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Danish Language
DANISH /ˈdeɪnᵻʃ/ (_ listen ) (dansk_ pronounced (_ listen ); dansk sprog_, ) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany , where it has minority language status. There are also minor Danish-speaking communities in Norway , Sweden , Spain , the United States , Canada , Brazil and Argentina . Due to immigration and language shift in urban areas, around 15–20% of the population of Greenland speak Danish as their home language . Along with the other North Germanic languages, Danish is a descendant of Old Norse , the common language of the Germanic peoples that lived in Scandinavia during the Viking Era . Danish, together with Swedish, derives from the East Norse dialect group, while the Middle Norwegian language before the influence of Danish and Norwegian Bokmål are classified as West Norse along with Faroese and Icelandic . A more recent classification based on mutual intelligibility separates modern spoken Danish, Norwegian and Swedish as _Mainland Scandinavian_ while Icelandic and Faroese are classified as _Insular Scandinavian_
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Codex Holmiensis
CODEX HOLMIENSIS C 37 contains the oldest manuscript of the Danish Code of Jutland (Danish : Jyske Lov), a civil code enacted under Valdemar II of Denmark
Denmark
. The code covered Funen , Jutland , and Schleswig
Schleswig
. Prior to the adoption of the Jutlandic, Zealandic and the Scanian laws, there had been no uniformity of laws throughout settlements in Denmark. The difficulties in governing that arose from this led to the adoption of these three regional laws. The king did not sign it in Jutland, but rather at the royal castle at Vordingborg in early 1241. “ With law shall the country be built but if all men were content with what is theirs and let others enjoy the same right, there would be no need for a law. But no law is as good as the truth, but if one wonders what the truth is, then shall the law show the truth. If the land had no law, then he would have the most who could grab the most by force. ” “ The law must be honest, just, reasonable and according to the ways of the people. It must meet their needs and speak plainly, so that all men may know and understand, what the law is. It is not to be made in any man's favor, but for the needs of all them who live in the land. No man shall judge contrary to the law, which the king has given and the country chosen
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Denmark
DENMARK (/ˈdɛnmɑːrk/ (_ listen ); Danish : Danmark_ ( listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF DENMARK, is a Scandinavian country in Europe and a sovereign state . The southernmost of the Nordic countries , it is south-west of Sweden and south of Norway , and bordered to the south by Germany . The Kingdom of Denmark also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean : the Faroe Islands and Greenland . Denmark itself has a total area of 42,924 square kilometres (16,573 sq mi),; total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 square kilometres (853,509 sq mi), and a population of 5.75 million. European Denmark consists of a peninsula, Jutland , and an archipelago of 443 named islands , with the largest being Zealand , Funen and the North Jutlandic Island . The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea
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Greenland
GREENLAND (/ˈɡriːnlənd/ ; Greenlandic : _ Kalaallit Nunaat_ ; Danish : _Grønland_ ) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago . Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America , Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe (specifically Norway and Denmark, the colonial powers , as well as the nearby island of Iceland ) for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit , whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, gradually settling across the island. Greenland is the world\'s largest island ( Australia , although larger, is generally considered to be a continental landmass rather than an island). Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica . With a population of about 56,480 (2013), it is the least densely populated country in the world. The Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada
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Faroe Islands
Coordinates : 62°00′N 06°47′W / 62.000°N 6.783°W / 62.000; -6.783 Faroe Islands _Føroyar_ (Faroese ) _Færøerne_ (Danish ) _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Tú alfagra land mítt _ _Thou, my most beauteous land_ Location of the FAROE ISLANDS (circled) in Northern Europe Location of the Kingdom of Denmark (red), consisting of the FAROE ISLANDS (circled), Greenland and Denmark Capital and largest city Tórshavn 62°00′N 06°47′W / 62.000°N 6.783°W / 62.000; -6.783 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Faroese * Danish RELIGION Church of the Faroe Islands DEMONYM Faroe Islanders SOVEREIGN STATE _ Kingdom of Denmark GOVERNMENT Devolved government within parliamentary constitutional monarchy • MONARCH Margrethe II • HIGH COMMISSIONER Lene Moyell Johansen • PRIME MINISTER Aksel V
