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Denis Of Portugal
Denis (Portuguese: Dinis or Diniz, IPA: [diˈniʃ]; 9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 in Santarém), called the Farmer King (Rei Lavrador)[1] and the Poet King (Rei Poeta), was King of Portugal
Portugal
and the Algarve. The eldest son of Afonso III of Portugal
Afonso III of Portugal
by his second wife, Beatrice of Castile, and grandson of king Alfonso X of Castile (known as the Wise), Denis succeeded his father in 1279
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Dinis (other)
Dinis
Dinis
was the sixth King of Portugal and the Algarve. Dinis
Dinis
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Troubadour
A troubadour (English: /ˈtruːbədʊər/, French: [tʁubaduʁ]; Occitan: trobador, IPA: [tɾuβaˈðu]) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan
Old Occitan
lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350). Since the word troubadour is etymologically masculine, a female troubadour is usually called a trobairitz. The troubadour school or tradition began in the late 11th century in Occitania, but it subsequently spread to Italy and Spain. Under the influence of the troubadours, related movements sprang up throughout Europe: the Minnesang
Minnesang
in Germany, trovadorismo in Galicia and Portugal, and that of the trouvères in northern France. Dante Alighieri in his De vulgari eloquentia
De vulgari eloquentia
defined the troubadour lyric as fictio rethorica musicaque poita: rhetorical, musical, and poetical fiction
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Iron
Iron
Iron
is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust
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Denis King
Denis Andrew King (born 25 July 1939) is an English Ivor Novello award-winning composer, singer and actor. He is best remembered as a member of a family ensemble, The King Brothers.Contents1 Early career: the King Brothers 2 Later career 3 References 4 External linksEarly career: the King Brothers[edit] King was born in Hornchurch, Essex. He began his musical career at the age of six as a banjolele-playing singer at children's matinees and, by the age of thirteen, with his two older brothers, Mike and Tony, was a member of one of the most successful pop groups of the 1950s and 1960s, The King Brothers[1] — considered by many to be Britain’s first boy band. Denis played the piano, Mike the guitar, Tony the double bass. By the time King was thirteen The King Brothers were touring around the U.K
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Republic Of Genoa
The Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
(Ligurian: Repúbrica de Zêna, pronounced [reˈpybrika de ˈze:na]; Latin: Res Publica Ianuensis; Italian: Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria
Liguria
on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica
Corsica
from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean. It began when Genoa
Genoa
became a self-governing commune within the imperial Kingdom of Italy, and ended when it was conquered by the French First Republic
French First Republic
under Napoleon
Napoleon
and replaced with the Ligurian Republic. Corsica
Corsica
was ceded to France
France
in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768
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Pope Clement V
Pope
Pope
Clement V (Latin: Clemens V; c. 1264 – 20 April 1314), born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Guoth and de Goth), was Pope
Pope
from 5 June 1305 to his death in 1314
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Knights Templar
The Crusades, including: Siege of Ascalon (1153) Battle of Montgisard
Battle of Montgisard
(1177) Battle of Marj Ayyun (1179) Battle of Hattin
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Order Of The Temple
The Crusades, including: Siege of Ascalon (1153) Battle of Montgisard
Battle of Montgisard
(1177) Battle of Marj Ayyun (1179) Battle of Hattin
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Pope John XXII
Pope
Pope
John XXII (Latin: Ioannes XXII; 1244[1] – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was Pope
Pope
from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334. He was the second and longest-reigning Avignon
Avignon
Pope, elected by the Conclave of Cardinals, which was assembled in Lyon
Lyon
through the work of King Louis X's brother Philip, the Count of Poitiers, later King Philip V of France
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Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
(Galician: galego-portugués or galaico-portugués, Portuguese: galego-português or galaico-português), also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. Alternatively, it can be considered a historical period of the Galician and Portuguese languages. Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
was first spoken in the area bounded in the north and west by the Atlantic Ocean, and by the Douro River
Douro River
in the south, comprising Galicia and northern Portugal, but it was later extended south of the Douro by the Reconquista. It is the common ancestor of modern Portuguese, Galician, Eonavian
Eonavian
and Fala varieties, all of which maintain a very high level of mutual intelligibility
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Trovadorismo
In the Middle Ages, the Galician-Portuguese lyric, also known as trovadorismo in Portugal and trobadorismo in Galicia, was a lyric poetic school or movement. All told, there are around 1680 texts in the so-called secular lyric or lírica profana (see Cantigas de Santa Maria for the religious lyric). At the time Galician-Portuguese was the language used in nearly all of Iberia for lyric (as opposed to epic) poetry. From this language derives both modern Galician and Portuguese. The school, which was influenced to some extent (mainly in certain formal aspects) by the Occitan troubadours, is first documented at the end of the twelfth century and lasted until the middle of the fourteenth, with its zenith coming in the middle of the thirteenth century, centered on the person of Alfonso X, The Wise King
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Silver
Silver
Silver
is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin
Latin
argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
h₂erǵ: "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form ("native silver"), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining. Silver
Silver
has long been valued as a precious metal
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Cantigas De Amigo
The Cantiga de amigo (Portuguese: [kɐ̃ˈtiɣɐ ð(j) ɐˈmiɣu], Galician: [kaŋˈtiɣa ðe aˈmiɣo]) or Cantiga d'amigo (Old Galician-Portuguese spelling), literally a "song of a friend", is a genre of medieval lyric poetry, apparently rooted in a song tradition native to the northwest quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula. What mainly distinguishes the cantiga de amigo is its focus on a world of female-voiced communication. The earliest examples that survive are dated from roughly the 1220s, and nearly all 500 were composed before 1300. Cantigas d'amigo are found mainly in the Cancioneiro Colocci-Brancuti, now in Lisbon's Biblioteca Nacional, and in the Cancioneiro da Vaticana, both copied in Italy at the beginning of the 16th century (possibly around 1525) at the behest of the Italian humanist Angelo Colocci
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Galician-Portuguese Lyric
In the Middle Ages, the Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
lyric, also known as trovadorismo in Portugal
Portugal
and trobadorismo in Galicia, was a lyric poetic school or movement. All told, there are around 1680 texts in the so-called secular lyric or lírica profana (see Cantigas de Santa Maria for the religious lyric). At the time Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
was the language used in nearly all of Iberia for lyric (as opposed to epic) poetry. From this language derives both modern Galician and Portuguese. The school, which was influenced to some extent (mainly in certain formal aspects) by the Occitan
Occitan
troubadours, is first documented at the end of the twelfth century and lasted until the middle of the fourteenth, with its zenith coming in the middle of the thirteenth century, centered on the person of Alfonso X, The Wise King
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Cancioneiro Da Biblioteca Nacional
Cancioneiro Colocci-BrancutiThe Cancioneiro da Biblioteca Nacional (Portuguese: [kɐ̃sjuˈnɐjɾu ðɐ βiβliuˈtɛkɐ nɐsjuˈnaɫ], Galician: [kaŋθjoˈnejɾo ða βiβljoˈtɛka naθjoˈnal], "The National Library Songbook"), commonly called Colocci-Brancuti, is a compilation of Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
lyrics by both troubadours and jograes (non-noble performers and composers) . These cantigas (songs) are classified, following indications in the poems themselves and in the manuscript tradition, into three main genres: cantigas de amigo (female-voiced love songs, about
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