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Dental Caries
TOOTH DECAY, also known as DENTAL CARIES or CAVITIES, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria . The cavities may be a number of different colors from yellow to black. Symptoms may include pain and difficulty with eating. Complications may include inflammation of the tissue around the tooth , tooth loss , and infection or abscess formation. The cause of caries is acid from bacteria dissolving the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel , dentin and cementum ). The acid is produced from food debris or sugar on the tooth surface. Simple sugars in food are these bacteria's primary energy source and thus a diet high in simple sugar is a risk factor. If mineral breakdown is greater than build up from sources such as saliva , caries results. Risk factors include conditions that result in less saliva such as: diabetes mellitus , Sjogren\'s syndrome and some medications
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Developed World
A DEVELOPED COUNTRY, INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRY, MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRY, or "MORE ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPED COUNTRY" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income , level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living. Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate. Developed countries have post-industrial economies, meaning the service sector provides more wealth than the industrial sector . They are contrasted with developing countries , which are in the process of industrialization , or undeveloped countries, which are pre-industrial and almost entirely agrarian
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Developing World
A DEVELOPING COUNTRY, also called a LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRY or an UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRY, is a nation or a sovereign state with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. There are no universally agreed-upon criteria for what makes a country developing versus developed and which countries fit these two categories, although there are general reference points such as a nation's GDP per capita compared with other nations. Also the general term less-developed country should not be confused with the specific least developed country . The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a dynamic or expected direction of progress. Since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than the developed ones. There is criticism for using the term developing country
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Halitosis
BAD BREATH, also known as HALITOSIS, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant odor is present on the breath . It can result in anxiety among those affected. It is also associated with depression and symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder . Concerns of bad breath may be divided into genuine and non-genuine cases. Of those who have genuine bad breath, about 85% of cases come from inside the mouth. The remaining cases are believed to be due to disorders in the nose , sinuses , throat , lungs , esophagus , or stomach . Rarely, bad breath can be due to an underlying medical condition such as liver failure or ketoacidosis . Non-genuine cases occur when someone feels they have bad breath but someone else cannot detect it. This is estimated to make up between 5% and 70% of cases. The treatment depends on the underlying cause. Initial efforts may include tongue cleaning , mouthwash , and flossing
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Regeneration (biology)
In BIOLOGY , REGENERATION is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes , cells , organisms , and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans. Regeneration can either be complete where the new tissue is the same as the lost tissue, or incomplete where after the necrotic tissue comes fibrosis . At its most elementary level, regeneration is mediated by the molecular processes of gene regulation . Regeneration in biology, however, mainly refers to the morphogenic processes that characterize the phenotypic plasticity of traits allowing multi-cellular organisms to repair and maintain the integrity of their physiological and morphological states. Above the genetic level, regeneration is fundamentally regulated by asexual cellular processes. Regeneration is different from reproduction
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Osteolysis
OSTEOLYSIS is an active resorption of bone matrix by osteoclasts and can be interpreted as the reverse of ossification . Although osteoclasts are active during the natural formation of healthy bone the term "osteolysis" specifically refers to a pathological process. Osteolysis often occurs in the proximity of a prosthesis that causes either an immunological response or changes in the bone's structural load . Osteolysis may also be caused by pathologies like bone tumors , cysts, or chronic inflammation. IN JOINT REPLACEMENTWhile bone resorption is commonly associated with many diseases or joint problems, the term osteolysis generally refers to a problem common to artificial joint replacements such as total hip replacements , total knee replacements and total shoulder replacements. Osteolysis can also be associated with the radiographic changes seen in those with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw
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Acid
An ACID is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid). The first category of acids is the proton donors or Brønsted acids . In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H3O+ and are known as Arrhenius acids . Brønsted and Lowry generalized the Arrhenius theory to include non-aqueous solvents. A Brønsted or Arrhenius acid usually contains a hydrogen atom bonded to a chemical structure that is still energetically favorable after loss of H+. Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid. Acids form aqueous solutions with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium ) to form salts . The word acid is derived from the Latin
Latin
acidus/acēre meaning sour
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Antihistamines
ANTIHISTAMINES are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies . Antihistamines can give relief when a person has nasal congestion , sneezing , or hives because of pollen , dust mites , or animal allergy . Typically people take antihistamines as an inexpensive, generic , over-the-counter drug with few side effects. As an alternative to taking an antihistamine, people who suffer from allergies can instead avoid the substance which irritates them. Antihistamines are usually for short-term treatment. Chronic allergies increase the risk of health problems which antihistamines might not treat, including asthma , sinusitis , and lower respiratory tract infection . Doctors recommend that people talk to them before any longer term use of antihistamines