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Schleswig-Holstein
SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN (German: ; Danish : _Slesvig-Holsten_) is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany , comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig . Its capital city is Kiel ; other notable cities are Lübeck and Flensburg . Also known in more dated English as SLESWICK-HOLSATIA, the Danish name is _Slesvig-Holsten,_ the Low German name is _Sleswig-Holsteen,_ and the North Frisian name is _Slaswik-Holstiinj._ Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig- Holstein and the former South Jutland County (Northern Schleswig) in Denmark
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Indo-European Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
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Germanic Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
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North Germanic Languages
Insular Scandinavian languages: Faroese Icelandic Norn (†) Greenlandic Norse (†) * Extinct Norn was spoken in Orkney
Orkney
, Shetland and Caithness
Caithness
in what is now Scotland
Scotland
until 19th century. * Extinct Greenlandic Norse was spoken in the Norse settlements of Greenland
Greenland
until their demise in the late 15th century.The NORTH GERMANIC LANGUAGES make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages
Germanic languages
, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
, along with the West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
and the extinct East Germanic languages . The language group is sometimes referred to as the "NORDIC LANGUAGES", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish , Swedish and Norwegian scholars and laypeople. In Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, the term "SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES" refers specifically to the generally mutually intelligible languages of the three continental Scandinavian countries, and is thus used in a more narrow sense as a subset of the Nordic languages, leaving aside the insular subset of Faroese and Icelandic
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Old East Norse
OLD NORSE was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries. The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse by the 8th century, and Old Norse began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse is found well into the 15th century. Old Norse was divided into three dialects : Old West Norse , Old East Norse and Old Gutnish . Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum , with no clear geographical boundary between them. For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway , although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, and Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden . Most speakers spoke Old East Norse in what is present day Denmark and Sweden. Old Gutnish, the more obscure dialectal branch, is sometimes included in the Old East Norse dialect due to geographical associations. It developed its own unique features and shared in changes to both other branches
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Old Norse Language
OLD NORSE was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries. The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse by the 8th century, and Old Norse began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse is found well into the 15th century. Old Norse was divided into three dialects : Old West Norse , Old East Norse and Old Gutnish . Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum , with no clear geographical boundary between them. For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway , although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, and Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden . Most speakers spoke Old East Norse in what is present day Denmark and Sweden. Old Gutnish, the more obscure dialectal branch, is sometimes included in the Old East Norse dialect due to geographical associations. It developed its own unique features and shared in changes to both other branches
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Old Danish
The Danish language developed during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
