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Deamination
DEAMINATION is the removal of an amino group from a molecule . Enzymes that catalyse this reaction are called DEAMINASES. In the human body , deamination takes place primarily in the liver , however glutamate is also deaminated in the kidneys . In situations of excess protein intake, deamination is used to break down amino acids for energy. The amino group is removed from the amino acid and converted to ammonia . The rest of the amino acid is made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen , and is recycled or oxidized for energy. Ammonia is toxic to the human system, and enzymes convert it to urea or uric acid by addition of carbon dioxide molecules (which is not considered a deamination process) in the urea cycle , which also takes place in the liver. Urea
Urea
and uric acid can safely diffuse into the blood and then be excreted in urine
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Amino
In organic chemistry , AMINES (US : /əˈmiːn, ˈæmin/ , UK : /əˈmiːn, ˈæmin, ˈeɪmin/ ) are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair . Amines are formally derivatives of ammonia , wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group (these may respectively be called alkylamines and arylamines; amines in which both types of substituent are attached to one nitrogen atom may be called alkylarylamines). Important amines include amino acids , biogenic amines , trimethylamine , and aniline ; see Category:Amines for a list of amines. Inorganic derivatives of ammonia are also called amines, such as chloramine (NClH2); see Category:Inorganic amines . Compounds with a nitrogen atom attached to a carbonyl group, thus having the structure R–CO–NR′R″, are called amides and have different chemical properties from amines
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Molecule
A MOLECULE is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds . Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge . However, in quantum physics , organic chemistry , and biochemistry , the term _molecule_ is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions . In the kinetic theory of gases , the term _molecule_ is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are in fact monoatomic molecules. A molecule may be homonuclear , that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element , as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear , a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O). Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions , such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds , are generally not considered single molecules
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Enzyme
ENZYMES /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts . Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions . The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products . Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life. :8.1 The set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell. The study of enzymes is called _enzymology_ and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties. Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types. Most enzymes are proteins , although a few are catalytic RNA molecules . The latter are called ribozymes
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Catalysis
CATALYSIS (/kəˈtælᵻsᵻs/ ) is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a CATALYST (/ˈkætəlᵻst/ ), which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts of catalyst are required in principle. In general, reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy . In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst usually reacts to form a temporary intermediate which then regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process. Catalysts may be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase (usually gaseous or liquid) as the reactant molecules. A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactants, which are typically gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst
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Human Body
The HUMAN BODY is the entire structure of a human being . It is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems . They ensure homeostasis and the viability of the human body. It comprises a head , neck , trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen ), arms and hands , legs and feet . The study of the human body involves anatomy , physiology , histology and embryology . The body varies anatomically in known ways. Physiology focuses on the systems and organs of the human body and their functions. Many systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain homeostasis , with safe levels of substances such as sugar and oxygen in the blood. The body is studied by health professionals , physiologists, anatomists, and by artists to assist them in their work
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Liver
The LIVER is a vital organ only found in vertebrates . In humans , it is located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen , below the diaphragm . The liver has a wide range of functions, including detoxification of various metabolites , protein synthesis , and the production of biochemicals necessary for digestion . It also plays a role in metabolism , regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and hormone production. The liver is a gland . It is an accessory digestive gland and produces bile , an alkaline compound which aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids . The gallbladder , a small pouch that sits just under the liver, stores bile produced by the liver. The liver's highly specialized tissue consisting of mostly hepatocytes regulates a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions, including the synthesis and breakdown of small and complex molecules, many of which are necessary for normal vital functions
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Glutamate
GLUTAMIC ACID is an α-amino acid with formula C 5H 9O 4N. It is usually abbreviated as GLU or E in biochemistry . Its molecular structure could be idealized as HOOC-CH(NH 2)-(CH 2)2-COOH, with two carboxyl groups -COOH and one amino group -NH 2. However, in the solid state and mildly acid water solutions, the molecule assumes an electrically neutral zwitterion structure −OOC-CH(NH+ 3)-(CH 2)2-COOH. The acid can lose one proton from its second carboxyl group to form the conjugate base , the singly-negative anion GLUTAMATE −OOC-CH(NH+ 3)-(CH 2)2-COO−. This form of the compound is prevalent in neutral solutions. The glutamate neurotransmitter plays the principal role in neural activation . This anion is also responsible for the savory flavor (umami ) of certain foods, and used in glutamate flavorings such as MSG . In highly alkaline solutions the doubly negative anion −OOC-CH(NH 2)-(CH 2)2-COO− prevails
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Kidneys
The KIDNEYS are two bean -shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates . They are located at the back of the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneal space . In adults they are about 11 centimetres (4.3 in) in length. They receive blood from the paired renal arteries ; blood exits into the paired renal veins . Each kidney is attached to a ureter , a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder .. The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. Each adult kidney contains around one million nephrons. The nephron utilizes four processes to alter the blood plasma which flows to it: filtration , reabsorption , secretion , and excretion . Via one or more of these mechanisms, the kidney participates in the control of the volume of various body fluid compartments, fluid osmolality , acid-base balance , various electrolyte concentrations, and removal of toxins
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Amino Acids
AMINO ACIDS are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups , along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon , hydrogen , oxygen , and nitrogen , although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. About 500 amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code ) and can be classified in many ways. They can be classified according to the core structural functional groups' locations as alpha- (α-), beta- (β-), gamma- (γ-) or delta- (δ-) amino acids; other categories relate to polarity , pH level, and side chain group type (aliphatic , acyclic , aromatic , containing hydroxyl or sulfur , etc.). In the form of proteins , amino acid residues form the second-largest component (water is the largest) of human muscles and other tissues
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Ammonia
Trihydrogen nitride Nitrogen
Nitrogen
trihydride IDENTIFIERS CAS Number * 7664-41-7 Y 3D model ( JSmol
JSmol
) * Interactive image 3DMet B00004 Beilstein Reference 3587154
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Carbon
CARBON (from Latin : _carbo_ "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent —making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds . Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radioactive isotope , decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity . Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust , and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen , helium , and oxygen . Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds , and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life . It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen
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Hydrogen
HYDROGEN is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of circa 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table . Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe , constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state . The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed _protium_ (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons . The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch . At standard t