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Deamination
DEAMINATION is the removal of an amino group from a molecule . Enzymes
Enzymes
that catalyse this reaction are called DEAMINASES. In the human body , deamination takes place primarily in the liver , however glutamate is also deaminated in the kidneys . In situations of excess protein intake, deamination is used to break down amino acids for energy. The amino group is removed from the amino acid and converted to ammonia . The rest of the amino acid is made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen , and is recycled or oxidized for energy. Ammonia is toxic to the human system, and enzymes convert it to urea or uric acid by addition of carbon dioxide molecules (which is not considered a deamination process) in the urea cycle , which also takes place in the liver. Urea
Urea
and uric acid can safely diffuse into the blood and then be excreted in urine
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AP Endonuclease
APURINIC/APYRIMIDINIC (AP) ENDONUCLEASE is an enzyme that is involved in the DNA
DNA
base excision repair pathway (BER). Its main role in the repair of damaged or mismatched nucleotides in DNA
DNA
is to create a nick in the phosphodiester backbone of the AP site created when DNA glycosylase removes the damaged base. There are four types of AP endonucleases that have been classified according to their mechanism and site of incision. Class I AP endonucleases (EC 4.2.99.18) cleave 3' to AP sites by a β-lyase mechanism, leaving an unsaturated aldehyde, termed a 3'-(4-hydroxy-5-phospho-2-pentenal) residue, and a 5'-phosphate. Class II AP endonucleases incise DNA
DNA
5' to AP sites by a hydrolytic mechanism, leaving a 3'-hydroxyl and a 5'-deoxyribose phosphate residue
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DNA Polymerase
In molecular biology , DNA
DNA
POLYMERASES are enzymes that synthesize DNA
DNA
molecules from deoxyribonucleotides , the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA
DNA
replication and usually work in pairs to create two identical DNA
DNA
strands from a single original DNA molecule. During this process, DNA
DNA
polymerase "reads" the existing DNA strands to create two new strands that match the existing ones. These enzymes catalyze the following chemical reaction deoxynucleoside triphosphate + DNAn ⇌ diphosphate + DNAn+1 Catalyses DNA-template-directed extension of the 3\' - end of a DNA strand by one nucleotide at a time. Every time a cell divides , DNA
DNA
polymerases are required to help duplicate the cell's DNA, so that a copy of the original DNA
DNA
molecule can be passed to each daughter cell
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Nick Translation
NICK TRANSLATION (or HEAD TRANSLATION), developed in 1977 by Rigby and Paul Berg, is a tagging technique in molecular biology in which DNA Polymerase I is used to replace some of the nucleotides of a DNA sequence with their labeled analogues, creating a tagged DNA
DNA
sequence which can be used as a probe in fluorescent in situ hybridization or blotting techniques. It can also be used for radiolabeling . This process is called nick translation because the DNA
DNA
to be processed is treated with DNase to produce single-stranded "nicks". This is followed by replacement in nicked sites by DNA
DNA
polymerase I , which elongates the 3\' hydroxyl terminus , removing nucleotides by 5'-3' exonuclease activity, replacing them with dNTPs
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Abasic Site
In biochemistry and molecular genetics , an AP SITE (APURINIC/APYRIMIDINIC SITE), also known as an ABASIC SITE, is a location in DNA (also in RNA but much less likely) that has neither a purine nor a pyrimidine base, either spontaneously or due to DNA damage . It has been estimated that under physiological conditions 10,000 apurinic sites and 500 apyrimidinic may be generated in a cell daily. AP sites can be formed by spontaneous depurination , but also occur as intermediates in base excision repair . In this process, a DNA glycosylase recognizes a damaged base and cleaves the N-glycosidic bond to release the base, leaving an AP site. A variety of glycosylases that recognize different types of damage exist, including oxidized or methylated bases, or uracil in DNA. The AP site can then be cleaved by an AP endonuclease , leaving 3' hydroxyl and 5' deoxyribosephosphate termini (see DNA structure )
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DNA Methylation
DNA
DNA
METHYLATION is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA
DNA
molecule. Methylation can change the activity of a DNA
DNA
