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Dekatron
In electronics, a Dekatron
Dekatron
(or Decatron, or generically three-phase gas counting tube or glow-transfer counting tube or cold cathode tube) is a gas-filled decade counting tube. Dekatrons were used in computers, calculators and other counting-related products during the 1950s and 1960s. "Dekatron," now a generic trademark, was the brand name used by Ericsson Telephones Limited (ETL), of Beeston, Nottingham (not to be confused with the Swedish TelefonAB Ericsson
Ericsson
of Stockholm).A dekatron in operation.The dekatron was useful for computing, calculating and frequency-dividing purposes because one complete revolution of the neon dot in a dekatron means 10 pulses on the guide electrode(s), and a signal can be derived from one of the ten cathodes in a dekatron to send a pulse, possibly for another counting stage
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Tetrode Transistor
A tetrode transistor is any transistor having four active terminals.Contents1 Early tetrode transistors 2 Modern tetrode transistors 3 References 4 External linksEarly tetrode transistors[edit] There were two types of tetrode transistor developed in the early 1950s as an improvement over the point-contact transistor and the later grown junction transistor and alloy junction transistor. Both offered much higher speed than earlier transistors. Point-contact transistor
Point-contact transistor
having two emitters. It became obsolete in the middle 1950s. Modified grown junction transistor or alloy junction transistor having two connections at opposite ends of the base.[1] It achieved its high speed by reducing the input to output capacitance
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Carry (arithmetic)
In elementary arithmetic, a carry is a digit that is transferred from one column of digits to another column of more significant digits. It is part of the standard algorithm to add numbers together by starting with the rightmost digits and working to the left. For example, when 6 and 7 are added to make 13, the "3" is written to the same column and the "1" is carried to the left. When used in subtraction the operation is called a borrow. Carrying is emphasized in traditional mathematics, while curricula based on reform mathematics do not emphasize any specific method to find a correct answer.[citation needed] Carrying makes a few appearances in higher mathematics as well
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FinFET
A Fin Field-effect transistor(FinFET) is a MOSFET
MOSFET
tri-gate transistor built on a substrate where the gate is placed on two, three, or four sides of the channel or wrapped around the channel, forming a double gate structure. These devices have been given the generic name "finfets" because the source/drain region forms fins on the silicon surface. The FinFET
FinFET
devices have significantly faster switching times and higher current density than the mainstream CMOS
CMOS
technology. The term FinFET
FinFET
(fin field-effect transistor) was coined in 2001 by University of California, Berkeley, researchers (Profs
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European Union
The European Union
European Union
(EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe.[12] It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK)[15] or Britain,[note 11] is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands.[16] Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland
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CMOS
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS /ˈsiːmɒs/, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits. CMOS
CMOS
technology is used in microprocessors, microcontrollers, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS
CMOS
technology is also used for several analog circuits such as image sensors ( CMOS
CMOS
sensor), data converters, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication
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Quantum Circuit
In quantum information theory, a quantum circuit is a model for quantum computation in which a computation is a sequence of quantum gates, which are reversible transformations on a quantum mechanical analog of an n-bit register. This analogous structure is referred to as an n-qubit register.Contents1 Reversible classical logic gates 2 Quantum logic gates 3 Reversible logic circuits 4 Quantum computations 5 References 6 External linksReversible classical logic gates[edit] The elementary logic gates of a classical computer, other than the NOT gate, are not reversible
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Duodecimal
The duodecimal system (also known as base 12 or dozenal) is a positional notation numeral system using twelve as its base. In this system, the number ten may be written by a rotated "2" (2) and the number eleven by a rotated "3" (3). This notation was introduced by Sir Isaac Pitman.[1] These digit forms are available as Unicode characters on computerized systems since June 2015[2] as ↊ (Code point 218A) and ↋ ( Code point 218B), respectively.[3] Other notations use "A", "T", or "X" for ten and "B" or "E" for eleven. The number twelve (that is, the number written as "12" in the base ten numerical system) is instead written as "10" in duodecimal (meaning "1 dozen and 0 units", instead of "1 ten and 0 units"), whereas the digit string "12" means "1 dozen and 2 units" (i.e. the same number that in decimal is written as "14")
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Quinary
Quinary
Quinary
(base-5 or pental[1][2][3]) is a numeral system with five as the base. A possible origination of a quinary system is that there are five fingers on either hand. In the quinary place system, five numerals, from 0 to 4, are used to represent any real number. According to this method, five is written as 10, twenty-five is written as 100 and sixty is written as 220. As five is a prime number, only the reciprocals of the powers of five terminate, although its location between two highly composite numbers (4 and 6) guarantees that many recurring fractions have relatively short periods. Today, the main usage of base 5 is as a biquinary system, which is decimal using five as a sub-base. Another example of a sub-base system, is sexagesimal, base 60, which used 10 as a sub-base. Each quinary digit has log25 (approx
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Pentode Transistor
A pentode transistor is any transistor having five active terminals. Early pentode transistors[edit] One early pentode transistor was developed in the early 1950s as an improvement over the point-contact transistor.A point-contact transistor having three emitters
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Frequency Divider
A frequency divider, also called a clock divider or scaler or prescaler, is a circuit that takes an input signal of a frequency, f i n displaystyle f_ in , and generates an output signal of a frequency: f o u t = f i n n displaystyle f_ out = frac f_ in n where n displaystyle n is an integer. Phase-locked loop
Phase-locked loop
frequency synthesizers make use of frequency dividers to generate a frequency that is a multiple of a reference frequency
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Anode
An anode is an electrode through which conventional current flows into a polarized electrical device. This contrasts with a cathode, an electrode through which current flows out of an electrical device. A common mnemonic is ACID for "anode current into device".[1] The direction of conventional current in a circuit is opposite to the direction of electron flow, so (negatively charged) electrons flow out the anode into the outside circuit
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Cathode
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device. (This definition can be recalled by using the mnemonic CCD for cathode current departs.) A conventional current describes the direction in which positive electronic charges move. Electrons have a negative electrical charge, so the movement of electrons is opposite to that of the conventional current flow (consequently, the mnemonic cathode current departs also means that electrons flow into the device's cathode). Cathode
Cathode
polarity with respect to the anode can be positive or negative depending on how the device is being operated
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Inert Gas
An inert gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions. The noble gases often do not react with many substances[1], and were historically referred to as the inert gases. Inert gases are used generally to avoid unwanted chemical reactions degrading a sample. These undesirable chemical reactions are often oxidation and hydrolysis reactions with the oxygen and moisture in air. The term inert gas is context-dependent because several of the noble gases can be made to react under certain conditions. Purified argon and nitrogen gases are most commonly used as inert gases due to their high natural abundance (78% N2, 1% Ar in air) and low relative cost. Unlike noble gases, an inert gas is not necessarily elemental and is often a compound gas
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Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.[7][note 1] Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons. The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds
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