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Daegeum
The daegeum (also spelled taegum, daegum or taegŭm) is a large bamboo transverse flute used in traditional Korean music. It has a buzzing membrane that gives it a special timbre. It is used in court, aristocratic, and folk music, as well as in contemporary classical music, popular music, and film scores. Smaller flutes in the same family include the junggeum (hangul: 중금; hanja: 中笒) and sogeum (hangul: 소금; hanja: 小笒), neither of which today have a buzzing membrane
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Hangul
Hangul
Hangul
(/ˈhɑːnˌɡuːl/ HAHN-gool;[1] from Korean hangeul 한글 [ha(ː)n.ɡɯl]) is the Korean alphabet. It has been used to write the Korean language
Korean language
since its creation in the 15th century under Sejong the Great.[2][3] It is the official writing system of South Korea
South Korea
and North Korea. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County
Changbai Korean Autonomous County
in Jilin
Jilin
Province, China. It is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language
Cia-Cia language
spoken near the town of Bau-Bau, Indonesia. The alphabet consists of 19 consonants and 21 vowels. Hangul
Hangul
letters are grouped into syllabic blocks, vertically and horizontally
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Hanja
Hanja
Hanja
(Hangul: 한자; Hanja: 漢字; Korean pronunciation: [ha(ː)nt͈ɕa]) is the Korean name
Korean name
for Chinese characters (Chinese: 漢字; pinyin: hànzì).[1] More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters
Chinese characters
borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language
Korean language
with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo (the latter is more used) refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun (한문, 漢文) refers to Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese
writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja
Hanja
never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different
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Contrabass Flute
The contrabass flute is one of the rarer members of the flute family. It is used mostly in flute ensembles. Its range is similar to that of the regular concert flute, except that it is pitched two octaves lower; the lowest performable note is two octaves below middle C (the lowest C on the cello). Many contrabass flutes in C are also equipped with a low B, (in the same manner as many modern standard sized flutes are.) Contrabass flutes are only available from select flute makers. Sometimes referred to as the "gentle giant" of the flute family, the contrabass retains the facility for trills, as found elsewhere in the flute world. Ease of arpeggiation is moderate and thus equivalent to the rest of the flute family. The upper registers (middle C and above) lack the strength of tone found in its cousins; the strongest register is arguably that between G2 and G3
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Contra-alto Flute
The contra alto flute is in the key of G (or sometimes F), pitched one octave below the alto flute - which is a fourth lower than the concert flute. The instrument's body is sometimes held vertically, with an adjustable floor peg similar to that of the bass clarinet. But, it is sometimes held horizontally. It just depends on the company. The instrument maker Eva Kingma calls her contra-alto flute a "contr'alto flute in G," and Kotato & Fukushima call their instrument "bass flute in F." Kotato & Fukushima's instrument sells for US$17,500. For an extensive list of repertoire for bass flute and contrabass flute see: Peter van Munster, Repertoire Catalogue for Piccolo, Alto Flute and Bass Flute, Roma: Riverberi Sonori, 2004. More and more flute ensemble repertoire is incorporating the contra-alto flute
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Bass Flute
The bass flute is the tenor member of the flute family. It is in the key of C, pitched one octave below the concert flute. Because of the length of its tube (approximately 146 cm (57 in)), it is usually made with a J-shaped head joint, which brings the embouchure hole within reach of the player. It is usually only used in flute choirs, as it is easily drowned out by other instruments of comparable register, such as the clarinet.Contents1 Alternative terminology 2 Range and construction 3 Repertoire 4 Other use 5 References 6 External linksAlternative terminology[edit] Prior to the mid-20th century, the term "bass flute" was sometimes used, especially in Great Britain, to refer to the alto flute instead (for example: the part for "bass flute in G" in Gustav Holst's The Planets)
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Alto Flute
The alto flute is a type of Western concert flute, a musical instrument in the woodwind family. It is the next extension downward of the C flute after the flûte d'amour. It is characterized by its distinct, mellow tone in the lower portion of its range. It is a transposing instrument in G and, like the piccolo and bass flute, uses the same fingerings as the C flute. The tube of the alto flute is considerably thicker and longer than a C flute and requires more breath from the player.[1] This gives it a greater dynamic presence in the bottom octave and a half of its range. It was the favourite flute variety of Theobald Boehm, who perfected its design, and is pitched in the key of G (sounding a perfect fourth lower than written).[2] Its range is from G3 (the G below middle C) to G6 (4 ledger lines above the treble clef staff) plus an altissimo register stretching to D♭7
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Flûte D'amour
