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Daen Lao Range
The Daen Lao Range
Daen Lao Range
(Thai: ทิวเขาแดนลาว,[1] pronounced [tʰīw kʰǎw dɛ̄ːn lāːw]; Burmese: Loi La) is a mountain range of the Shan Hills
Shan Hills
in eastern Burma
Burma
and northern Thailand. Most of the range is in Shan State, with its northern limit close to the border with China, and runs southwards across the Thai border, at the northern end of Thailand. Geologically in the Daen Lao Range, as in the other southern subranges of the Shan Hills, layers of alluvium are superimposed on hard rock.[2]Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Protected areas3.1 Burma 3.2 Thailand4 Features 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksGeography[edit] The range extends east of the Salween
Salween
until almost reaching the Golden Triangle area, separating the Salween
Salween
watershed from the Mekong watershed
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Refugee Camp
A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations. Refugee
Refugee
camps usually accommodate displaced persons who have fled their home country, but there are also camps for internally displaced persons. Usually refugees seek asylum after they've escaped war in their home countries, but some camps also house environmental- and economic migrants. Camps with over a hundred thousand people are common, but as of 2012 the average-sized camp housed around 11,400.[1] They are usually built and run by a government, the United Nations, international organizations (such as the International Committee of the Red Cross), or NGOs
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Lisu People
The Lisu people
Lisu people
(လီဆူလူမျိုး, [lìsʰù]; Chinese: 傈僳族; pinyin: Lìsù zú; Thai: ลีสู่; Lisu: ꓡꓲ-ꓢꓴ or ꓡꓲꓢꓴ) are a Tibeto-Burman ethnic group who inhabit mountainous regions of Burma
Burma
(Myanmar), southwest China, Thailand, and the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. About 730,000 Lisu live in Lijiang, Baoshan, Nujiang, Diqing and Dehong prefectures in Yunnan
Yunnan
Province and Sichuan
Sichuan
Province, China. The Lisu form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by China. In Burma
Burma
(Myanmar), the Lisu are recognized as one of 135 ethnic groups and an estimated population of 600,000
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Ultra Prominent Peak
An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is defined as a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of 1,500 metres (4,921 ft) or more. There are approximately 1,524 such peaks on Earth.[1] Some peaks, such as the Matterhorn
Matterhorn
and Eiger, are not Ultras because they are connected to higher mountains by high cols and therefore do not achieve enough topographic prominence. The term "Ultra" originated with earth scientist Stephen Fry, from his studies of the prominence of peaks in Washington in the 1980s
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Karstic
Karst
Karst
is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves.[1] It has also been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions.[2] Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes
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Hill Tribe (Thailand)
Hill tribe (Thai: ชาวดอย, ชาวเขา, คนเขา,, Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰāːw.dɔ̄ːj, tɕʰāːw.kʰǎw, kʰōn.kʰǎw]) (Northern Thai: จาวดอย, คนดอย, Northern Thai pronunciation: [t͡ɕāːw.dɔ̄ːj, xōn.dɔ̄ːj]; "mountain people/folk")[1][2] is a term used in Thailand
Thailand
for all of the various ethnic groups who mostly inhabit the high mountainous Northern and Western regions of Thailand, including both sides of the border areas between Northern Thailand, Laos
Laos
and Burma, the Phi Pan Nam Range, the Thanon Range, the latter a southern prolongation of the Shan Hills, as well as the Tenasserim Hills
Tenasserim Hills
in Western Thailand
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Wa People
The Wa people
Wa people
(Wa language: Vāx; Burmese: ဝလူမျိုး [wa̰ lùmjóʊ]; Chinese: 佤族; pinyin: Wǎzú; Thai: ว้า) are an ethnic group that lives mainly in northern Myanmar, in the northern part of Shan State
Shan State
and the eastern part of Kachin State, near and along Burma's border with China, as well as in Yunnan, China. Historically the Wa have inhabited the Wa States, a territory that they have claimed as their ancestral land since time immemorial. It is a rugged mountainous area located between the Mekong
Mekong
and the Salween River, with the Nam Hka flowing across it. The Wa traditionally practiced subsistence agriculture by cultivating rice, peas, beans, poppies and walnuts
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Akha People
The Akha are an indigenous hill tribe who live in small villages at higher elevations in the mountains of Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, and Yunnan
Yunnan
Province in China. They made their way from China
China
into Southeast Asia during the early 20th century. Civil war in Burma
Burma
and Laos
Laos
resulted in an increased flow of Akha immigrants and there are now some 80,000 living in Thailand's northern provinces of Chiang Rai and Chiang Mai[1] where they constitute one of the largest of the hill tribes. Many of their villages can be visited by tourists on trekking tours from either of these cities. The Akha speak Akha, a language in the Loloish (Yi) branch of the Tibeto-Burman family
