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Daniel Solander
DANIEL CARLSSON SOLANDER or DANIEL CHARLES SOLANDER (19 February 1733 – 13 May 1782) was a Swedish naturalist and an Apostle of Carl Linnaeus . Solander was the first university educated scientist to set foot on Australian soil. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Legacy * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYSolander was born in Piteå , Norrbotten , Sweden, to Rev. Carl Solander a Lutheran principal, and Magdalena née Bostadia. Solander enrolled at Uppsala University in July 1750 and initially studied languages, the humanities and law. The professor of botany was the celebrated Carl Linnaeus who was soon impressed by young Solander's ability and accordingly persuaded his father to let him study natural history. Solander traveled to England
England
in June 1760 to promote the new Linnean system of classification. In February 1763, he began cataloguing the natural history collections of the British Museum
British Museum
, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June the following year. In 1768, Solander gained leave of absence from the British Museum
British Museum
and with his assistant Herman Spöring accompanied Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
on James Cook 's first voyage to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
aboard the Endeavour
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William Parry (artist)
WILLIAM PARRY ARA (2 May 1743 – 12 February 1791) was a Welsh artist. Primarily a portrait painter, he attracted extensive patronage in Wales due to his connections with Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 4th Baronet . Portrait of John Parry, William's father, circa 1770. National Museum Cardiff
National Museum Cardiff
He was the son of John Parry , a blind harpist who held a key position in the household of Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 3rd Baronet of Wynnstay, Denbighshire , the wealthiest and most powerful Welshman of the time. At the age of sixteen he enrolled at William Shipley 's drawing academy, later becoming a pupil to Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds
. In late 1769 or early 1770 he returned to Wales, where the Wynnstay estate had lately been inherited by the third baronet's son, an art lover who had just returned from his Grand Tour . He also received commissions for chalk and painted portraits from others in the Welsh gentry. Sir Watkin funded Parry's own Grand Tour in 1770–5, during which he produced full-scale copies of paintings by Raphael and Correggio. In 1776 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, having exhibited five portraits in that year's Summer Exhibition
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Piteå
PITEå is a locality and the seat of Piteå Municipality in Norrbotten County , Sweden
Sweden
. The town has 22,913 inhabitants, out of a municipal total of 41,000 in 2008. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Climate * 3 History * 4 Culture * 5 Cleantech
Cleantech
* 6 Sport * 7 People from Piteå
Piteå
* 8 International relations * 8.1 Twin towns — Sister cities * 9 References * 10 External links GEOGRAPHY This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Piteå
Piteå
is located at the mouth of the Pite River
Pite River
(Swedish : Piteälven), at the shore of the Bay of Bothnia . The central part is located on an islet called Häggholmen, which due to post-glacial rebound almost has become a part of the mainland; the land in northern Sweden
Sweden
rises at a rate of up to 9 mm (0.35 in) per year. Piteå
Piteå
has an attractive archipelago , which is one of the reasons it is a popular place for tourism both in summer and winter
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Norrbotten
NORRBOTTEN (Swedish: ), known in English as NORTH BOTHNIA , is a Swedish province (landskap) in northernmost Sweden
Sweden
. It borders south to Västerbotten
Västerbotten
, west to Swedish Lapland , and east to Finland
Finland
. CONTENTS * 1 Administration * 2 Heraldry * 3 History * 4 Population * 5 Culture * 6 Sports * 7 References * 8 External links ADMINISTRATIONThe traditional provinces of Sweden
Sweden
serve no administrative or political purposes, but are historical and cultural entities. In this case, however, the county is older than the province. When the new national border to the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland
Finland
formed, the province split in two, and formed the municipalities of Kolari , Muonio , Pello , Tornio
Tornio
, and Ylitornio . However, Finnish Norrbotten is not recognized enough as its own historical province, so it's usually merged instead with Ostrobothnia , however leaving out Muonio to Laponia . The northernmost of the counties of Sweden
Sweden
were created in 1810 consisting of the northern parts of Lappland and Västerbotten . After that, northern Västerbotten
Västerbotten
has gradually evolved as a province of its own
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom . Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it _ Londinium _. London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex , Essex , Surrey , Kent , and Hertfordshire , which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world . London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world\'s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic
