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Demon
A DEMON (from Koine Greek
Koine Greek
δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion , occultism , literature , fiction , mythology and folklore . The original Greek word daimon does not carry the negative connotation initially understood by implementation of the Koine δαιμόνιον (daimonion), and later ascribed to any cognate words sharing the root. In Ancient Near Eastern religions as well as in the Abrahamic traditions , including ancient and medieval Christian demonology , a demon is considered an unclean spirit , a fallen angel , or a spirit of unknown type which may cause demonic possession , calling for an exorcism
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Paganism
PAGANISM is a term first used in the 4th century, by the early Christian community, for populations of the Roman world who worshipped many deities, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ). Alternate terms in Christian texts for the same group were "hellene " and "gentile ". Pagans and paganism were pejorative terms for the same polytheistic group, implying its inferiority. Paganism
Paganism
has broadly connoted the "religion of the peasantry", and for much of its history was a derogatory term. Both during and after the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, paganism was a pejorative term that was applied to any non-Abrahamic or unfamiliar religion , and the term presumed a belief in false god(s). No one before the 20th century self-identified as a "pagan"
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Eudaimonia
EUDAIMONIA (Greek : εὐδαιμονία ), sometimes anglicized as EUDAEMONIA or EUDEMONIA /juːdᵻˈmoʊniə/ , is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare ; however, "human flourishing " has been proposed as a more accurate translation. Etymologically, it consists of the words "eu" ("good") and "daimōn " ("spirit"). It is a central concept in Aristotelian ethics and political philosophy , along with the terms "aretē ", most often translated as "virtue " or "excellence", and "phronesis ", often translated as "practical or ethical wisdom". In Aristotle
Aristotle
's works, eudaimonia was (based on older Greek tradition) used as the term for the highest human good, and so it is the aim of practical philosophy, including ethics and political philosophy , to consider (and also experience) what it really is, and how it can be achieved
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Cult Image
In the practice of religion , a CULT IMAGE is a human-made object that is venerated or worshipped for the deity , spirit or daemon that it embodies or represents. Cultus, the outward religious formulas of "cult " (meaning religious practice, as opposed to the pejorative term for a potentially dangerous "new religion "), often centers upon the treatment of cult images, which may be dressed, fed or paraded, etc. Religious images cover a wider range of all types of images made with a religious purpose, subject, or connection. In many contexts "cult image" specifically means the most important image in a temple, kept in an inner space, as opposed to what may be many other images decorating the temple. The term IDOL is often synonymous with cult image, but may be used especially of a cult image believed not just to depict or represent a deity or spirit, but in some sense to be one itself
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Agathodaemon
An AGATHODAEMON (Greek : ἀγαθοδαίμων, agathodaímōn) or AGATHOS DAEMON (Greek : ἀγαθός δαίμων, agathós daímōn, lit. "noble spirit") was a spirit (daemon ) of the vineyards and grainfields in ancient Greek religion . They were personal companion spirits, comparable to the Roman genii , who ensured good luck , health , and wisdom . CONTENTS * 1 During the classical period * 2 During late antiquity * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links DURING THE CLASSICAL PERIODThough little noted in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
(Pausanias conjectured that the name was merely an epithet of Zeus
Zeus
), he was prominent in Greek folk religion; it was customary to drink or pour out a few drops of unmixed wine to honor him in every symposium or formal banquet
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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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Septuagint
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e Fragment of a Septuagint: A column of uncial book from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus
c. 325–350 CE, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton's Greek edition and English translation . The SEPTUAGINT (from the Latin
Latin
septuaginta, "seventy") is a Koine Greek translation of a Hebraic textual tradition that included certain texts which were later included in the canonical Hebrew Bible
Bible
and other related texts which were not. As the primary Greek translation of the Old Testament
Old Testament
, it is also called the GREEK OLD TESTAMENT
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Aggadah
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium
Sirmium

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Ancient Greek Language
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Socrates
SOCRATES (/ˈsɒkrətiːz/ ; Greek : Σωκράτης , Sōkrátēs; 470/469 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian ) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy . He is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers , especially the writings of his students Plato
Plato
and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes . Plato\'s dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates
Socrates
to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates
Socrates
himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple', Plato"
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Christian
A CHRISTIAN (/ˈkrɪʃtʃən/ ( listen ), /ˈkrɪstiən/ ) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity
Christianity
, an Abrahamic , monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ . "Christian" derives from the Koine Greek
Koine Greek
word Christ ós (Χριστός), a translation of the Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
term mashiach ( Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
: מָשִׁיחַ). While there are diverse interpretations of Christianity
Christianity
which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus
Jesus
has a unique significance
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Plato
PLATO (/ˈpleɪtoʊ/ ; Greek : Πλάτων Plátōn, pronounced in Classical Attic ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece
Classical Greece
and the founder of the Academy
Academy
in Athens , the first institution of higher learning in the Western world . He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy , especially the Western tradition . Unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries , Plato's entire work is believed to have survived intact for over 2,400 years. Others believe that the oldest extant manuscript dates to around AD 895, 1100 years after Plato's death. This makes it difficult to know exactly what Plato wrote
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Numen
NUMEN, pl. NUMINA, is a Latin
Latin
term for "divinity ", or a "divine presence", "divine will." The Latin
Latin
authors defined it as follows. Cicero
Cicero
writes of a "divine mind" (divina mens), a god "whose numen everything obeys," and a "divine power" (vim divinam) "which pervades the lives of men." It causes the motions and cries of birds during augury. In Virgil
Virgil
's recounting of the blinding of the one-eyed giant, Polyphemus , from the Odyssey, in his Aeneid , he has Odysseus and his men first "ask for the assistance of the great numina" (magna precati numina). Reviewing public opinion of Augustus
Augustus
on the day of his funeral, the historian Tacitus reports that some thought "no honor was left to the gods" when he "established the cult of himself" (se ..
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Genius (mythology)
In Roman religion , the GENIUS (Latin: ; plural geniī) is the individual instance of a general divine nature that is present in every individual person, place, or thing. Much like a guardian angel , the genius would follow each man from the hour of his birth until the day he died. For women, it was the Juno spirit that would accompany each of them. CONTENTS * 1 Nature of the genius * 2 Specific genii * 3 History of the concept * 3.1 Origin * 3.2 Imperial genii * 4 Roman iconography * 4.1 Coins * 5 Modern-era representations * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Additional reading * 9 External links NATURE OF THE GENIUSEach individual place had a genius (genius loci ) and so did powerful objects, such as volcanoes. The concept extended to some specifics: the genius of the theatre, of vineyards, and of festivals, which made performances successful, grapes grow, and celebrations succeed, respectively
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