out of the Old East Norse , the common predecessor of Danish and Swedish . It was a late form of common Old Norse . The HISTORY OF DANISH can by convention be divided into: * Old Danish ( Old East Norse ), 9th to 11th centuries * Middle Danish, 12th to 15th centuries * Modern Danish, 16th century to present.CONTENTS * 1 Old Danish * 2 Medieval Danish * 3 Renaissance and Reformation * 4 Modern Danish * 5 References OLD DANISH Main article: Old East Norse Old East Norse is in Sweden called _ Runic Swedish _ and in Denmark _Runic Danish_, but until the 12th century, the dialect was the same in the two countries. The dialects are called _runic_ because the main body of text appears in the runic alphabet . Unlike Proto-Norse , which was written with the Elder Futhark alphabet, Old Norse was written with the Younger Futhark alphabet, which only had 16 letters. Due to the limited number of runes, some runes were used for a range of phonemes , such as the rune for the vowel _u_ which was also used for the vowels _o_, _ø_ and _y_, and the rune for _i_ which was also used for _e_
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Bornholmsk Dialect
BORNHOLMSK is a Danish dialect spoken on the island of Bornholm
Bornholm
in the Baltic Sea . It was originally part of the East Danish dialect continuum, which includes the dialects of southern Sweden, but became isolated in the Danish dialect landscape after 1658, when Sweden annexed Skåne
Skåne
, Halland and Blekinge
Blekinge
. The language is more generally spoken than written, despite the existence of several Bornholmsk-Danish dictionaries and a regular Bornholmsk article in the local newspaper. Even words that are never used in Standard Danish are spelled according to the standard orthography. The dialect is endangered, as the inhabitants of Bornholm
Bornholm
have been shifting to standard Danish over the past century. "Bevar Bornholmsk" is an organization whose purpose is to preserve Bornholmsk. Its main organization is KulturBornholm, the editor of books with CDs with the text in Bornholmsk. CONTENTS * 1 Dialects * 2 Danish or Swedish? * 3 Phonology * 3.1 Sound system * 3.2 Phonetic development * 4 Morphology * 4.1 Nominal inflection * 4.2 Pronouns * 4.3 Verbal conjugation * 5 Text samples * 5.1 Literature * 5.2 Spoken language * 6 Notes * 7 References DIALECTSThe small island has only about 40,000 inhabitants, yet the language is divided into five main dialects, not even counting Danish
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Jutlandic Dialect
JUTLANDIC or JUTISH (Danish: jysk; pronounced ) is the western dialect of Danish , spoken on the peninsula of Jutland . Generally, the eastern dialects are the closest to Standard Danish, while the southern dialect (Sønderjysk) is the one that differs the most from the others; therefore it is sometimes described as a distinct dialect. Thus Jutlandic is by that definition actually two different dialects: general Jutlandic (nørrejysk; further divided into western and eastern) and Southern Jutlandic (sønderjysk). However, the linguistic variation is considerably more complicated and well over 20 separate minor dialects can be easily found on Jutland. This map shows 9 larger dialectal regions which will be discussed in this article. There are major phonological differences between the dialects, but also very noteworthy morphological, syntactic, and semantic variations. CONTENTS* 1 Subdialects * 1.1 Sønderjysk * 1.2 Østjysk * 1.3 Vestjysk * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Consonants * 2.2 Vowels * 2.3 Stød
Stød
* 2.4 Other phonological characteristics * 3 Grammar * 3.1 Gender * 3.2 Article * 3.3 Semantics * 4 Sociolinguistics * 5 Characteristics * 6 See also * 7 References SUBDIALECTSThe different subdialects of Jutlandic differ somewhat from each other, and are generally grouped in three main dialects
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South Jutlandic
SOUTH JUTLANDIC or SOUTH JUTISH (South Jutish: Synnejysk; Danish : Sønderjysk; German : Südjütisch or Plattdänisch) is a dialect of the Danish language . South Jutlandic is spoken in Southern Jutland (Sønderjylland; also called Schleswig
Schleswig
or Slesvig ) on both sides of the border between Denmark
Denmark
and Germany. Variants of the dialect include Western and Eastern South Jutlandic (including Alsisk). The former variant in Angeln
Angeln
and Schwansen was known as Angel Danish. The other dialects classified as belonging to the Jutlandic or Jutish (Jysk) group of dialects are West , East , and North Jutlandic . CONTENTS* 1 Usage * 1.1 Northern Slesvig * 1.2 Southern Slesvig * 2 History * 3 Place names * 4 References * 5 External links USAGE Map of Northern and Southern Schleswig
Southern Schleswig
(Southern Jutland) NORTHERN SLESVIGMany older people will still speak a distinct South Jutlandic dialect, both in towns and rural areas. Younger people and children are more likely to use a dialect-tinted version of Standard Danish, but everything ranging from relatively pure dialect to Standard Danish can be found. Many are able to switch between both varieties. A renewed popular interest in preserving the South Jutlandic dialect has been seen in recent years
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