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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος _dẽmos_ "people, tribe", ὄνομα _ónoma_ "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously _GENTILIC_ was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the _ Oxford English Dictionary _ and _Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary_. Examples of demonyms include a _ Pakistani _ for a person from Pakistan , _Swahili _ for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial _Kiwi _ for a person from New Zealand , and a _Cochabambino_ for a person from the city of Cochabamba . Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region. Thus a _Thai_ may be any resident or citizen of Thailand of any ethnic group, or more narrowly a member of the Thai people . Conversely, some groups of people may be associated with multiple demonyms. For example, a native of the United Kingdom may be called a _ British person _, a _Briton_ or, informally, a _Brit_. In some languages, when a parallel demonym does not exist, a demonym is borrowed from another language as a nickname or descriptive adjective of a group of people
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Neologism
A NEOLOGISM (/niːˈɒlədʒɪzəm/ ; from Greek νέο- _néo-_, "new" and λόγος _lógos_, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language. Neologisms are often directly attributable to a specific person, publication, period, or event. In the process of language formation, neologisms are more mature than protologisms . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Sources * 3 History and meaning * 4 Literature * 5 Popular culture * 6 Translations * 7 Other uses * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links BACKGROUNDNeologisms are often created by combining existing words (see compound noun and adjective ) or by giving words new and unique suffixes or prefixes . Portmanteaux are combined words that are sometimes used commonly. "Brunch" is an example of a portmanteau word (breakfast + lunch). Lewis Carroll\'s "snark" (snake + shark) is also a portmanteau. Neologisms also can be created through abbreviation or acronym , by intentionally rhyming with existing words or simply through playing with sounds. Neologisms can become popular through memetics , by way of mass media , the Internet , and word of mouth , including academic discourse in many fields renowned for their use of distinctive jargon , and often become accepted parts of the language
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Oxford English Dictionary
The _OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY_ (_OED_) is a descriptive dictionary of the English language , published by the Oxford University Press . It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of _A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society_. In 1895, the title _The Oxford English Dictionary_ (_OED_) was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title _The Oxford English Dictionary_ fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989, when the second edition was published. Since 2000, a third edition of the dictionary has been underway, approximately a third of which is now complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988
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Pakistani
PAKISTANIS ( Urdu
Urdu
: پاكِستانى قوم‎; _Pakistani Qaum_) are the people who are citizens of the modern Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Pakistan
. Pakistan
Pakistan
is a multi-ethnic and multilingual state: the majority of its people belong linguistically to the Indo-Iranian group while the remaining minority mainly belongs to a small amount of other language groups and families. As of 2011, the estimated population of Pakistan
Pakistan
was over 199 million making it the world's sixth most-populous country. CONTENTS * 1 Ethnic sub-groups * 2 Culture * 3 Languages * 4 Religion * 5 Diaspora * 6 Notable people * 7 Further reading * 8 References ETHNIC SUB-GROUPS Main article: Ethnic groups in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan
has one of the world's fastest growing populations. As the country is located in South Asia
South Asia
, Pakistani people
Pakistani people
are a mixture of various indigenous ethnic groups
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Pakistan
Coordinates : 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اسلامی جمہوریہ پاكستان ( Urdu
Urdu
) _Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān_ _ Flag Emblem MOTTO: Īmān, Ittiḥād, Naẓm _ ایمان، اتحاد، نظم (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" ANTHEM: _Qaumī Tarānah _ قومی ترانہ "The National Anthem" Area controlled by Pakistan
Pakistan
shown in dark green; parts of the Kashmir
Kashmir
region (uncontrolled) shown in light green
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Swahili People
