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Deamination
DEAMINATION is the removal of an amino group from a molecule . Enzymes that catalyse this reaction are called DEAMINASES. In the human body , deamination takes place primarily in the liver , however glutamate is also deaminated in the kidneys . In situations of excess protein intake, deamination is used to break down amino acids for energy. The amino group is removed from the amino acid and converted to ammonia . The rest of the amino acid is made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen , and is recycled or oxidized for energy. Ammonia is toxic to the human system, and enzymes convert it to urea or uric acid by addition of carbon dioxide molecules (which is not considered a deamination process) in the urea cycle , which also takes place in the liver. Urea
Urea
and uric acid can safely diffuse into the blood and then be excreted in urine. CONTENTS* 1 Deamination
Deamination
reactions in DNA
DNA
* 1.1 Cytosine * 1.2 5-methylcytosine
5-methylcytosine
* 1.3 Guanine * 1.4 Adenine * 2 Additional proteins performing this function * 3 References DEAMINATION REACTIONS IN DNACYTOSINESpontaneous deamination is the hydrolysis reaction of cytosine into uracil , releasing ammonia in the process. This can occur in vitro through the use of bisulfite , which deaminates cytosine, but not 5-methylcytosine
5-methylcytosine

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Amino
In organic chemistry , AMINES (US : /əˈmiːn, ˈæmin/ , UK : /əˈmiːn, ˈæmin, ˈeɪmin/ ) are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair . Amines are formally derivatives of ammonia , wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group (these may respectively be called alkylamines and arylamines; amines in which both types of substituent are attached to one nitrogen atom may be called alkylarylamines). Important amines include amino acids , biogenic amines , trimethylamine , and aniline ; see Category:Amines for a list of amines. Inorganic derivatives of ammonia are also called amines, such as chloramine (NClH2); see Category: Inorganic amines . Compounds with a nitrogen atom attached to a carbonyl group, thus having the structure R–CO–NR′R″, are called amides and have different chemical properties from amines
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Molecule
A MOLECULE is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds . Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge . However, in quantum physics , organic chemistry , and biochemistry , the term _molecule_ is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions . In the kinetic theory of gases , the term _molecule_ is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are in fact monoatomic molecules. A molecule may be homonuclear , that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element , as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear , a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O). Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions , such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds , are generally not considered single molecules. Molecules as components of matter are common in organic substances (and therefore biochemistry). They also make up most of the oceans and atmosphere. However, the majority of familiar solid substances on Earth, including most of the minerals that make up the crust , mantle , and core of the Earth , contain many chemical bonds, but are _not_ made of identifiable molecules
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Enzyme
ENZYMES /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts . Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions . The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products . Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life. :8.1 The set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell. The study of enzymes is called _enzymology_ and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties. Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types. Most enzymes are proteins , although a few are catalytic RNA molecules . The latter are called ribozymes. Enzymes' specificity comes from their unique three-dimensional structures . Like all catalysts, enzymes increase the reaction rate by lowering its activation energy . Some enzymes can make their conversion of substrate to product occur many millions of times faster. An extreme example is orotidine 5\'-phosphate decarboxylase , which allows a reaction that would otherwise take millions of years to occur in milliseconds
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Catalysis
CATALYSIS (/kəˈtælᵻsᵻs/ ) is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a CATALYST (/ˈkætəlᵻst/ ), which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts of catalyst are required in principle. In general, reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy . In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst usually reacts to form a temporary intermediate which then regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process. Catalysts may be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase (usually gaseous or liquid) as the reactant molecules. A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactants, which are typically gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst. Enzymes and other biocatalysts are often considered as a third category
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Human Body
The HUMAN BODY is the entire structure of a human being . It is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems . They ensure homeostasis and the viability of the human body. It comprises a head , neck , trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen ), arms and hands , legs and feet . The study of the human body involves anatomy , physiology , histology and embryology . The body varies anatomically in known ways. Physiology focuses on the systems and organs of the human body and their functions. Many systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain homeostasis , with safe levels of substances such as sugar and oxygen in the blood. The body is studied by health professionals , physiologists, anatomists, and by artists to assist them in their work
