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Democratic Party Presidential Primaries, 1952
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics. In politics, president is a title given to leaders of republican states. The functions exercised by a president vary according to the form of government. In parliamentary and semi-presidential republics, they are limited to those of the head of state, and are thus largely ceremonial. In presidential republics, the role of the president is more prominent, encompassing also (in most cases) the functions of the head of government
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President (corporate Title)
The President is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. In many organizations, it is the legally recognized highest "titled" corporate officer, ranking above the various Vice Presidents (e.g. Senior Vice President and Executive Vice President). The president may also be the chairperson. The relationship between the president and the Chief Executive Officer varies, depending on the structure of the specific organization. In a similar vein to the Chief Operating Officer, the title of corporate President as a separate position (as opposed to being combined with a "C-Suite" designation, such as "President and Chief Executive Officer" or "President and Chief Operating Officer") is also loosely defined. The powers of the president vary widely across organizations and such powers come from specific authorization in the bylaws (e.g
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List Of Current Heads Of State And Government
This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government. In some cases, mainly in presidential systems, there is only one leader being both head of state and head of government. In other cases, mainly in semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of state and the head of government are different people. In semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of government role (i.e
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Parliamentary Republic
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies
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Directorial System
A directorial republic is a country ruled by a college of several people who jointly exercise the powers of a head of state or a head of government. In political history, the term directory, in French directoire, is applied to high collegial institutions of state composed of members styled director. The most important of these by far was the Directory of 1795–1799 in France.[1] The system was inspired by the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776, which prominently featured a collegial 12-member Supreme Executive Council with a primus inter pares President. Variants of this form of government, based on the French model, were also established in the European regions conquered by France
France
during the French Revolutionary Wars. In the past, Uruguay, Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(after Tito's death), Ukraine,[2] and other countries were ruled by directories
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Parliamentary System
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government
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Westminster System
The Westminster system
Westminster system
is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the British Parliament. The system is a series of procedures for operating a legislature
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Semi-parliamentary System
A semi-parliamentary system (also described as a neo-parliamentary or prime-ministerial system) is a classification of systems of government proposed by Maurice Duverger, in which citizens directly elect at the same time the legislature and the prime minister, possibly with an electoral law ensuring the existence of a parliamentary majority for the prime minister-elect.[1] As in a parliamentary system, the prime minister is responsible to the legislature and can be dismissed by it: this however effectively causes a snap election for both the prime minister and the legislature (a rule commonly expressed by the brocard aut simul stabunt aut simul cadent, Latin for "they will either stand together, or fall together"). Like semi-presidential systems, semi-parliamentary systems are a strongly rationalized form of parliamentary systems
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Aut Simul Stabunt Aut Simul Cadent
The Latin brocard aut simul stabunt aut simul cadent (or simul simul for short), meaning they will either stand together, or fall together, is used in law to express those cases in which the end of a certain situation automatically brings upon the end of another one, and vice versa. The first use of this expression in the mass media, which made it known to the non-specialists, was in occasion of one of the first crises between fascist Italy and the Vatican concerning the Concordat. Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI
is believed to have pronounced the sentence to express the fact that challenging the
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Semi-presidential System
A semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state
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Cohabitation (government)
Cohabitation is a system of divided government that occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as France, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament. It occurs because such a system forces the president to name a premier (prime minister) that will be acceptable to the majority party within parliament
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List Of State Leaders
This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government. In some cases, mainly in presidential systems, there is only one leader being both head of state and head of government. In other cases, mainly in semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of state and the head of government are different people. In semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of government role (i.e
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List Of National Governments
This is a list of the offices of heads of state, heads of government, cabinet, and legislature, of sovereign states
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Title
A title is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name in certain contexts. It may signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may be inserted between the first and last name (for example, Graf
Graf
in German, Cardinal in Catholic usage (Richard Cardinal Cushing) or clerical titles such as Archbishop)
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Constitutional Monarchy
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercise authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.[1] Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework
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State (polity)
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.[1][2] Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia, however for most of pre-history people lived in stateless societies. The first states arose about 5,500 years ago in conjunction with rapid growth of cities, invention of writing, and codification of new forms of religion. Over time, a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications for their existence (such as divine right, the theory of the social contract, etc.). Today, however, the modern nation-state is the predominant form of state to which people are subject. Some states are sovereign
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