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Dequalinium
DEQUALINIUM is a quaternary ammonium cation commonly available as the dichloride salt. The bromide, iodide, acetate, and undecenoate salts are known as well. Dequalinium
Dequalinium
chloride is the active ingredient of several medications: Dequadin an antiseptic and disinfectant . It is a topical bacteriostat . It is used in wound dressings and mouth infections and may also have antifungal action. It may cause skin ulceration . Fluomizin, vaginal tablets containing 10 mg dequalinium chloride, are used for treating vaginal bacterial conditions (i.e. Bacterial Vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis ). The dequalinium dication is symmetrical, containing two quaternary quinolinium units linked by an N-decylene chain. CONTENTS * 1 Applications * 2 References * 3 Further reading * 4 External links APPLICATIONS Dequalinium
Dequalinium
salts may be used to treat malaria
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Chemical Nomenclature
A CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds . The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book
Book
and the Red Book
Book
, respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book
Book
, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP ), while a fourth, the Gold Book
Book
, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Skin Ulcer
A CUTANEOUS CONDITION is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system —the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin , hair , nails , and related muscle and glands . The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external environment. Conditions of the human integumentary system constitute a broad spectrum of diseases, also known as dermatoses, as well as many nonpathologic states (like, in certain circumstances, melanonychia and racquet nails ). While only a small number of skin diseases account for most visits to the physician, thousands of skin conditions have been described. Classification of these conditions often presents many nosological challenges, since underlying causes and pathogenetics are often not known
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Bacteriostat
A BACTERIOSTATIC AGENT or BACTERIOSTAT, abbreviated BSTATIC, is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing, while not necessarily killing them otherwise. Depending on their application, bacteriostatic antibiotics , disinfectants , antiseptics and preservatives can be distinguished. When bacteriostatic antimicrobials are used, the duration of therapy must be sufficient to allow host defense mechanisms to eradicate the bacteria. Upon removal of the bacteriostat, the bacteria usually start to grow again. This is in contrast to bactericides , which kill bacteria. Bacteriostats are often used in plastics to prevent growth of bacteria on surfaces. Bacteriostats commonly used in laboratory work include sodium azide (which is acutely toxic) and thiomersal .Bacteriostatic are those compound which prevent the growth of bacteria
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Quaternary Ammonium Cation
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM CATIONS, also known as QUATS, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure NR+ 4, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group. Unlike the ammonium ion (NH+ 4) and the primary, secondary, or tertiary ammonium cations , the quaternary ammonium cations are permanently charged, independent of the pH of their solution. QUATERNARY AMMONIUM SALTS or QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (called QUATERNARY AMINES in oilfield parlance) are salts of quaternary ammonium cations
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Topical
A TOPICAL MEDICATION is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body. Most often topical administration means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including creams , foams , gels , lotions , and ointments. Many topical medications are epicutaneous, meaning that they are applied directly to the skin. Topical
Topical
medications may also be inhalational , such as asthma medications , or applied to the surface of tissues other than the skin, such as eye drops applied to the conjunctiva , or ear drops placed in the ear, or medications applied to the surface of a tooth . The word topical derives from Greek τοπικός topikos, "of a place"
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Acridine
ACRIDINE is an organic compound and a nitrogen heterocycle with the formula C13H9N. Acridines are substituted derivatives of the parent ring. It is a planar molecule that is structurally related to anthracene with one of the central CH groups replaced by nitrogen. Like the related molecule pyridine and quinoline , acridine is mildly basic. It is an almost colorless solid. There are no commercial applications of acridines but at one time acridine dyes were popular. It crystallizes in needles. CONTENTS * 1 Isolation and syntheses * 2 Reactions * 2.1 Basicity * 2.2 Reduction and oxidation * 3 Applications * 3.1 Dyes * 4 Safety * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ISOLATION AND SYNTHESES Carl Gräbe and Heinrich Caro first isolated acridine in 1870 from coal tar . Acridine