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Liver
The LIVER is a vital organ only found in vertebrates . In humans , it is located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen , below the diaphragm . The liver has a wide range of functions, including detoxification of various metabolites , protein synthesis , and the production of biochemicals necessary for digestion . It also plays a role in metabolism , regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and hormone production. The liver is a gland . It is an accessory digestive gland and produces bile , an alkaline compound which aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids . The gallbladder , a small pouch that sits just under the liver, stores bile produced by the liver. The liver's highly specialized tissue consisting of mostly hepatocytes regulates a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions, including the synthesis and breakdown of small and complex molecules, many of which are necessary for normal vital functions. Estimates regarding the organ's total number of functions vary, but textbooks generally cite it being around 500. Terminology related to the liver often starts in _hepat-_ from ἡπατο-, the Greek word for liver. There is currently no way to compensate for the absence of liver function in the long term, although liver dialysis techniques can be used in the short term. Artificial livers are yet to be developed to promote long-term replacement in the absence of the liver
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Glutamate
GLUTAMIC ACID is an α-amino acid with formula C 5H 9O 4N. It is usually abbreviated as GLU or E in biochemistry . Its molecular structure could be idealized as HOOC-CH(NH 2)-(CH 2)2-COOH, with two carboxyl groups -COOH and one amino group -NH 2. However, in the solid state and mildly acid water solutions, the molecule assumes an electrically neutral zwitterion structure −OOC-CH(NH+ 3)-(CH 2)2-COOH. The acid can lose one proton from its second carboxyl group to form the conjugate base , the singly-negative anion GLUTAMATE −OOC-CH(NH+ 3)-(CH 2)2-COO−. This form of the compound is prevalent in neutral solutions. The glutamate neurotransmitter plays the principal role in neural activation . This anion is also responsible for the savory flavor (umami ) of certain foods, and used in glutamate flavorings such as MSG . In highly alkaline solutions the doubly negative anion −OOC-CH(NH 2)-(CH 2)2-COO− prevails. The radical corresponding to glutamate is called GLUTAMYL. Glutamic acid is used by almost all living beings in the biosynthesis of proteins , being specified in DNA
DNA
by the codons GAA or GAG. It is non-essential in humans, meaning the body can synthesize it
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Kidneys
The KIDNEYS are two bean -shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates . They filter the blood in order to make urine , to release and retain water, and to remove waste and nitrogen (the excretory system ). They also control the ion concentrations and acid-base balance of the blood. Each kidney feeds urine into the bladder by means of a tube known as the ureter . In humans, they are roughly 11 centimetres (4.3 in) in length. The kidneys regulate the balance of ions known as electrolytes in the blood, along with maintaining acid base homeostasis . They also move waste products out of the blood and into the urine, such as nitrogen-containing urea and ammonium . Kidneys also regulate fluid balance and blood pressure . They are also responsible for the reabsorption of water , glucose , and amino acids . The kidneys also produce hormones including calcitriol and erythropoietin . The kidneys also make an important enzyme , renin , which affects blood pressure through negative feedback . Located at the rear of the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneal space , the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries , and drain into the paired renal veins . Renal physiology is the study of kidney function, while nephrology is the medical specialty concerned with kidney diseases . Diseases of the kidney are diverse, but individuals with kidney disease frequently display characteristic clinical features
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Amino Acids
AMINO ACIDS are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups , along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon , hydrogen , oxygen , and nitrogen , although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. About 500 amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code ) and can be classified in many ways. They can be classified according to the core structural functional groups' locations as alpha- (α-), beta- (β-), gamma- (γ-) or delta- (δ-) amino acids; other categories relate to polarity , pH level, and side chain group type (aliphatic , acyclic , aromatic , containing hydroxyl or sulfur , etc.). In the form of proteins , amino acid residues form the second-largest component (water is the largest) of human muscles and other tissues . Beyond their role as residues in proteins, amino acids participate in a number of processes such as neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis . In biochemistry , amino acids having both the amine and the carboxylic acid groups attached to the first (alpha-) carbon atom have particular importance. They are known as 2-, ALPHA-, or α-AMINO ACIDS (generic formula H2NCHRCOOH in most cases, where R is an organic substituent known as a "side chain "); often the term "amino acid" is used to refer specifically to these
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Ammonia
