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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), also sometimes erroneously referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. American inventor and politician Benjamin Franklin proposed a form of daylight time in 1784. He wrote an essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light" to the editor of _The Journal of Paris _, suggesting, somewhat jokingly, that Parisians could economize candle usage by getting people out of bed earlier in the morning, making use of the natural morning light instead. New Zealander George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895. The German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the 1970s . The practice has both advocates and critics. Some early proponents of DST aimed to reduce evening use of incandescent lighting —once a primary use of electricity —today's heating and cooling usage patterns differ greatly, and research about how DST affects energy use is limited and contradictory
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Daylight Saving Time By Country
Most areas in North America and Europe , and some areas in the Middle East observe DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (DST), while most areas of Africa and Asia do not. In South America most countries in the north of the continent near the equator do not observe DST, while Paraguay
Paraguay
and southern parts of Brazil
Brazil
do. Oceania is also mixed, with New Zealand and parts of southeastern Australia
Australia
observing DST, while most other areas do not
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Daylight Saving (play)
DAYLIGHT SAVING is a comedy by Nick Enright about a married couple living in north Sydney. It was one of Enright's most popular works
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Summer Time (other)
SUMMERTIME may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Seasons and time of day * 2 Art, entertainment, and media * 2.1 Film * 2.2 Literature * 2.3 Music * 2.3.1 Albums * 2.3.2 Songs * 2.4 Television * 3 See also SEASONS AND TIME OF DAY * Summer
Summer
, one of the temperate seasons* Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time
or summer time, advancing the clock one hour during summer * British Summer
Summer
Time * Central European Summer
Summer
Time ART, ENTERTAINMENT, AND MEDIAFILM * Summertime (1955 film)
Summertime (1955 film)
, an American-British film starring Katharine Hepburn * Summertime (2001 film) , a South Korean film starring Choi Cheol-ho * Summertime (2015 film) , a French drama * Summer
Summer
Times, a 2009 Taiwanese film starring Bryant Chang and Shara LinLITERATURE * Summertime (novel) , 2009, by J. M. Coetzee * Summertime, a 1937 play by Ugo Betti
Ugo Betti
* Summertime, a 2000 play by Charles L
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CLOCK
4H10 IDENTIFIERS ALIASES CLOCK, KAT13D, bHLHe8, clock circadian regulator EXTERNAL IDS OMIM: 601851 MGI: 99698 HomoloGene: 3603 GeneCards: CLOCK GENE ONTOLOGY MOLECULAR FUNCTION • transferase activity • DNA binding • sequence-specific DNA binding • protein dimerization activity • core promoter binding • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding • histone acetyltransferase activity • RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding • E-box binding • core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding • protein binding • chromatin DNA binding • transferase activity, transferring acyl groups CELLULAR COMPONENT • cytoplasm • chromatoid body • intracellular membrane-bounded organelle • transcription factor complex • chromosome • nucleoplasm • nucleus BIOLOGICAL PROCESS • negative regulation of glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway • positive regulation of inflammatory response • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated • photoperiodism • regulation of insulin secretion • rhythm
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Benjamin Franklin
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN FRS , FRSE (January 17, 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States . Franklin was a renowned polymath and a leading author, printer, political theorist , politician, freemason , postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod , bifocals , and the Franklin stove , among other inventions. He facilitated many civic organizations, including Philadelphia's fire department and the University of Pennsylvania , an Ivy League institution. Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity , initially as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies. As the first United States Ambassador to France , he exemplified the emerging American nation. Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment
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Le Journal (Paris)
LE JOURNAL (The Journal) was a Paris
Paris
daily newspaper published from 1892 to 1944 in a small, four-page format. It was founded and edited by Fernand Arthur Pierre Xau until 1899. It was bought and managed by the family of Henri Letellier in 1899 and became "the most Parisian, the most literary, and the most boulevardier of the newspapers of Paris" (Simon Arbellot, see Curnonsky ). During World War I, Le Journal was at the center of an intrigue involving Paul Bolo , the essence of which was that the German government was alleged to be attempting to gain influence in France and promote pacifist propaganda by buying French newspapers. After the fall of Paris
Paris
on 14 June 1940, it fell back to Limoges , then Marseille
Marseille
, then Limoges again, and finally Lyon
Lyon
. It had various supplements: Le Journal pour tous, 1891–1906; La Mode du Journal, 1896–1898; La Vraie mode, 1898–1913; Le Journal (Édition du littoral), 1907–1911. This French newspaper-related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Le_Journal_(Paris) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Candle
A CANDLE is an ignitable wick embedded in wax or another flammable solid substance such as tallow that provides light , and in some cases, a fragrance . It can also be used to provide heat , or used as a method of keeping time . A candle manufacturer is traditionally known as a chandler . Various devices have been invented to hold candles, from simple tabletop candle holders to elaborate chandeliers . For a candle to burn, a heat source (commonly a naked flame) is used to light the candle's wick, which melts and vaporizes a small amount of fuel (the wax). Once vaporized, the fuel combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to ignite and form a constant flame . This flame provides sufficient heat to keep the candle burning via a self-sustaining chain of events: the heat of the flame melts the top of the mass of solid fuel; the liquefied fuel then moves upward through the wick via capillary action ; the liquefied fuel finally vaporizes to burn within the candle's flame. As the mass of solid fuel is melted and consumed, the candle becomes shorter. Portions of the wick that are not emitting vaporized fuel are consumed in the flame. The incineration of the wick limits the exposed length of the wick, thus maintaining a constant burning temperature and rate of fuel consumption. Some wicks require regular trimming with scissors (or a specialized wick trimmer ), usually to about one-quarter inch (~0.7 cm), to promote slower, steady burning, and also to prevent smoking
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New Zealand
NEW ZEALAND /njuːˈziːlənd/ (_ listen ) (Māori : AOTEAROA _ ) is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean . The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island (or _Te Ika-a-Māui_), and the South Island (or _Te Waipounamu_)—and around 600 smaller islands . New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia , Fiji , and Tonga . Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps , owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington , while its most populous city is Auckland . Sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that later were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture . In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand
