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Denial-of-service Attack
In computing , a DENIAL-OF-SERVICE ATTACK ( DOS
DOS
ATTACK) is a cyber-attack where the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet
Internet
. Denial of service is typically accomplished by flooding the targeted machine or resource with superfluous requests in an attempt to overload systems and prevent some or all legitimate requests from being fulfilled. In a DISTRIBUTED DENIAL-OF-SERVICE ATTACK (D DOS
DOS
ATTACK), the incoming traffic flooding the victim originates from many different sources. This effectively makes it impossible to stop the attack simply by blocking a single source
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Advanced Persistent Threat
An ADVANCED PERSISTENT THREAT is a set of stealthy and continuous computer hacking processes, often orchestrated by a person or persons targeting a specific entity. An APT usually targets either private organizations, states or both for business or political motives. APT processes require a high degree of covertness over a long period of time. The "advanced" process signifies sophisticated techniques using malware to exploit vulnerabilities in systems. The "persistent" process suggests that an external command and control system is continuously monitoring and extracting data from a specific target. The "threat" process indicates human involvement in orchestrating the attack. APT usually refers to a group, such as a government , with both the capability and the intent to target, persistently and effectively, a specific entity
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Open-source Intelligence
OPEN SOURCE INTELLIGENCE (OSINT) is a term used to refer to the data collected from publicly available sources to be used in an intelligence context. In the intelligence community , the term "open" refers to overt, publicly available sources (as opposed to covert or clandestine sources). It is not related to open-source software or public intelligence . OSINT under one name or another has been around for hundreds of years. With the advent of instant communications and rapid information transfer, a great deal of actionable and predictive intelligence can now be obtained from public, unclassified sources
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United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team
The UNITED STATES COMPUTER EMERGENCY READINESS TEAM (US-CERT) is an organization within the Department of Homeland Security
Department of Homeland Security
’s (DHS) National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD). Specifically, US-CERT is a branch of the Office of Cybersecurity
Cybersecurity
and Communications' (CS">(PDF) (Report). * ^ "About the National Cybersecurity
Cybersecurity
and Communications Integration Center". Retrieved September 4, 2013. * ^ "US-CERT Infosheet Version 2" (PDF). Retrieved September 4, 2013. * ^ "US-CERT About Us". Retrieved September 4, 2013. * ^ "More Information about the Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team". Retrieved September 4, 2013. * ^ "US-CERT Home Page". Retrieved September 4, 2013. * ^ Coburn, Tom. (January 2015). "A Review of the Department of Homeland Security’s Missions and Performance"
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Presentation Layer
In the seven-layer OSI model
OSI model
of computer networking , the PRESENTATION LAYER is LAYER 6 and serves as the data translator for the network . It is sometimes called the syntax layer. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Services * 3 Sublayers * 3.1 CASE * 3.2 SASE * 4 Protocols * 5 References DESCRIPTIONThe presentation layer is responsible for the delivery and formatting of information to the application layer for further processing or display. It relieves the application layer of concern regarding syntactical differences in data representation within the end-user systems. An example of a presentation service would be the conversion of an EBCDIC
EBCDIC
-coded text computer file to an ASCII
ASCII
-coded file
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Application Layer
An APPLICATION LAYER is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network. The APPLICATION LAYER abstraction is used in both of the standard models of computer networking : the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and the Open Systems Interconnection model ( OSI model ). Although both models use the same term for their respective highest level layer, the detailed definitions and purposes are different. In TCP/IP, the application layer contains the communications protocols and interface methods used in process-to-process communications across an Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP) computer network . The application layer only standardizes communication and depends upon the underlying transport layer protocols to establish host-to-host data transfer channels and manage the data exchange in a client-server or peer-to-peer networking model
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Hop (networking)
In computer networking , a HOP is one portion of the path between source and destination. Data packets pass through bridges , routers and gateways as they travel between source and destination. Each time packets are passed to the next network device , a hop occurs. The HOP COUNT refers to the number of intermediate devices through which data must pass between source and destination. Since store and forward and other latencies are incurred through each hop, a large number of hops between source and destination implies lower real-time performance. CONTENTS * 1 Hop count * 2 Hop limit * 3 Next hop * 4 Next hop forwarding * 5 Diagnostics * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading HOP COUNTThe HOP COUNT refers to the number of intermediate devices (like routers) through which data must pass between source and destination, rather than flowing directly over a single wire
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IP Address