segment without changing the sequence. When located in a gene promoter , DNA methylation typically acts to repress gene transcription . DNA methylation is essential for normal development and is associated with a number of key processes including genomic imprinting , X-chromosome inactivation , repression of transposable elements , aging and carcinogenesis
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Amino
In organic chemistry , AMINES (US : /əˈmiːn, ˈæmin/ , UK : /əˈmiːn, ˈæmin, ˈeɪmin/ ) are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair . Amines are formally derivatives of ammonia , wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group (these may respectively be called alkylamines and arylamines; amines in which both types of substituent are attached to one nitrogen atom may be called alkylarylamines). Important amines include amino acids , biogenic amines , trimethylamine , and aniline ; see Category:Amines for a list of amines. Inorganic derivatives of ammonia are also called amines, such as chloramine (NClH2); see Category:Inorganic amines . Compounds with a nitrogen atom attached to a carbonyl group, thus having the structure R–CO–NR′R″, are called amides and have different chemical properties from amines
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DNA Sequencing
DNA
DNA
SEQUENCING is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA
DNA
molecule. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases—adenine , guanine , cytosine , and thymine —in a strand of DNA. The advent of rapid DNA
DNA
sequencing methods has greatly accelerated biological and medical research and discovery. Knowledge of DNA
DNA
sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, and in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis , biotechnology , forensic biology , virology and biological systematics
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Thymine
THYMINE /ˈθaɪmᵻn/ (T, THY) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA
DNA
that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T. The others are adenine , guanine , and cytosine . Thymine
Thymine
is also known as 5-METHYLURACIL, a pyrimidine nucleobase. In RNA
RNA
, thymine is replaced by the nucleobase uracil . Thymine
Thymine
was first isolated in 1893 by Albrecht Kossel and Albert Neumann from calves' thymus glands, hence its name. CONTENTS * 1 Derivation * 2 Theoretical aspects * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DERIVATIONAs its alternate name (5-methyluracil) suggests, thymine may be derived by methylation of uracil at the 5th carbon. In RNA
RNA
, thymine is replaced with uracil in most cases. In DNA, thymine (T) binds to adenine (A) via two hydrogen bonds, thereby stabilizing the nucleic acid structures
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Thymine-DNA Glycosylase
1WYW, 2D07, 2RBA, 3UFJ, 3UO7, 3UOB, 4FNC, 4JGC, 4XEG, 4Z3A, 4Z47, 4Z7B, 4Z7Z, 5CYS IDENTIFIERS ALIASES TDG, hThymine-DNA glycosylase, thymine DNA glycosylase EXTERNAL IDS MGI: 108247 HomoloGene: 2415 GeneCards: TDG GENE LOCATION (HUMAN) CHR. Chromosome 12 (human) BAND 12q23.3 START 103,965,804 bp END 103,988,874 bp GENE LOCATION (MOUSE) CHR
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HIV
The HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus ) that causes HIV
HIV
infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV
HIV
is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV
HIV
subtype. Infection with HIV
HIV
occurs by the transfer of blood , pre-ejaculate , semen , vaginal fluids , or breast milk . Within these bodily fluids, HIV
HIV
is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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APOBEC3G
2JYW, 2KBO, 2KEM, 3E1U, 3IQS, 3IR2, 3V4J, 3V4K, 4ROV, 4ROW IDENTIFIERS ALIASES APOBEC3G, A3G, ARCD, ARP-9, ARP9, CEM-15, CEM15, MDS019, bK150C2.7, dJ494G10.1, apolipoprotein B m RNA
RNA
editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3G EXTERNAL IDS OMIM: 607113 HomoloGene: 128348 GeneCards: APOBEC3G GENE LOCATION (HUMAN) CHR
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Adenine
ADENINE /ˈædɪnɪn/ (A, ADE) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative). Its derivatives have a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration , in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). It also has functions in protein synthesis and as a chemical component of DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
. The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA
RNA
. The image on the right shows pure adenine, as an independent molecule. When connected into DNA, a covalent bond is formed between deoxyribose sugar and the bottom left nitrogen, so removing the hydrogen. The remaining structure is called an adenine residue, as part of a larger molecule
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