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Swedish People
Sweden : c. 8,000,000 (the number does not include ethnic Swedes born outside Sweden but now living in Sweden, nor does it include Swedish-speaking population of Finland now living in Sweden; 2015) Other significant population centers: SWEDISH-SPEAKING ETHNIC MINORITIES FINLAND c. 280,000 SWEDISH CITIZENS OUTSIDE SWEDENc. 546,000 PEOPLE WITH SWEDISH ANCESTRY UNITED STATES 4,325,000 CANADA 341,845 (2011 Census ) ARGENTINA 200,000 UNITED KINGDOM 100,000 NORWAY 36,887 -90,000 BRAZIL 32,975 AUSTRALIA 30,375 FRANCE 30,000 GERMANY 23,000 SPAIN 16,838 NEW ZEALAND 1,257 ESTONIA 380 UKRAINE 149 LANGUAGES Swedish RELIGION Mainly Christian : majority Lutheranism , minority Catholicism Historically Catholicism and Norse paganism before Christianization See also: Religion in Sweden RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS Danes , Norwegians , Dutch , Germans , Finns , Faroese , Icelanders Other Germanic peoples SWEDES (Swedish : _svenskar_) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden. They mostly inhabit Sweden and the other Nordic countries , in particular Finland , with a substantial diaspora in other countries, especially the United States
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Uppsala University
UPPSALA UNIVERSITY (Swedish : _ Uppsala
Uppsala
universitet_) is a research university in Uppsala
Uppsala
, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
still in operation, founded in 1477. (However was it not the first university in the Nordic countries, as the Danish Academy of Lund
Academy of Lund
had opened already in 1425 ) It ranks among the world's 100 best universities in several high-profile international rankings. The university uses "Gratiae veritas naturae" as its motto and embraces natural sciences. The university rose to pronounced significance during the rise of Sweden
Sweden
as a great power at the end of the 16th century and was then given a relative financial stability with the large donation of King Gustavus Adolphus in the early 17th century. Uppsala
Uppsala
also has an important historical place in Swedish national culture, identity and for the Swedish establishment: in historiography , literature, politics, and music. Many aspects of Swedish academic culture in general, such as the white student cap , originated in Uppsala. It shares some peculiarities, such as the student nation system, with Lund University
Lund University
and the University of Helsinki
University of Helsinki

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Botany
BOTANY, also called PLANT SCIENCE(S), PLANT BIOLOGY or PHYTOLOGY, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology . A BOTANIST or PLANT SCIENTIST is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη (_botanē_) meaning "pasture ", "grass", or "fodder "; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (_boskein_), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress . Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants ), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes . Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and later cultivate – edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens , often attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance. They were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards. One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden . These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants
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Zoology
ZOOLOGY (/zuːˈɒlədʒi/ , zoo-OL-luh-jee or /zoʊˈɒlədʒi/ , zoh-OL-luh-jee) or ANIMAL BIOLOGY is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure , embryology , evolution , classification , habits , and distribution of all animals , both living and extinct , and how they interact with their ecosystems. The term is derived from Ancient Greek ζῷον, _zōion_, i.e. "animal " and λόγος, _logos_, i.e. "knowledge, study". CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Ancient history to Darwin * 1.2 Post-Darwin * 2 Research * 2.1 Structural * 2.2 Physiological * 2.3 Evolutionary * 2.4 Classification * 2.5 Ethology * 2.6 Biogeography * 3 Branches of zoology * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYANCIENT HISTORY TO DARWIN _ Conrad Gesner (1516–1565). His Historiae animalium _ is considered the beginning of modern zoology. Main article: History of zoology (through 1859) The history of zoology traces the study of the animal kingdom from ancient to modern times. Although the concept of _zoology_ as a single coherent field arose much later, the zoological sciences emerged from natural history reaching back to the works of Aristotle and Galen in the ancient Greco-Roman world
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Author Citation (botany)
