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Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls (also Qumran Caves
Qumran Caves
Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the
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Palaeography
Palaeography
Palaeography
(UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from Greek: παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents). Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts,[2] and the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing and books were produced, and the history of scriptoria.[3] The discipline is important for understanding, authenticating, and dating ancient texts
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Judaean Desert
The Judaean Desert or Judean Desert (Hebrew: מִדְבַּר יְהוּדָה‎ Midbar Yehuda, both Desert of Judah or Judaean Desert; Arabic: صحراء يهودا‎ Sahara Yahudan) is a desert in Israel and the West Bank that lies east of Jerusalem and descends to the Dead Sea. It stretches from the northeastern Negev to the east of Beit El, and is marked by terraces with escarpments. It ends in a steep escarpment dropping to the Dead Sea and the Jordan Valley
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Ein Gedi
Coordinates: 31°27′0″N 35°23′0″E / 31.45000°N 35.38333°E / 31.45000; 35.38333 David
David
falls, Ein Gedi."The Window Dry fall", overlooking Ein Gedi
Ein Gedi
and the Dead Sea, Israel. Ein Gedi
Ein Gedi
(Hebrew: עֵין גֶּדִי‬, Arabic: عين جدي‎, translit. ‘ayn jady), literally "spring of the kid (young goat)" is an oasis and a nature reserve in Israel, located west of the Dead Sea, near Masada
Masada
and the Qumran
Qumran
Caves
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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En-Gedi Scroll
Coordinates: 31°27′0″N 35°23′0″E / 31.45000°N 35.38333°E / 31.45000; 35.38333David falls, Ein Gedi."The Window Dry fall", overlooking Ein Gedi and the Dead Sea, Israel.Ein Gedi (Hebrew: עֵין גֶּדִי‬, Arabic: عين جدي‎, translit. ‘ayn jady), literally "spring of the kid (young goat)" is an oasis and a nature reserve in Israel, located west of the Dead Sea, near Masada and the Qumran Caves
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Masada
Masada
Masada
(Hebrew: מצדה‎ metsada, "fortress"[1]) is an ancient fortification in the Southern District of Israel
Israel
situated on top of an isolated rock plateau, akin to a mesa. It is located on the eastern edge of the Judaean Desert, overlooking the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
20 km (12 mi) east of Arad. Herod the Great
Herod the Great
built palaces for himself on the mountain and fortified Masada
Masada
between 37 and 31 BCE
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Bronze
Bronze
Bronze
is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze
Bronze
Age. The beginning of the Bronze Age in Western Eurasia
Eurasia
and South Asia
Asia
is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BC, and to the early 2nd millennium BC in China;[1] everywhere it gradually spread across regions
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Arabic
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Parchment
Parchment
Parchment
is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats. It has been used as a writing medium for over two millennia
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Scroll
A scroll (from the Old French escroe or escroue), also known as a roll, is a roll of papyrus, parchment, or paper containing writing.[1]Contents1 Structure 2 History of scroll use 3 Rolls 4 Scotland 5 Replacement by the codex 6 Recent discovery 7 Modern technology 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksStructure[edit] A scroll is usually divided up into pages, which are sometimes separate sheets of papyrus or parchment glued together at the edges, or may be marked divisions of a continuous roll of writing material. The scroll is usually unrolled so that one page is exposed at a time, for writing or reading, with the remaining pages rolled up to the left and right of the visible page
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Paleography
Palaeography
Palaeography
(UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from Greek: παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents). Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts,[2] and the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing and books were produced, and the history of scriptoria.[3] The discipline is important for understanding, authenticating, and dating ancient texts
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First Jewish–Roman War
Judean Free Government:Sadducees PhariseesSupported by: Adiabene
Adiabene
volunteersPeasantry faction Idumeans
Idumeans
(69-70)Radical factions:Zealots
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John Hyrcanus
John Hyrcanus
John Hyrcanus
(/hərˈkeɪnəs/, יוחנן הורקנוס Yōḥānān Hurqanōs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωάννης Ὑρκανός Iōánnēs Urkanós) was a Hasmonean
Hasmonean
(Maccabeean) leader and Jewish high priest of the 2nd century BCE (born 164 BCE, reigned from 134 BCE until his death in 104 BCE). In rabbinic literature he is often referred to by the epithet, Yoḥanan Cohen Gadol (יוחנן כהן גדול).[1]Contents1 Name 2 Life and work 3 Siege of Jerusalem 4 Conquests by John Hyrcanus 5 Economy, foreign relations, and religion 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksName[edit] Josephus
Josephus
explains in The Jewish War
The Jewish War
that John was also known as "Hyrcanus", but does not explain the reason behind this name
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Koine Greek
Koine Greek
Koine Greek
(UK English /ˈkɔɪniː/,[1] US English /kɔɪˈneɪ/, /ˈkɔɪneɪ/ or /kiːˈniː/;[2][3]), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during Hellenistic and Roman antiquity and the early Byzantine era, or Late Antiquity. It evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries
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West Bank
The West Bank (Arabic: الضفة الغربية‎ aḍ-Ḍiffah l-Ġarbiyyah; Hebrew: הגדה המערבית‎, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control,[3] or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control. The final status of the entire area is yet to be determined by the parties concerned.[4] The West Bank shares boundaries (demarcated by the Jordanian-Israeli armistice of 1949) to the west, north, and south with Israel, and to the east, across the Jordan River, with Jordan
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