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DNA Sequencing
DNA
DNA
sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA
DNA
molecule. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases—adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine—in a strand of DNA. The advent of rapid DNA
DNA
sequencing methods has greatly accelerated biological and medical research and discovery.[1] Knowledge of DNA
DNA
sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, and in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis, biotechnology, forensic biology, virology and biological systematics
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Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
(from Greek: οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of")[A] is the branch of biology[1] which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms with each other and with abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems
Ecosystems
are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem
Ecosystem
processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits
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Two-dimensional Chromatography
Two-dimensional chromatography
Two-dimensional chromatography
is a type of chromatographic technique in which the injected sample is separated by passing through two different separation stages. This is done by injecting the eluent from the first column onto a second column. Typically the second column has a different separation mechanism, so that bands that are poorly resolved from the first column may be completely separated in the second column. (For instance, a C18 reversed-phase chromatography column may be followed by a phenyl column.) Alternately, the two columns might run at different temperatures. The second stage of the separation must be run much faster than the first, since there is still only a single detector. The plane surface is amenable to sequential development in two directions using two different solvents. Examples[edit] Two-dimensional separations can be carried out in gas chromatography or liquid chromatography
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Cytosine
Cytosine
Cytosine
(/ˈsaɪtəˌsiːn, -ˌziːn, -ˌsɪn/;[2][3] C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA
DNA
and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA). It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at position 2). The nucleoside of cytosine is cytidine
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Thymine
Thymine
Thymine
/ˈθaɪmɪn/ (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA
DNA
that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T. The others are adenine, guanine, and cytosine. Thymine
Thymine
is also known as 5-methyluracil, a pyrimidine nucleobase. In RNA, thymine is replaced by the nucleobase uracil. Thymine
Thymine
was first isolated in 1893 by Albrecht Kossel
Albrecht Kossel
and Albert Neumann from calves' thymus glands, hence its name.[1]Contents1 Derivation 2 Theoretical aspects 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDerivation[edit] As its alternate name (5-methyluracil) suggests, thymine may be derived by methylation of uracil at the 5th carbon. In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil in most cases
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Medical Diagnosis
Medical diagnosis
Medical diagnosis
(abbreviated Dx[1] or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. It is most often referred to as diagnosis with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more diagnostic procedures, such as diagnostic tests, are also done during the process. Sometimes posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific. For example, redness of the skin (erythema), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus does not tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis, in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed
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Biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology
is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).[1] Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of bioengineering, biomedical engineering, biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc. For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production, and medicine.[2] The term is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Károly Ereky
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Forensic Biology
Forensic biology
Forensic biology
is the application of biology to law enforcement. It includes the subdisciplines of forensic anthropology, forensic botany, forensic entomology, forensic odontology, forensic toxicology and various DNA
DNA
or protein based techniques.Contents1 Applications 2 Di
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Systematics
Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. Relationships are visualized as evolutionary trees (synonyms: cladograms, phylogenetic trees, phylogenies). Phylogenies have two components: branching order (showing group relationships) and branch length (showing amount of evolution). Phylogenetic trees of species and higher taxa are used to study the evolution of traits (e.g., anatomical or molecular characteristics) and the distribution of organisms (biogeography)
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Microbe
A microorganism, or microbe,[a] is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures
Jain scriptures
from 6th-century-BC India and the 1st-century-BC book On Agriculture
Agriculture
by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse
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Fluorescence
Fluorescence
Fluorescence
is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation. It is a form of luminescence. In most cases, the emitted light has a longer wavelength, and therefore lower energy, than the absorbed radiation. The most striking example of fluorescence occurs when the absorbed radiation is in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum, and thus invisible to the human eye, while the emitted light is in the visible region, which gives the fluorescent substance a distinct color that can only be seen when exposed to UV light
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Nucleotides
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules in all life-forms on Earth. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids; they are composed of three subunit molecules: a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and at least one phosphate group. They are also known as phosphate nucleotides. A nucleoside is a nitrogenous base and a 5-carbon sugar. Thus a nucleoside plus a phosphate group yields a nucleotide. Nucleotides also play a central role in life-form metabolism at the fundamental, cellular level
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Operons
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA
DNA
containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.[1] The genes are transcribed together into an mRNA strand and either translated together in the cytoplasm, or undergo splicing to create monocistronic mRNAs that are translated separately, i.e. several strands of mRNA that each encode a single gene product. The result of this is that the genes contained in the operon are either expressed together or not at all
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Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Open Reading Frame
In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the ability to be translated. An ORF is a continuous stretch of codons that contain a start codon (usually AUG) and a stop codon (usually UAA, UAG or UGA).[1] An ATG codon within the ORF (not necessarily the first) may indicate where translation starts. The transcription termination site is located after the ORF, beyond the translation stop codon
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Forensics
Forensic science
Forensic science
is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure. Forensic scientists collect, preserve, and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals.[1] In addition to their laboratory role, forensic scientists testify as expert witnesses in both criminal and civil cases and can work for either the prosecution or the defense. While any field could technically be forensic, certain sections have developed over time to encompass the majority of forensically related cases.[2] Forensic science is the combination of two different Latin words: forensis and science
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