Trihydrogen nitride Nitrogen trihydride IDENTIFIERS CAS Number * 7664-41-7 Y 3D model ( JSmol ) * Interactive image 3DMet B00004 Beilstein Reference 3587154 ChEBI * CHEBI:16134 Y ChemSpider * 217 Y ECHA InfoCard 100.028.760 EC Number 231-635-3 Gmelin Reference 79 KEGG * D02916 Y MeSH Ammonia
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Carbon
CARBON (from Latin : _carbo_ "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent —making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds . Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radioactive isotope , decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity . Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust , and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen , helium , and oxygen . Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds , and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life . It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen. The atoms of carbon can bond together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon . The best known are graphite , diamond , and amorphous carbon . The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is highly transparent . Graphite
Graphite
is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek verb "γράφειν" which means "to write"), while diamond is the hardest naturally occurring material known
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Hydrogen
HYDROGEN is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of circa 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table . Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe , constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state . The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed _protium_ (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons . The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch . At standard temperature and pressure , hydrogen is a colorless , odorless , tasteless , non-toxic, nonmetallic , highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds . Hydrogen plays a particularly important role in acid–base reactions because most acid-base reactions involve the exchange of protons between soluble molecules. In ionic compounds , hydrogen can take the form of a negative charge (i.e., anion ) when it is known as a hydride , or as a positively charged (i.e., cation ) species denoted by the symbol H+. The hydrogen cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds are always more complex
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Enzymes
ENZYMES /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts . Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions . The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products . Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life. :8.1 The set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties. Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types. Most enzymes are proteins , although a few are catalytic RNA molecules . The latter are called ribozymes. Enzymes' specificity comes from their unique three-dimensional structures . Like all catalysts, enzymes increase the reaction rate by lowering its activation energy . Some enzymes can make their conversion of substrate to product occur many millions of times faster. An extreme example is orotidine 5\'-phosphate decarboxylase , which allows a reaction that would otherwise take millions of years to occur in milliseconds
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Urea
50g/L ethanol ~4 g/L acetonitrile Basicity (pKb) 13.9 Magnetic susceptibility (χ) -33.4·10−6 cm3/mol STRUCTURE Dipole moment 4.56 D THERMOCHEMISTRYCRC HANDBOOK Std enthalpy of formation (ΔfHo298) -79.634 kcal/mol Gibbs free energy (ΔfG˚) -47.12 kcal/mol PHARMACOLOGY ATC code B05BC02 (WHO) D02AE01 (WHO) HAZARDS Safety data sheet JT Baker Flash point Non-flammable Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LD50 (median dose ) 8500 mg/kg (oral, rat) RELATED COMPOUNDS Related ureas Thiourea Hydroxycarbamide Related compounds Carbamide peroxide Urea phosphate Acetone Carbonic acid Carbonyl fluoride Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C , 100 kPa). N verify (what is YN ?) Infobox references UREA, also known as CARBAMIDE, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C O (N H 2)2. This amide has two –NH2 groups joined by a carbonyl (C=O) functional group . Urea
Urea
serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen -containing compounds by animals and is the main nitrogen-containing substance in the urine of mammals . It is a colorless, odorless solid, highly soluble in water, and practically non-toxic (LD50 is 15 g/kg for rats)
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Uric Acid
URIC ACID is a heterocyclic compound of carbon , nitrogen , oxygen , and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. It forms ions and salts known as URATES and ACID URATES, such as ammonium acid urate. Uric acid
Uric acid
is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides, and it is a normal component of urine . High blood concentrations of uric acid can lead to gout and are associated with other medical conditions including diabetes and the formation of ammonium acid urate kidney stones . CONTENTS* 1 Chemistry * 1.1 Solubility * 2 Biology * 3 Genetics * 4 Clinical significance * 4.1 High uric acid * 4.2 Gout
Gout
* 4.3 Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
* 4.4 Cardiovascular disease * 4.5 Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
* 4.6 Uric acid
Uric acid
stone formation * 4.7 Low uric acid * 4.8 Normalizing low uric acid * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links CHEMISTRY Uric acid
Uric acid
is a diprotic acid with pKa1 = 5.4 and pKa2 = 10.3. Thus in strong alkali at high pH, it forms the dually-charged full urate ion, but at biological pH or in the presence of bicarbonate ions, it forms the singly-charged hydrogen urate or acid urate ion. As its second ionization is so weak, the full urate salts hydrolyze back to hydrogen urate salts at pH values around neutral
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