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George Hudson (entomologist)
GEORGE VERNON HUDSON (20 April 1867 – 5 April 1946) was a British -born New Zealand award-winning entomologist and astronomer . He won the Hector Memorial Medal . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Personal life * 3 Works * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn in London
London
, England, on Easter Saturday , 1867 Hudson was the sixth child of Charles Hudson, an artist and stained-glass window designer and Emily Jane Carnal By the age of 14 he had built up a collection of British insects, and had published a paper in The Entomologist. In 1881 Hudson moved with his father to Nelson , New Zealand. He worked on a farm, and in 1883, aged 16, he began working at the post office in Wellington
Wellington
, where he eventually became chief clerk, retiring in 1918. Hudson was a member of the 1907 Sub-Antarctic Islands Scientific Expedition . The main aim of the expedition was to extend the magnetic survey of New Zealand by investigating the Auckland and Campbell islands but botanical, biological and zoological surveys were also conducted. The voyage also resulted in rescue of the castaways of the shipwreck the Dundonald in the Auckland Islands. Hudson is credited with proposing modern-day daylight saving time . His shift-work job gave him leisure time to collect insects, and led him to value after-hours daylight
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German Empire
The GERMAN EMPIRE (German : _Deutsches Kaiserreich_, officially _ Deutsches Reich _) was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic . The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families . This included four kingdoms , six grand duchies , five duchies (six before 1876), seven principalities , three free Hanseatic cities , and one imperial territory . Although Prussia became one of several kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory, thus remaining a powerhouse with a major say in imperial affairs. Its influence also helped define modern German culture . After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized , with particular strengths in coal , iron (and later steel ), chemicals, and railways . In 1871, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913, this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in 1815, now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, technological, and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country
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Austria-Hungary
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, often referred to as the AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or _ Cisleithania _) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or _ Transleithania _) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I . The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria- Hungary consisted of two monarchies ( Austria and Hungary), and one autonomous region: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement (_Nagodba_) in 1868. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg , and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy . Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria- Hungary was a multinational state and one of the world's great powers at the time
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1970s Energy Crisis
The 1970S ENERGY CRISIS was a period when the major industrial countries of the world, particularly the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, faced substantial petroleum shortages, real and perceived, as well as elevated prices. The two worst crises of this period were the 1973 oil crisis
1973 oil crisis
and the 1979 energy crisis , when the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
and the Iranian Revolution triggered interruptions in Middle Eastern oil exports. The crisis began to unfold as petroleum production in the United States and some other parts of the world peaked in the late 1960s and early 1970s. World oil production per capita began a long-term decline after 1979. The major industrial centers of the world were forced to contend with escalating issues related to petroleum supply. Western countries relied on the resources of potentially unfriendly countries in the Middle East
Middle East
and other parts of the world. The crisis led to stagnant economic growth in many countries as oil prices surged. Although there were genuine concerns with supply, part of the run-up in prices resulted from the perception of a crisis. The combination of stagnant growth and price inflation during this era led to the coinage of the term stagflation
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Incandescent Light Bulb
An INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULB, INCANDESCENT LAMP or INCANDESCENT LIGHT GLOBE is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence ). The filament, heated by passing an electric current through it, is protected from oxidation with a glass or quartz bulb that is filled with inert gas or evacuated . In a halogen lamp , filament evaporation is prevented by a chemical process that redeposits metal vapor onto the filament, extending its life. The light bulb is supplied with electric current by feed-through terminals or wires embedded in the glass. Most bulbs are used in a socket which provides mechanical support and electrical connections. Incandescent bulbs are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, light output, and voltage ratings, from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts. They require no external regulating equipment, have low manufacturing costs , and work equally well on either alternating current or direct current. As a result, the incandescent lamp is widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting such as table lamps, car headlamps , and flashlights , and for decorative and advertising lighting. Incandescent bulbs are much less efficient than most other types of electric lighting; incandescent bulbs convert less than 5% of the energy they use into visible light, with standard light bulbs averaging about 2.2%
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Industrial Society
In sociology , INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY refers to a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production , supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour . Such a structure developed in the west in the period of time following the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, and replaced the agrarian societies of the Pre-modern , Pre-industrial age. Industrial societies are generally mass societies , and may be succeeded by an Information society . They are often contrasted to with the traditional societies . Industrial society is characterized by the use of external energy sources, such as fossil fuels , to increase the rate and scale of production. The production of food is shifted to large commercial farms where the products of industry, such as combine harvesters and fossil fuel based fertilizers , are used to decrease required human labor while increasing production. No longer needed for the production of food, excess labor is moved into these factories where mechanization is utilized to further increase efficiency. As populations grow, and mechanization is further refined, often to the level of automation , many workers shift to expanding service industries
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