The SWAHILI PEOPLE (or WASWAHILI) are an ethnic and cultural group inhabiting East Africa
East Africa
. Members mainly reside on the Swahili Coast , in an area encompassing the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
archipelago, coastal Kenya
Kenya
, the Tanzania
Tanzania
seaboard, and northern Mozambique
Mozambique
. The name Swahili is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
word Sawahil سواحل, meaning "coasts." The Swahili speak the Swahili language
Swahili language
, which belongs to the Bantu branch of the Niger-Congo family. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Religion * 3 Language * 4 Economy * 5 Architecture * 6 Notable people * 6.1 Tanzania
Tanzania
* 6.2 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
* 6.3 Kenya
Kenya
* 6.4 Comoros * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DEFINITIONThe Swahili people
Swahili people
originate from Bantu inhabitants of the coast of Southeast Africa , in Kenya
Kenya
, Tanzania
Tanzania
and Mozambique
Mozambique
. They are mainly united under the mother tongue of Swahili , a Bantu language
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Swahili Coast
The SWAHILI COAST refers to a coastal area in Southeast Africa inhabited by the Swahili people . It mainly consists of littoral Kenya , Tanzania and northern Mozambique . The term may also include some of the Indian Ocean islands , such as Zanzibar , Pate and Comoros , which lie off the Swahili Coast. The Swahili Coast has a distinct culture, demography, religion and geography, and as a result - along with other factors, including economic - has witnessed rising secessionism
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Kiwi (people)
KIWI is the nickname used internationally for people from New Zealand , as well as being a relatively common self-reference. The name derives from the kiwi , a flightless bird , which is native to—and the national symbol of—New Zealand. Unlike many demographic labels, its usage is not considered offensive; it is generally viewed as a symbol of pride and endearment for the people of New Zealand. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Current usage * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORY RNZAF roundel, featuring an outline of a kiwi bird In the early 1900s New Zealanders—including soldiers and the All Blacks —were referred to as "En Zed(der)s", or "Maorilanders" (referring to the indigenous Māori , and their historical contribution to the country). These terms were still in usage near the end of the First World War . However, although New Zealand soldiers were often described as "Diggers" or "Pig Islanders", by 1917 they were also being called "Kiwis". The image of the kiwi had appeared on military badges since the South Canterbury Battalion used it in 1886, and it was taken up by several regiments in the First World War. "Kiwi" came to mean first the men of New Zealand
New Zealand
regiments. The nickname is not thought to have originated as a reference to the physical attributes of the New Zealand servicemen (i.e
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New Zealand
NEW ZEALAND /njuːˈziːlənd/ (_ listen ) (Māori : AOTEAROA _ ) is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean . The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island (or _Te Ika-a-Māui_), and the South Island (or _Te Waipounamu_)—and around 600 smaller islands . New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia , Fiji , and Tonga . Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps , owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington , while its most populous city is Auckland . Sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that later were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture . In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand
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Cochabamba
COCHABAMBA (Aymara : _Quchapampa_, Quechua : _Quchapampa_) is a city in central Bolivia , in a valley with the same name, in the Andes mountain range . It is the capital of the Cochabamba Department and is the fourth largest city in Bolivia , with a population of 630,587 according to the 2012 Bolivian census . Its name is from a compound of the Quechua words _qucha_, meaning "lake", and _pampa _, "open plain ". Residents of the city and surrounding areas are commonly referred to as _cochalas_, or, more formally, _cochabambinos_. It is known as the "City of Eternal Spring" and "The Garden City" because of its spring-like temperatures all year round. It is also known as "La Llajta", which means " town" in Quechua
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Ethnonym
An ETHNONYM (from the Greek : ἔθνος, _éthnos_, "nation" and ὄνομα, _ónoma_, "name") is the name applied to a given ethnic group . Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (where the name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms or ENDONYMS (self-designation; where the name is created and used by the ethnic group itself). As an example, the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group in Germany