Acridine
is separated from coal tar by extracting with dilute sulfuric acid
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Biguanide
BIGUANIDE (/baɪˈɡwɒnaɪd/ ) is the organic compound with the formula HN(C(NH)NH2)2. It is a colorless solid that dissolves in water to give highly basic solution. These solutions slowly hydrolyse to ammonia and urea. CONTENTS* 1 Biguanidine drugs * 1.1 Antihyperglycemic agents * 1.1.1 History * 1.1.2 Mechanistic aspects * 1.1.3 Side effects and toxicity * 1.2 Antimalarial * 1.3 Disinfectants * 2 References BIGUANIDINE DRUGSA variety of derivatives of biguanide are used as pharmaceutical drugs. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AGENTSThe term "biguanidine" often refers specifically to a class of drugs that function as oral antihyperglycemic drugs used for diabetes mellitus or prediabetes treatment
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Nitrofural
NITROFURAL (INN , trade name FURACIN) is a bactericidal compound used as an antibiotic most commonly in the form of ointments. Its use in medicine has become less frequent as safer and more effective products have become available, and it has been discontinued in the US. The substance is pale yellow and crystalline. Other names include NITROFURAZONE and FURACILIN. Drugstore-made ~400 mL aqueous solution of Furacilin (nitrofural), 1 : 5000 (0.2 mg/mL or 0.02%), ready for topical use
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Iodine
IODINE is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. The heaviest of the stable halogens , it exists as a lustrous, purple-black metallic solid at standard conditions that sublimes readily to form a violet gas. The elemental form was discovered by the French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811. It was named two years later by Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac from this property, after the Greek ἰωδης "violet-coloured". Iodine
Iodine
occurs in many oxidation states, including iodide (I−), iodate (IO− 3), and the various periodate anions. It is the least abundant of the stable halogens, being the sixty-first most abundant element. It is even less abundant than the so-called rare earths . It is the heaviest essential mineral nutrient
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Nitrofuran
NITROFURANS are a class of drugs typically used as antibiotics or antimicrobials . The defining structural component is a furan ring with a nitro group
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Biphenylol
2-PHENYLPHENOL, or o-phenylphenol, is an organic compound that consists of two linked benzene rings and a phenolic hydroxyl group. It is a white or buff-colored, flaky crystalline solid with a melting point of about 57 °C. It is a biocide used as a preservative under the trade names Dowicide, Torsite, Fungal, Preventol, Nipacide and many others. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Uses * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORY2-Phenylphenol (ortho-phenylphenol, OPP), and sodium o-phenylphenate, SOPP, were first evaluated by the 1962 JECFA for their use for the post-harvest treatment of fruits and vegetables to protect against microbial damage during storage and distribution in commerce. USESThe primary use of 2-phenylphenol is as an agricultural fungicide. It is generally applied post-harvest. It is a fungicide used for waxing citrus fruits
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Amidine
AMIDINES are a class of oxoacid derivatives . The oxoacid from which an amidine is derived must be of the form RnE(=O)OH, where R is a substituent . The −OH group is replaced by an −NH2 group and the =O group is replaced by =N R , giving amidines the general structure RnE(=NR)NR2. CONTENTS * 1 Carboxamidines * 2 Properties * 3 Derivatives * 3.1 Formamidinium cations * 3.2 Amidinate salts * 4 See also * 5 References CARBOXAMIDINES The skeletal formula of acetamidine (acetimidamide) When the parent oxoacid is a carboxylic acid , the resulting amidine is a CARBOXAMIDINE or CARBOXIMIDAMIDE ( IUPAC
IUPAC
name), and has the following general structure: Carboxamidines are frequently referred to simply as amidines, as they are the most commonly encountered type of amidine in organic chemistry . The simplest amidine is formamidine, HC(=NH)NH2
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Triclocarban
TRICLOCARBAN is an antibacterial agent common in personal care products like soaps and lotions as well as in the medical field, for which it was originally developed. Studies on its antibacterial qualities and mechanisms are growing. Research suggests that it is similar in its mechanism to triclosan and is effective in fighting infections by targeting the growth of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus . Additional research seeks to understand its potential for causing antibacterial resistance and its effects on organismal and environmental health
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