, acridine is mildly basic. It is an almost colorless solid. There are no commercial applications of acridines but at one time acridine dyes were popular. It crystallizes in needles.Contents1 Isolation and syntheses 2 Reactions2.1 Basicity 2.2 Reduction and oxidation3 Applications3.1 Dyes4 Safety 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksIsolation and syntheses[edit] Carl Gräbe
Carl Gräbe
and Heinrich Caro
Heinrich Caro
first isolated acridine in 1870 from coal tar. Acridine
Acridine
is separated from coal tar by extracting with dilute sulfuric acid
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Bacterial Vaginosis
Bacterial vaginosis
Bacterial vaginosis
(BV) is a disease of the vagina caused by excessive growth of bacteria.[6][9] Common symptoms include increased vaginal discharge that often smells like fish.[2] The discharge is usually white or gray in color.[2] Burning with urination may occur.[2] Itching is uncommon.[2][6] Occasionally, there may be no symptoms.[2] Having BV approximately doubles the risk of infection by a number of other sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS.[8][10] It also increases the risk of early delivery among pregnant women.[3][11] BV is caused by an imbalance of the naturally occurring bacteria in the vagina.[4][5] There is a change
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Skin Ulcer
An ulcer is a sore on the skin or a mucous membrane, accompanied by the disintegration of tissue. Ulcers can result in complete loss of the epidermis and often portions of the dermis and even subcutaneous fat. Ulcers are most common on the skin of the lower extremities and in the gastrointestinal tract. An ulcer that appears on the skin is often visible as an inflamed tissue with an area of reddened skin. A skin ulcer is often visible in the event of exposure to heat or cold, irritation, or a problem with blood circulation. They can also be caused due to a lack of mobility, which causes prolonged pressure on the tissues
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JSmol
Jmol
Jmol
is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions.[2] Jmol
Jmol
returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool,[3] or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry. It is written in the programming language Java, so it can run on the operating systems Windows, macOS, Linux, and Unix, if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License
GNU Lesser General Public License
(LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna. A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways
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Topical
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body. Most often topical administration means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including creams, foams, gels, lotions, and ointments.[1] Many topical medications are epicutaneous, meaning that they are applied directly to the skin. Topical
Topical
medications may also be inhalational, such as asthma medications, or applied to the surface of tissues other than the skin, such as eye drops applied to the conjunctiva, or ear drops placed in the ear, or medications applied to the surface of a tooth
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Bolaamphiphile
Bolaamphiphiles (also known as bolaform surfactants, bolaphiles, or alpha-omega-type surfactants) are amphiphilic molecules that have hydrophilic groups at both ends of a sufficiently long hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain. Compared to single-headed amphiphiles, the introduction of a second head-group generally induces a higher solubility in water, an increase in the critical micelle concentration (cmc), and a decrease in aggregation number. The aggregate morphologies of bolaamphiphiles include spheres, cylinders, disks, and vesicles. Bolaamphiphiles are also known to form helical structures, that can form monolayer microtubular self-assemblies.[1] References[edit] Fuhrhop, J-H; Wang, T. Bolaamphiphile, Chem. Rev. (2004), 104(6), 2901-2937. Chen, Yuxia; Liu, Yan; Guo, Rong. Aggregation behavior of an amino acid-derived bolaamphiphile and a conventional surfactant mixed system. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (2009), 336(2), 766-772. CODEN: JCISA5 ISSN 0021-9797
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Quaternary Ammonium Cation
Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure NR+ 4, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group.[1] Unlike the ammonium ion (NH+ 4) and the primary, secondary, or tertiary ammonium cations, the quaternary ammonium cations are permanently charged, independent of the pH of their solution
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