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Denaturation (biochemistry)
Note 1: Modified from the definition given in ref.[1] Note 2: Denaturation can occur when proteins and nucleic acids are subjected to elevated temperature or to extremes of pH, or to nonphysiological concentrations of salt, organic solvents, urea, or other chemical agents. Note 3: An enzyme loses its catalytic activity when it is denaturized.[2]Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.[3] If proteins in a living cell are denatured, this results in disruption of cell activity and possibly cell death. Protein
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Intrinsically Unstructured Proteins
An intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) is a protein that lacks a fixed or ordered three-dimensional structure.[2][3][4] IDPs cover a spectrum of states from fully unstructured to partially structured and include random coils, (pre-)molten globules, and large multi-domain proteins connected by flexible linkers. They constitute one of the main types of protein (alongside globular, fibrous and membrane proteins).[5] The discovery of IDPs has challenged the traditional protein structure paradigm, that protein function depends on a fixed three-dimensional structure. This dogma has been challenged over the 2000s and 2010s by increasing evidence from various branches of structural biology, suggesting that protein dynamics may be highly relevant for such systems. Despite their lack of stable structure, IDPs are a very large and functionally important class of proteins. In some cases, IDPs can adopt a fixed three-dimensional structure after binding to other macromolecules
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Codon
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material ( DNA
DNA
or m RNA
RNA
sequences) into proteins. Translation is accomplished by the ribosome, which links amino acids in an order specified by messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA), using transfer RNA
RNA
(tRNA) molecules to carry amino acids and to read the m RNA
RNA
three nucleotides at a time. The genetic code is highly similar among all organisms and can be expressed in a simple table with 64 entries.[1] The code defines how sequences of nucleotide triplets, called codons, specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis. With some exceptions,[2] a three-nucleotide codon in a nucleic acid sequence specifies a single amino acid. The vast majority of genes are encoded with a single scheme (see the RNA
RNA
codon table)
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Denatured Alcohol
Denatured alcohol, also called methylated spirits or denatured rectified spirit, is ethanol that has additives to make it poisonous, bad tasting, foul smelling or nauseating, to discourage recreational consumption. In some cases it is also dyed. Pyridine, methanol,[1] or both can be added to make denatured alcohol poisonous, and denatonium can be added to make it bitter. Denatured alcohol
Denatured alcohol
is used as a solvent and as fuel for alcohol burners and camping stoves. Because of the diversity of industrial uses for denatured alcohol, hundreds of additives and denaturing methods have been used. The main additive has traditionally been 10% methanol, giving rise to the term "methylated spirits"
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Ovalbumin
Ovalbumin
Ovalbumin
(abbreviated OVA[1]) is the main protein found in egg white, making up approximately 55% of the total protein.[2] Ovalbumin displays sequence and three-dimensional homology to the serpin superfamily, but unlike most serpins it is not a serine protease inhibitor.[3] The function of ovalbumin is unknown, although it is presumed to be a storage protein.[4]Contents1 Research 2 Structure2.1 Change upon heating3 See also 4 References 5 External linksResearch[edit]
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Acetone
Acetone
Acetone
(systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.[12] It is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, and is the simplest and smallest ketone. Acetone
Acetone
is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically for cleaning purposes in laboratories. About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A.[13][14] It is a common building block in organic chemistry. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover, and as paint thinner. Acetone
Acetone
is produced and disposed of in the human body through normal metabolic processes. It is normally present in blood and urine. People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts
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Curdled
Curds are a dairy product obtained by coagulating milk in a process called curdling. The coagulation can be caused by adding enzymes rennet or any edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar, and then allowing it to coagulate. Also, adding lactic acid bacteria into milk and subsequent acid production will also result in gel formation of milk. The increased acidity causes the milk proteins (casein) to tangle into solid masses, or curds. Milk that has been left to sour (raw milk alone or pasteurized milk with added lactic acid bacteria) will also naturally produce curds, and sour milk cheeses are produced this way. Producing cheese curds is one of the first steps in cheesemaking; the curds are pressed and drained to varying amounts for different styles of cheese and different secondary agents (molds for blue cheeses, etc.) are introduced before the desired aging finishes the cheese. The remaining liquid, which contains only whey proteins, is the whey
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Solubility
Solubility
Solubility
is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture
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Polypeptide
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds. The covalent chemical bonds are formed when the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another. The shortest peptides are dipeptides, consisting of 2 amino acids joined by a single peptide bond, followed by tripeptides, tetrapeptides, etc
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Amino Acid
Amino acids
Amino acids
are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.[1][2][3] The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. About 500 naturally occurring amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code) and can be classified in many ways.[4] They can be classified according to the core structural functional groups' locations as alpha- (α-), beta- (β-), gamma- (γ-) or delta- (δ-) amino acids; other categories relate to polarity, pH level, and side chain group type (aliphatic, acyclic, aromatic, containing hydroxyl or sulfur, etc.)
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Ribosome
The ribosome (/ˈraɪbəˌsoʊm, -boʊ-/[1]) is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation). Ribosomes link amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) molecules. Ribosomes consist of two major components: the small ribosomal subunits, which reads the RNA, and the large subunits, which joins amino acids to form a polypeptide chain. Each subunit is composed of one or more ribosomal RNA
RNA
(rRNA) molecules and a variety of ribosomal proteins (r-protein or rProtein[2][3][4])
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˈkliːɪk, -ˈkleɪ.ɪk/ ( listen);[1] DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.[2][3] Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
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Homeostasis
Homeostasis
Homeostasis
can be defined as the stable state of an organism and of its internal environment;[1] as the maintenance or regulation of the stable condition, or its equilibrium;[2] or simply as the balance of bodily functions.[3] The stable condition is the condition of optimal functioning for the organism, and is dependent on many variables, such as body temperature and fluid balance, being kept within certain pre-set limits.[4] Other variables include the pH of extracellular fluid, the concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium ions, as well as that of the blood sugar level, and these need to be regulated despite changes in the environment, diet, or level of activity
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Translation (genetics)
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process transcription of DNA
DNA
to RNA
RNA
in the cell's nucleus. The entire process is called gene expression. In translation, messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) is decoded in a ribosome, outside the nucleus, to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide. The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of complementary t RNA
RNA
anticodon sequences to m RNA
RNA
codons. The tRNAs carry specific amino acids that are chained together into a polypeptide as the m RNA
RNA
passes through and is "read" by the ribosome. Translation proceeds in three phases:Initiation: The ribosome assembles around the target mRNA
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Posttranslational Modification
Post-translational modification
Post-translational modification
(PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis. Proteins are synthesized by ribosomes translating mRNA into polypeptide chains, which may then undergo PTM to form the mature protein product
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Atom
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element. Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms. Atoms are extremely small; typical sizes are around 100 picometers (a ten-billionth of a meter, in the short scale). Atoms are small enough that attempting to predict their behavior using classical physics – as if they were billiard balls, for example – gives noticeably incorrect predictions due to quantum effects. Through the development of physics, atomic models have incorporated quantum principles to better explain and predict the behavior. Every atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus. The nucleus is made of one or more protons and typically a similar number of neutrons. Protons and neutrons are called nucleons. More than 99.94% of an atom's mass is in the nucleus
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