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Yao People
The Yao people
Yao people
(its majority branch is also known as Mien; simplified Chinese: 瑶族; traditional Chinese: 瑤族; pinyin: Yáo zú; Vietnamese: người Dao) is a government classification for various minorities in China
China
and Vietnam. They are one of the 55 officially recognised ethnic minorities in China
China
and reside in the mountainous terrain of the southwest and south. They also form one of the 54 ethnic groups officially recognised by Vietnam
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Lahu People
The Lahu people
Lahu people
(Chinese: 拉祜族; Lahu: Ladhulsi / Kawzhawd; Vietnamese: La Hủ) are an ethnic group of China
China
and Mainland Southeast Asia.Contents1 Distribution 2 Subgroups 3 Language 4 Religion 5 Names 6 References 7 Notes 8 External linksDistribution[edit] The Lahu are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China, where about 720,000 live in Yunnan province, mostly in Lancang Lahu Autonomous County. In Thailand, the Lahu are one of the six main groups categorized as hill tribes.[5] The Tai often refer to them by the exonym Muso (Thai: มูเซอ), meaning 'hunter'
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Ayutthaya Kingdom
Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
(1463–1488) Ayutthaya (1488–1666) Lopburi
Lopburi
(1666–1688) Ayutthaya (1688–1767)Languages Ayutthayan ThaiReligion Majority:
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Thai Yuan
The Northern Thai people
Thai people
or Tai Yuan (ไทยวน, [taj˧ ɲuːən˧]), self-designation khon mu(e)ang (ฅนเมือง, [xon˧ mɯːəŋ˧], meaning "people of the (cultivated) land" or "people of our community") are the majority population of eight provinces in northern Thailand, principally in the area of the former kingdom of Lan Na.[2] They belong to the group of Tai peoples
Tai peoples
and are closely related to Tai Lü and Tai Khün with regards to common culture, language and history. There are approximately 6 million Tai Yuan. Most of them live in Northern Thailand, with a small minority 29,442 (2005 census) living across the border in Bokeo Province
Bokeo Province
and Sainyabuli Province
Sainyabuli Province
of Laos
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Hsenwi
Theinni
Theinni
or Hsenwi
Hsenwi
(Shan: သဵၼ်ႈဝီ; Burmese: သိန္နီ, pronounced [θèiɴnì]; Thai: แสนหวี, RTGS: Saen Wi, pronounced [sɛ̌ːn wǐː]) is a town in northern Shan State
Shan State
of Burma, situated near the north bank of the Nam Tu River and now the centre of Hsenwi
Hsenwi
Township in Lashio
Lashio
District.[1] It is 28 miles north of Lashio.[2] It is 2,100 feet above sea level.[3] After the disruption of the ancient Shan empire at Tali by Kublai Khan, Theinni
Theinni
seems to have been the centre of the independent Shan kingdom, with various capitals in the Shweli River
Shweli River
and Nam Tu River valleys. This kingdom of Kawsampi was ended by the Burmese about 1738, and the country was divided into various states, with appointment orders from Ava
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Shan People
The Shan (Shan: တႆး; Shan pronunciation: [táj], Burmese: ရှမ်းလူမျိုး; [ʃán lùmjó]; Thai: ไทใหญ่ or ฉาน; Chinese: 掸族 or 傣族; pinyin: Shànzú, Dǎizú) are a Tai ethnic group of Southeast Asia. The Shan live primarily in the Shan State
Shan State
of Burma
Burma
(Myanmar), but also inhabit parts of Mandalay Region, Kachin State, and Kayin State, and in adjacent regions of China, Laos
Laos
and Thailand.[3] Though no reliable census has been taken in Burma
Burma
since 1935, the Shan are estimated to number 4–6 million,[1] with CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
giving an estimation of 5 million spread throughout Myanmar.[2] The capital of Shan State
Shan State
is Taunggyi, the fifth-largest city in Myanmar
Myanmar
with about 390,000 people
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Stupa
A stupa (Sanskrit: "heap") is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (śarīra - typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation.[2] A related architectural term is a chaitya, which is a prayer hall or temple containing a stupa. In Buddhism, circumambulation or pradakhshina has been an important ritual and devotional practice since the earliest times, and stupas always have a pradakhshina path around them.Contents1 Description and history1.1 Notable stupas 1.2 Types of stupas2 Symbolism2.1 Five purified elements3 Construction3.1 Treasury 3.2 Tree of Life 3.3 Benefits4 Tibetan stupas4.1 Lotus Blossom Stupa 4.2 Enlightenment Stupa 4.3 Stupa
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Opium
Opium
Opium
(poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).[4] Approximately 12 percent of the opium latex is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade. The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine. The traditional, labor-intensive method of obtaining the latex is to scratch ("score") the immature seed pods (fruits) by hand; the latex leaks out and dries to a sticky yellowish residue that is later scraped off and dehydrated
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