An INTERNET PROTOCOL ADDRESS (IP ADDRESS) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address
IP address
serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing . Version 4 of the Internet Protocol (IPv4) defines an IP address
IP address
as a 32-bit number. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses , a new version of IP ( IPv6 ), using 128 bits for the IP address, was developed in 1995, and standardized as RFC 2460 in 1998. IPv6 deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s. IP addresses are usually written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as 172.16.254.1 in IPv4, and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 in IPv6
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DOS
DOS
DOS
/dɒs/ is a family of disk operating systems primarily consisting of MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and a rebranded version under the name IBM PC DOS which were introduced in 1981, as well as some later compatible systems from other manufacturers: DR-DOS (1988), ROM-DOS (1989), PTS-DOS (1993), and FreeDOS (1998). MS-DOS
MS-DOS
dominated the x86-based IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995. Dozens of other operating systems also use the acronym "DOS", including the mainframe DOS/360 from 1966. Others are Apple DOS , Apple ProDOS , Atari DOS , Commodore DOS , TRSDOS , and AmigaDOS
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Client (computing)
A CLIENT is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server . The server is often (but not always) on another computer system , in which case the client accesses the service by way of a network . The term applies to the role that programs or devices play in the client–server model . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Types * 2.1 Fat * 2.2 Thin * 2.3 Hybrid * 3 References OVERVIEWA client is a computer program that, as part of its operation, relies on sending a request to another computer program (which may or may not be located on another computer). For example, web browsers are clients that connect to web servers and retrieve web pages for display. Email clients retrieve email from mail servers . Online chat
Online chat
uses a variety of clients, which vary depending on the chat protocol being used. Multiplayer video games or online video games may run as a client on each computer
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Land
LAND, sometimes referred to as DRY LAND, is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently covered by water . The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in land areas that support agriculture , habitat , and various natural resources . Some life forms (including terrestrial plants and terrestrial animals ) have developed from predecessor species that lived in bodies of water . Areas where land meets large bodies of water are called coastal zones . The division between land and water is a fundamental concept to humans. The demarcation between land and water can vary by local jurisdiction and other factors. A maritime boundary is one example of a political demarcation. A variety of natural boundaries exist to help clearly define where water meets land
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XDoS
XDOS may refer to: * Cromemco XDOS , a diagnostic and bootstrap program for the Cromemco XXU. * Pat Villani 's XDOS, an early predecessor to NSS-DOS, DOS/NT, DOS-C and the FreeDOS kernel * XML denial-of-service attack SEE ALSO * DOS (other)
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Application Firewall
An APPLICATION FIREWALL is a form of firewall that controls input , output , and/or access from, to, or by an application or service. It operates by monitoring and potentially blocking the input, output, or system service calls that do not meet the configured policy of the firewall. The application firewall is typically built to control all network traffic on any OSI layer up to the application layer . It is able to control applications or services specifically, unlike a stateful network firewall , which is - without additional software - unable to control network traffic regarding a specific application. There are two primary categories of application firewalls, network-based application firewalls and host-based application firewalls
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Cloud Computing
CLOUD COMPUTING is a form of Internet
Internet
-based computing that provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand. It is a model for enabling ubiquitous access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., computer networks, servers, storage, applications and services), which can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort. Cloud computing allows users and enterprises with various capabilities to store and process data in either a privately owned cloud, or on a third-party server in order to make data accessing mechanisms more efficient and reliable. Data centers that may be located far from the user–ranging in distance from across a city to across the world. Cloud computing
Cloud computing
relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economy of scale , similar to a utility
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CPU Time
CPU
CPU
TIME (or PROCESS TIME) is the amount of time for which a central processing unit (CPU) was used for processing instructions of a computer program or operating system , as opposed to, for example, waiting for input/output (I/O) operations or entering low-power (idle) mode. The CPU
CPU
time is measured in clock ticks or seconds. Often, it is useful to measure CPU
CPU
time as a percentage of the CPU's capacity, which is called the CPU
CPU
USAGE. CPU
CPU
time and CPU
CPU
usage have two main uses. The first use is to quantify the overall busyness of the system. When the CPU
CPU
usage is above 70%, the user may experience lag . Such high CPU
CPU
usage indicates insufficient processing power
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