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Dehydration Reaction
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule. Dehydration reactions are a subset of condensation reactions. Because the hydroxyl group (–OH) is a poor leaving group, having a Brønsted acid catalyst often helps by protonating the hydroxyl group to give the better leaving group, –OH2+. The reverse of a dehydration reaction is a hydration reaction. Common dehydrating agents used in organic synthesis include concentrated sulfuric acid, concentrated phosphoric acid, hot aluminium oxide and hot ceramic. Dehydration reactions and dehydration synthesis have the same meaning, and are often used interchangeably. Two monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, can be joined together (to form sucrose) using dehydration synthesis
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Sucrose
β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside; β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranosyl-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranoside; α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranosyl-β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranoside , dodecacarbon monodecahydrate ((2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxapent-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxahexane-3,4,5-triol)IdentifiersCAS Number57-50-1 Y3D model (JSmol)Interactive imageChEBICHEBI:17992 YChEMBLChEMBL253582 YChemSpider5768 YDrugBankDB02772 YECHA InfoCard 100.000.304EC Number 200-334-9IUPHAR/BPS5411 PubChem CID5988
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Organic Syntheses
Organic Syntheses is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1921. It publishes detailed and checked procedures for the synthesis of organic compounds. A unique feature of the review process is that all of the data and experiments reported in an article must be successfully repeated in the laboratory of a member of the editorial board as a check for reproducibility prior to publication.[1][2] The journal is published by Organic Syntheses, Inc., a non-profit corporation.[3] An annual print version is published by John Wiley & Sons on behalf of Organic Syntheses, Inc.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] Prior to World War I, work on synthetic organic chemistry in the United States had been quite limited, and most of the reagents used in laboratories had to be imported from Europe
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Homer Burton Adkins
Homer Burton Adkins
Homer Burton Adkins
(16 January 1892 in Newport, Ohio
Ohio
– 10 August 1949 in Madison, Wisconsin) was an American chemist who studied the hydrogenation of organic compounds. Adkins was regarded as top in his field and a world authority on the hydrogenation of organic compounds.[1] Adkins is known for his wartime work, where he experimented with agents and poisonous gasses. Renowned for his work, Adkins eventually suffered a series of heart attacks and died in 1949.Contents1 Early life and work 2 World War II 3 Later life and death 4 Awards and honours4.1 Legacy5 References 6 External linksEarly life and work[edit] Adkins was born on January 16, 1892, in Newport, Ohio, the son of Emily (née Middleswart) and Alvin Adkins.[2] He grew up on a farm[2] with his brother and sister.[3] After attending and finishing high school in Newport, he entered Denison University
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Sugar
Sugar
Sugar
is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose. The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes) and is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk. Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2] Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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Amide
An amide (/ˈæmaɪd/ or /ˈæmɪd/ or /ˈeɪmaɪd/),[1][2][3] also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups). Most common are carboxamides (organic amides) (n = 1, E = C, x = 1), but many other important types of amides are known, including phosphoramides (n = 2, E = P, x = 1 and many related formulas) and sulfonamides (E = S, x = 2).[4] The term amide refers both to classes of compounds and to the functional group (RnE(O)xNR′2) within those compounds. Amide
Amide
can also refer to the conjugate base of ammonia (the anion H2N−) or of an organic amine (an anion R2N−)
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Carboxylic Acid
A carboxylic acid /ˌkɑːrbɒkˈsɪlɪk/ is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH).[1] The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R–COOH, with R referring to the rest of the (possibly quite large) molecule. Carboxylic acids occur widely and include the amino acids (which make up proteins) and acetic acid (which is part of vinegar and occurs in metabolism). Salts and esters of carboxylic acids are called carboxylates. When a carboxyl group is deprotonated, its conjugate base forms a carboxylate anion. Carboxylate
Carboxylate
ions are resonance-stabilized, and this increased stability makes carboxylic acids more acidic than alcohols
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Acrolein
cis-3-Hexenal (E,E)-2,4-DecadienalExcept where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).Y verify (what is YN ?)Infobox references Acrolein
Acrolein
(systematic name: propenal) is the simplest unsaturated aldehyde. It is a colourless liquid with a piercing, acrid smell
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Glycerol
Glycerol
Glycerol
(/ˈɡlɪsərɒl/;[4] also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. The glycerol backbone is found in all lipids known as triglycerides. It is widely used in the food industry as a sweetener and humectant and in pharmaceutical formulations
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Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry
is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.[1][2] Chemistry
Chemistry
addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions: cations and anions; hydrogen bonds; and Van der Waals force
Van der Waals force
bonds
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Organic Synthesis
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds via organic reactions.[1] Organic molecules often contain a higher level of complexity than purely inorganic compounds, so that the synthesis of organic compounds has developed into one of the most important branches of organic chemistry
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Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
(/haɪˈdrɒlɪsɪs/; from Ancient Greek hydro-, meaning 'water', and lysis, meaning 'to unbind') usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water. When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose), this is termed saccharification
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J. Chem. Educ.
The Journal of Chemical Education
Education
is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal available in both print and electronic versions. It is published by the Division of Chemical Education
Education
of the American Chemical Society and was established in 1924 by Neil Gordon.[1] The journal covers research on chemical education, and its target audience includes instructors of chemistry from middle school through graduate school and some scientists in commerce, industry, and government.[2] The editor-in-chief is Nobert J. Pienta of the University of Georgia. The Associate Editors are Renée S. Cole of the University of Iowa, Arthur Halpern of Indiana State University, John M. Risley of the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Gregory T. Rushton of Stony Brook University, Joanne L. Stewart of Hope College, and Marcy H. Towns of Purdue University. Marcy H
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Angew. Chem.
Angewandte Chemie (German pronunciation: [ˈʔaŋɡəˌvantə çeˈmiː], meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker). Publishing formats include feature length reviews, short highlights, research communications, minireviews, essays, book reviews, meeting reviews, correspondences, corrections, and obituaries. This journal contains review articles covering all aspects of chemistry
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