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Denial-of-service Attack
In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet. Denial of service is typically accomplished by flooding the targeted machine or resource with superfluous requests in an attempt to overload systems and prevent some or all legitimate requests from being fulfilled.[1] In a distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack), the incoming traffic flooding the victim originates from many different sources. This effectively makes it impossible to stop the attack simply by blocking a single source. A DoS or DDoS attack is analogous to a group of people crowding the entry door of a shop, making it hard for legitimate customers to enter, disrupting trade. Criminal perpetrators of DoS attacks often target sites or services hosted on high-profile web servers such as banks or credit card
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DOS
DOS
DOS
(/dɒs/, /dɔːs/[1]) is a family of disk operating systems.[2] DOS
DOS
primarily consists of MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and a rebranded version under the name IBM PC
IBM PC
DOS, both of which were introduced in 1981. Other later compatible systems from other manufacturers include DR-DOS
DR-DOS
(1988), ROM-DOS (1989), PTS-DOS (1993), and FreeDOS
FreeDOS
(1998). MS-DOS
MS-DOS
dominated the x86-based IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
market between 1981 and 1995. Dozens of other operating systems also use the acronym "DOS", including the mainframe DOS/360 from 1966
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United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team
The United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team
United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team
(US-CERT) is an organization within the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) National Protection and Programs Directorate
National Protection and Programs Directorate
(NPPD)
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OSI Model
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that comprise the contents of that path
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United States Department Of State
The United States
United States
Department of State (DOS),[3] often referred to as the State Department, is the United States
United States
federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.[4] Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, the State Department is responsible for the international relations of the United States, negotiates treaties and agreements with foreign entities, and represents the United States
United States
at the United Nations
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Application Layer
An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network. The application layer abstraction is used in both of the standard models of computer networking: the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and the OSI model. Although both models use the same term for their respective highest level layer, the detailed definitions and purposes are different. In TCP/IP, the application layer contains the communications protocols and interface methods used in process-to-process communications across an Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP) computer network. The application layer only standardizes communication and depends upon the underlying transport layer protocols to establish host-to-host data transfer channels and manage the data exchange in a client-server or peer-to-peer networking model
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Presentation Layer
In the seven-layer OSI model
OSI model
of computer networking, the presentation layer is layer 6 and serves as the data translator for the network.[1][2] It is sometimes called the syntax layer.[3]Contents1 Description 2 Services 3 Sublayers3.1 CASE 3.2 SASE4 Protocols 5 ReferencesDescription[edit] The presentation layer is responsible for the delivery and formatting of information to the application layer for further processing or display.[4] It relieves the application layer of concern regarding syntactical differences in data representation within the end-user systems
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Advanced Persistent Threat
An advanced persistent threat is a set of stealthy and continuous computer hacking processes, often orchestrated by a person or persons targeting a specific entity. An APT usually targets either private organizations, states or both for business or political motives. APT processes require a high degree of covertness over a long period of time. The "advanced" process signifies sophisticated techniques using malware to exploit vulnerabilities in systems. The "persistent" process suggests that an external command and control system is continuously monitoring and extracting data from a specific target. The "threat" process indicates human involvement in orchestrating the attack.[1] APT usually refers to a group, such as a government, with both the capability and the intent to target, persistently and effectively, a specific entity
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Open-source Intelligence
Open-source intelligence
Open-source intelligence
(OSINT) is data collected from publicly available sources to be used in an intelligence context.[1] In the intelligence community, the term "open" refers to overt, publicly available sources (as opposed to covert or clandestine sources)
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Network Performance
Network performance refers to measures of service quality of a network as seen by the customer. There are many different ways to measure the performance of a network, as each network is different in nature and design
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E-Trade
E-Trade
E-Trade
Financial Corporation (stylized as E*TRADE) is a financial services company organized in Delaware
Delaware
and headquartered in New York City. The company provides services for individuals and institutions that are investing online. The company offers an electronic trading platform for the purchase and sale of financial securities including common stocks, preferred stocks, futures contracts, exchange-traded funds, options, mutual funds, and fixed income investments. It also provides margin lending, online banking, and cash management services.Contents1 History1.1 Subprime portfolio divestiture in 2007 1.2 Post subprime reorganization2 Current operations 3 Advertising3.1 "E*Trade Baby" advertising campaign4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] In 1982, William A. Porter and Bernard A. Newcomb founded TradePlus in Palo Alto, California, with $15,000 in capital
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Client (computing)
A client is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server. The server is often (but not always) on another computer system, in which case the client accesses the service by way of a network.[1] The term applies to the role that programs or devices play in the client–server model.Contents1 Overview 2 Types2.1 Thick 2.2 Thin 2.3 Hybrid3 ReferencesOverview[edit] A client is a computer or a program that, as part of its operation, relies on sending a request to another program or a computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server(which may or may not be located on another computer). For example, web browsers are clients that connect to web servers and retrieve web pages for display. Email
Email
clients retrieve email from mail servers. Online chat
Online chat
uses a variety of clients, which vary depending on the chat protocol being used
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Anonymous (group)
Anonymous is a decentralized international hacktivist group that is widely known for its various DDOS
DDOS
cyber attacks against several governments, government institutions & government agencies, corporations, and the Church of Scientology. Anonymous originated in 2003 on the imageboard 4chan, representing the concept of many online and offline community users simultaneously existing as an anarchic, digitized global brain.[2][3][4] Anonymous members (known as "Anons") can be distinguished in public by the wearing of Guy Fawkes masks in the style portrayed in the graphic novel and film V for Vendetta.[5] However this ma
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GCHQ
The Government Communications Headquarters
Government Communications Headquarters
(GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.[3] Based in "The Doughnut" in the suburbs of Cheltenham, GCHQ is the responsibility of the country's Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, but it is not a part of the Foreign Office
Foreign Office
and its director ranks as a Permanent Secretary. GCHQ was originally established after the First World War
First World War
as the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) and was known under that name until 1946. During the Second World War
Second World War
it was located at Bletchley Park, where it was famed for its role in the breaking of the German Enigma codes
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Buffer Overflow
In information security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites adjacent memory locations. Buffers are areas of memory set aside to hold data, often while moving it from one section of a program to another, or between programs. Buffer overflows can often be triggered by malformed inputs; if one assumes all inputs will be smaller than a certain size and the buffer is created to be that size, then an anomalous transaction that produces more data could cause it to write past the end of the buffer. If this overwrites adjacent data or executable code, this may result in erratic program behavior, including memory access errors, incorrect results, and crashes. Exploiting the behavior of a buffer overflow is a well-known security exploit. On many systems, the memory layout of a program, or the system as a whole, is well defined
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CPU Time
CPU
CPU
time (or process time) is the amount of time for which a central processing unit (CPU) was used for processing instructions of a computer program or operating system, as opposed to, for example, waiting for input/output (I/O) operations or entering low-power (idle) mode. The CPU
CPU
time is measured in clock ticks or seconds. Often, it is useful to measure CPU
CPU
time as a percentage of the CPU's capacity, which is called the CPU
CPU
usage. CPU
CPU
time and CPU
CPU
usage have two main uses. The first use is to quantify the overall busyness of the system. When the CPU
CPU
usage is above 70%, the user may experience lag. Such high CPU
CPU
usage indicates insufficient processing power
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