The flûte d'amour (Ital: flauto d'amore, Ger: Liebesflöte, translates as: Love Flute) is pitched in either A or B♭ and is intermediate in size between the modern C concert flute and the alto flute in G. It is the mezzo-soprano member of the flute family. It is also sometimes called a tenor flute. [1] Unlike the alto flute, the ratio between the bore diameter and tube length is much the same as in the concert flute, which allows it to have a mellower tone colour but without losing any facility in the top octave. Its lowest sounding note is B♭ (or A). In contrast, the alto flute has a wider bore in relation to its tube length
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Western Concert Flute
The Western concert flute
Western concert flute
is a transverse (side-blown) woodwind instrument made of metal or wood. It is the most common variant of the flute. A musician who plays the flute is called a flautist, flutist, flute player, or fluter. This type of flute is used in many ensembles including concert bands, military bands, marching bands, orchestras, flute ensembles, and occasionally jazz bands and big bands. Other flutes in this family include the piccolo, alto flute, and the bass flute
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Soprano Flute
The soprano flute (also called a third flute or tierce flute) is a type of flute, a musical instrument in the woodwind family. It is pitched in E♭, a minor third above the concert flute, and is the only member of the modern flute family that is not pitched in C or G. The pitch was set at a time such flutes substituted for the E-flat clarinet, but the instrument is now rare.[2] The instrument is rarely available now. A few American publications for flute choir currently include a part for E♭ (soprano) flute. In these publications, an alternative part is provided either for the C flute or for the piccolo. With the substitution of one of these more commonly found instruments, however, the distinctive colour of a treble flute sound is missing. References[edit]^ " Flute
Flute
I. 3. ii. Third flute". In L. Root, Deane. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press.  (subscription required) ^ "E-flat Soprano Flute". Bandestration.com
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Treble Flute
The treble flute is a member of the flute family. It is in the key of G, pitched a fifth above the concert flute and is a transposing instrument, sounding a fifth up from the written note. The instrument is rare today, only occasionally found in flute choirs, some marching bands or private collections. Some 19th-century operas, such as Ivanhoe include the instrument in their orchestrations. A limited number of manufacturers produce G treble flute, including Myall-Allen and Flutemakers Guild. The flutes have many of the same options as their larger C flute cousins, including sterling silver bodies, trill keys, and soldered keys. It is very similar to a piccolo, and plays in the same range, although, because it is a slightly larger instrument, it has a different quality at the upper end of its register, and it has an extended lower register, as compared with the piccolo
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Piccolo
The piccolo sounds one octave higher than written. Sounding:Related instrumentsFlute Alto flute Bass fluteThe piccolo[1] /ˈpɪkəloʊ/ (Italian pronunciation: [ˈpikkolo]; Italian for "small", but named ottavino in Italy)[2] is a half-size flute, and a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments
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Members Of The Western Concert Flute Family
The western concert flute family has a wide range of instruments.Contents1 Piccolo 2 Treble flute 3 Soprano flute 4 Concert flute 5 Flûte d'amour 6 Alto flute 7 Bass flute 8 Contra-alto flute 9 Contrabass flute 10 Subcontrabass flute 11 Double contrabass flute 12 Hyperbass flutePiccolo[edit]The Piccolo.Main article: Piccolo The piccolo is the highest-pitched member of the flute family, with a range an octave above that of the concert flute. It is usually the highest-pitched instrument within orchestras and bands. The piccolo has a stereotype for being difficult to play in tune; its small size makes it difficult to construct an evenly tuned scale. Treble flute[edit]The Myall-Allen G Treble Flute.Main article: Treble flute The treble flute is pitched in the key of G, a fifth above the concert flute
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Shinobue
The shinobue (kanji: 篠笛; also called takebue (kanji: 竹笛)) in the context of Japanese traditional arts) is a Japanese transverse flute or fue that has a high-pitched sound. It is found in hayashi and nagauta ensembles, and plays important roles in noh and kabuki theatre music. It is heard in Shinto
Shinto
music such as kagura-den and in traditional Japanese folk songs. There are two styles: uta (song) and hayashi (festival). The uta is properly tuned to the Western scale, and can be played in ensembles or as a solo instrument. The hayashi is not in the correct pitch, because it is simply a piece of hollow bamboo with holes cut into it. It emits a very high-pitched sound, and is appropriate for the festival/folk music of Japan
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Ryūteki
The ryūteki (龍笛, literally "dragon flute") is a Japanese transverse fue made of bamboo. It is used in gagaku, the Shinto classical music associated with Japan's imperial court. The sound of the ryūteki is said to represent the dragons which ascend the skies between the heavenly lights (represented by the shō) and the people of the earth (represented by the hichiriki). The ryūteki is one of the three flutes used in gagaku, in particular to play songs of Chinese style. The pitch is lower than that of the komabue and higher than that of the kagurabue. The ryūteki is held horizontally, has seven holes, and has a length of 40 centimeters and an inner diameter of 1.3 centimeters. Unlike the western flute, the holes are not covered by the fingertips, rather, the fleshy part of the finger is used
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