Germany
is the Germans. This ethnonym is an exonym used by the English-speaking world, although the term itself is derived from Latin . Conversely, Germans themselves use the autonym of _die Deutschen_. Germans are indicated by exonyms in many European languages, such as French (_Allemands_), Italian (_tedeschi_), Swedish (_tyskar_) and Polish (_Niemcy_). CONTENTS * 1 Variations * 2 Change over time * 3 Linguistics * 4 See also * 5 References VARIATIONSNumerous ethnonyms can apply to the same ethnic or racial group, with various levels of recognition, acceptance and use. The State Library of South Australia contemplated this issue when considering Library of Congress Headings for literature pertaining to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people . Some 20 different ethnonyms were considered as potential Library of Congress
Library of Congress
headings, but it was recommended that only a fraction of them be employed for the purposes of cataloguing
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Thailand
Coordinates : 15°24′N 101°18′E / 15.4°N 101.3°E / 15.4; 101.3 Kingdom of Thailand ราชอาณาจักรไทย (Thai ) _Ratcha-anachak Thai_ _ Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Phleng Chat Thai _ (English: "Thai National Anthem") ROYAL ANTHEM : _ Sansoen Phra Barami
Sansoen Phra Barami
_ (English: "Glorify His prestige") Location of Thailand (green) in ASEAN
ASEAN
(dark grey) – Capital and largest city Bangkok
Bangkok
13°45′N 100°29′E / 13.750°N 100.483°E / 13.750; 100.483 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Thai SPOKEN LANGUAGES * Isan * Kam Mueang
Mueang
* Pak Tai ETHNIC GROUPS (2009; 2011 :95–99)* Thai ∟ 34.1% Central Thai ∟ 24.9% Khon
Khon
Isan ∟ 9.9% Khon
Khon
Muang ∟ 7.5% Southern Thai :95–99 * 14% Thai Chinese
Thai Chinese
* 12% Others (incl
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Thai People
The THAI (Thai : ไทย) or SIAMESE THAI (Thai : ไทยสยาม) people, also called CENTRAL THAI (Thai : ไทยภาคกลาง), SOUTHERN THAI (Thai : ไทยภาคใต้), KHORAT THAI (Thai : ไทยโคราช) or LITTLE THAI (Thai : ไทยน้อย, rtgs : Thai Noi, contrast with Shans ), are a nation and Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, primarily Thailand . As a part of the larger Tai ethnolinguistic group native to Southeast Asia as well as southern China and Northeast India , Thais speak the Thai language , which exists in different regional variants, and is classified as part of the Tai–Kadai family of languages . Majority of Thais are followers of Theravada Buddhism . "Thai people" usually includes central and southern Thai (Siamese proper, or Tai Siam), northern Thai (Lanna) and Isan people . The term _Thai people_ has a loose meaning and sometimes also refers to the population of Thailand in general, and not only to ethnic Thais
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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British Person
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
57,678,000 (British citizens of any race or ethnicity ) British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
247,899 UNITED STATES 40,234,652-72,065,000 1 678,000 2 CANADA 12,134,745 1 609,000 4 AUSTRALIA 9,031,100 1 1,300,000 4 HONG KONG 3,400,000 3 4 NEW ZEALAND 2,425,278 1 217,000 4 SOUTH AFRICA 1,600,000 750,000 4 CHILE 700,000 1 FRANCE 400,000 4 IRELAND 291,000 4 ARGENTINA 250,000 1 BRITISH OVERSEAS TERRITORIES 247,899 3 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 240,000 2 <
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Capitalization
CAPITALIZATION, or CAPITALISATION, is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction . The term is also used for the choice of case in text. Conventional writing systems (orthographies ) for different languages have different conventions for capitalization. The systematic use of capitalized and uncapitalized words in running text is called "mixed case". Conventions for the capitalization of titles and other classes of words vary between languages and, to a lesser extent, between different style guides. In some written languages, it is not obvious what is meant by the "first letter": for example, the South-Slavic digraph "nj" is considered as a single letter for the purpose of alphabetical ordering (a situation that occurs in many other languages) and can be represented by a single Unicode character, but at the start of a word it is written "Nj": only the "N" is capitalized. In contrast, in Dutch , when a word starts with the digraph "ij ", capitalization is applied to both letters, such as in the name of the city of IJmuiden . There is a single Unicode character that combines the two letters, but it is generally not used
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