In botanical nomenclature , AUTHOR CITATION refers to citing the person or group of people who validly published a botanical name , i.e. who first published the name while fulfilling the formal requirements as specified by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). In cases where a species is no longer in its original generic placement (i.e. a new combination of genus and specific epithet), both the author(s) of the original genus placement and those of the new combination are given (the former in parentheses). In botany , it is customary (though not obligatory) to abbreviate author names according to a recognised list of standard abbreviations . There are differences between the botanical code and the normal practice in zoology . In zoology, the publication year is given following the author name(s) and the authorship of a new combination is normally omitted. A small number of more specialized practices also vary between the recommendations of the botanical and zoological codes
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Sweden
Coordinates : 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16 Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige Flag Greater coat of arms MOTTO: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden" "For Sweden – With the Times" ANTHEM: _ Du gamla, Du fria _ _Thou ancient, thou free_ ROYAL ANTHEM : _ Kungssången _ _Song of the King_ Location of Sweden (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Stockholm 59°21′N 18°4′E / 59.350°N 18.067°E / 59.350; 18.067 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Swedish ETHNIC GROUPS no official statistics DEMONYM
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Naturalist
NATURAL HISTORY is the research and study of organisms including animals , fungi and plants in their environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. It encompasses scientific research but is not limited to it, with articles nowadays more often published in science magazines than in academic journals . Grouped among the natural sciences , natural history is the systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms. That is a very broad designation in a world filled with many narrowly focused disciplines. So while natural history dates historically from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic
Arabic
world , through to European Renaissance
Renaissance
naturalists working in near isolation, today's field is more of a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences. For example, geobiology has a strong multi-disciplinary nature combining scientists and scientific knowledge of many specialty sciences. A person who studies natural history is known as a NATURALIST or NATURAL HISTORIAN
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Apostles Of Linnaeus
The APOSTLES OF LINNAEUS were a group of students who carried out botanical and zoological expeditions throughout the world that were either devised or approved by botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
. The expeditions took place during the latter half of the 18th century and the students were designated 'apostles ' by Linnaeus. Many apostles began their journey from Sweden. Some would act as chaplains or doctors aboard a Swedish East India Company ship. The expeditions were often dangerous. Seven apostles never came home. The first apostle, Christopher Tärnström, died of a tropical fever on Côn Sơn Island in 1746. Tärnström's widow was angry with Linnaeus for making her children fatherless. After this incident, Linnaeus sent only unmarried men. Linnaeus remained involved in most expeditions. He often left notes for the apostles and outlined what they should look for during their journeys, and the apostles sent letters and botanical samples to Linnaeus. Upon their return, it was usual to give Linnaeus a selection of anything collected. However, Daniel Rolander elected not to transfer his collection and was criticised by Linnaeus. Many newly discovered plants, animals and insects were named and catalogued by Linnaeus and apostles. As a result, the apostles' expeditions helped spread the Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
, a system for classifying organisms
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom . It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly , and the Isle of Wight . The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery , which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language , the Anglican Church , and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations
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British Museum
6,820,686 (2015) * Ranked 1st nationally * Ranked 5th globally CHAIRMAN Sir Richard Lambert DIRECTOR Hartwig Fischer PUBLIC TRANSIT ACCESS Goodge Street ; Holborn ; Tottenham Court Road ; Russell Square ; WEBSITE britishmuseum.org AREA 807,000 sq ft (75,000 m2) in 94 Galleries The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2001 to become the Great Court , surrounding the original Reading Room . The BRITISH MUSEUM is dedicated to human history , art and culture , and is located in the Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
area of London
London
. Its permanent collection, numbering some 8 million works, is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence and originates from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. The British Museum
British Museum
was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane . The museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House , on the site of the current building
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