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Soft Tissue
In anatomy , SOFT TISSUE includes the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being hard tissue such as bone . Soft tissue
Soft tissue
includes tendons , ligaments , fascia , skin , fibrous tissues , fat , and synovial membranes (which are connective tissue ), and muscles , nerves and blood vessels (which are not connective tissue). It is sometimes defined by what it is not. Soft tissue
Soft tissue
has been defined as "nonepithelial, extraskeletal mesenchyme exclusive of the reticuloendothelial system and glia "
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Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
CAVERNOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS (CST) is the formation of a blood clot within the cavernous sinus , a cavity at the base of the brain which drains deoxygenated blood from the brain back to the heart. The cause is usually from a spreading infection in the nose, sinuses, ears, or teeth. Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus
and Streptococcus
Streptococcus
are often the associated bacteria. Cavernous sinus thrombosis symptoms include: decrease or loss of vision, chemosis , exophthalmos (bulging eyes), headaches, and paralysis of the cranial nerves which course through the cavernous sinus. This infection is life-threatening and requires immediate treatment, which usually includes antibiotics and sometimes surgical drainage
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Fructose
FRUCTOSE, or FRUIT SUGAR, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose . It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose , that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion . Fructose
Fructose
was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847. The name "fructose" was coined in 1857 by the English chemist William Miller. Pure, dry fructose is a very sweet, white, odorless, crystalline solid and is the most water-soluble of all the sugars. Fructose
Fructose
is found in honey , tree and vine fruits, flowers, berries , and most root vegetables . Commercially, fructose is frequently derived from sugar cane, sugar beets, and maize . Crystalline fructose is the monosaccharide, dried, ground, and of high purity
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Glucose
GLUCOSE is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C 6H 12O 6. Glucose
Glucose
circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar . It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration . Glucose
Glucose
is stored as a polymer , in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen . With 6 carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose , a subcategory of the monosaccharides . D- Glucose
Glucose
is one of the 16 aldohexose stereoisomers . The D-isomer , D-glucose , also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose , does not. Glucose
Glucose
can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar, cane sugar, maltose, cellulose, glycogen, etc
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Streptococcus Sobrinus
STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS is a Gram-positive
Gram-positive
, catalase-negative, non-motile, and anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus
Streptococcus
. CONTENTS * 1 Pathology * 2 History * 3 Symbiosis * 4 Antibacterials * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links PATHOLOGYS. sobrinus in conjunction with the closely related species Streptococcus
Streptococcus
mutans are pathogenic within humans and enhances the formation of caries within teeth . Biofilm
Biofilm
from the mixture of sugar and plaque create a suitable environment for S. sobrinus to grow. S. sobrinus is more closely connected with the prevalence of caries than S. mutans. S. sobrinus is also affiliated with early childhood caries, which are responsible for the majority of dental abscesses and toothaches in children. Children generally acquire S
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Fermentation (food)
FERMENTATION IN FOOD PROCESSING is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms —yeasts or bacteria —under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation usually implies that the action of microorganisms is desired. The science of fermentation is known as zymology or zymurgy. The term fermentation sometimes refers specifically to the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol , producing alcoholic drinks such as wine , beer , and cider . However, similar processes take place in the leavening of bread (CO2 produced by yeast activity), and in the preservation of sour foods with the production of lactic acid , such as in sauerkraut and yogurt . Other widely consumed fermented foods include vinegar , olives , and cheese . More localised foods prepared by fermentation may also be based on beans, grain, vegetables, fruit, honey, dairy products, fish, meat, or tea
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Buffering Capacity
A BUFFER SOLUTION (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base , or vice versa. Its pH changes very little when a small amount of strong acid or base is added to it. Buffer solutions are used as a means of keeping pH at a nearly constant value in a wide variety of chemical applications. In nature, there are many systems that use buffering for pH regulation. For example, the bicarbonate buffering system is used to regulate the pH of blood . CONTENTS* 1 Principles of buffering * 1.1 Buffer capacity * 2 Applications * 2.1 Simple buffering agents * 2.2 "Universal" buffer mixtures * 2.3 Common buffer compounds used in biology * 3 Calculating buffer pH * 3.1 Monoprotic acids * 3.2 Polyprotic acids * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PRINCIPLES OF BUFFERING Simulated titration of an acidified solution of a weak acid (pKa = 4.7) with alkali
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Carbohydrate
A CARBOHYDRATE is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n). This formula holds true for monosaccharides . Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose , a sugar component of DNA
DNA
, has the empirical formula C5H10O4. The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketones . The term is most common in biochemistry , where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars , starch , and cellulose . The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides , oligosaccharides , and polysaccharides . Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest (lower molecular weight ) carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars
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