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Débora Et Baraq BnF Latin 10525 Fol
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language
English language
. Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin
Classical Latin
. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus
Plautus
and Terence
Terence

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Colosseum
The COLOSSEUM or COLISEUM (/kɒləˈsiːəm/ _kol-ə-SEE-əm_ ), also known as the FLAVIAN AMPHITHEATRE (Latin: _Amphitheatrum Flavium_; Italian: _Anfiteatro Flavio_ or _Colosseo_ ), is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy
. Built of concrete and sand, it is the largest amphitheatre ever built. The Colosseum
Colosseum
is situated just east of the Roman Forum
Roman Forum
. Construction began under the emperor Vespasian
Vespasian
in AD 72, and was completed in AD 80 under his successor and heir Titus
Titus
. Further modifications were made during the reign of Domitian
Domitian
(81–96). These three emperors are known as the Flavian dynasty , and the amphitheatre was named in Latin for its association with their family name _(Flavius )_. The Colosseum
Colosseum
could hold, it is estimated, between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators, having an average audience of some 65,000; it was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles (for only a short time as the _hypogeum_ was soon filled in with mechanisms to support the other activities), animal hunts , executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology . The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era
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Latium
LATIUM ( Latin
Latin
: Lătĭŭm ) is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome
Rome
was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Latium
Latium
was originally a small triangle of fertile, volcanic soil on which resided the tribe of the Latins or Latians. It was located on the left bank (east and south) of the River Tiber
Tiber
, extending northward to the River Anio (a left-bank tributary of the Tiber) and southeastward to the Pomptina Palus ( Pontine Marshes , now the Pontine Fields) as far south as the Circeian promontory . The right bank of the Tiber
Tiber
was occupied by the Etruscan city of Veii , and the other borders were occupied by Italic tribes. Subsequently, Rome
Rome
defeated Veii and then its Italic neighbours, expanding Latium
Latium
to the Apennine Mountains in the northeast and to the opposite end of the marsh in the southeast. The modern descendant, the Italian Regione
Regione
of Lazio
Lazio
, also called Latium in Latin
Latin
, and occasionally in modern English , is somewhat larger still, but not as much as double the original Latium
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Roman Kingdom
The ROMAN KINGDOM, or REGAL PERIOD, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome
Rome
and its territories. Little is certain about the history of the kingdom, as nearly no written records from that time survive, and the histories about it that were written during the Republic and Empire are largely based on legends. However, the history of the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
began with the city's founding , traditionally dated to 753 BC with settlements around the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
along the river Tiber in Central Italy
Italy
, and ended with the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of the Republic in about 509 BC
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Roman Republic
The ROMAN REPUBLIC ( Latin
Latin
: _RES PUBLICA ROMANA_; Classical Latin: ) was the era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom , traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city\'s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world . Roman government was headed by two consuls , elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians , Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome
Rome
, and the plebeians , the far more numerous citizen-commoners. Over time, the laws that gave patricians exclusive rights to Rome's highest offices were repealed or weakened, and leading plebeian families became full members of the aristocracy. The leaders of the Republic
Republic
developed a strong tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military and political success inextricably linked
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracuse (663–669, Eastern) LANGUAGES * Latin (official until 610) * Greek (official after 610) * Regional / local languages RELIGION * Before AD 380: Imperial cult -driven polytheism * From AD 380: Christiani
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Early Modern Europe
EARLY MODERN EUROPE is the period of European history between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution , roughly the late 15th century to the late 18th century. Historians variously mark the beginning of the early modern period with the invention of moveable type printing in the 1450s, the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the end of the Wars of the Roses in 1487, the beginning of the High Renaissance in Italy in the 1490s, the end of the _ Reconquista _ and subsequent voyages of Christopher Columbus to the Americas in 1492, or the start of the Protestant Reformation in 1517. The precise dates of its end point also vary and are usually linked with either the start of the French Revolution in 1789 or with the more vaguely defined beginning of the Industrial Revolution in late 18th century Britain. Some of the more notable trends and events of the early modern period included the Reformation and the religious conflicts it provoked (including the French Wars of Religion and the Thirty Years\' War ), the rise of capitalism and modern nation states , and European colonization of the Americas
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Armenian Kingdom Of Cilicia
The ARMENIAN KINGDOM OF CILICIA ( Middle Armenian : Կիլիկիոյ Հայոց Թագաւորութիւն, _Kilikio Hayoc’ T’agavorut’yun_), also known as the CILICIAN ARMENIA (Armenian : Կիլիկյան Հայաստան, _Kilikyan Hayastan_), LESSER ARMENIA, or NEW ARMENIA, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of Armenia . Located outside of the Armenian Highland and distinct from the Armenian Kingdom of antiquity , it was centered in the Cilicia region northwest of the Gulf of Alexandretta . The kingdom had its origins in the principality founded c. 1080 by the Rubenid dynasty , an alleged offshoot of the larger Bagratid family , which at various times had held the thrones of Armenia and Georgia . Their capital was originally at Tarsus , and later became Sis . Cilicia was a strong ally of the European Crusaders , and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. It also served as a focus for Armenian nationalism and culture , since Armenia proper was under foreign occupation at the time. Cilicia's significance in Armenian history and statehood is also attested by the transfer of the seat of the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church , spiritual leader of the Armenian people, to the region
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Lingua Franca
A _LINGUA FRANCA_ (/ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/ ), also known as a BRIDGE LANGUAGE, COMMON LANGUAGE, TRADE LANGUAGE or VEHICULAR LANGUAGE, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages. _Lingua francas_ have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities. The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca . CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Etymology * 3 Examples * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links CHARACTERISTICS_Lingua franca_ is a term defined functionally, that is "independently of the linguistic history or structure of the language". Pidgins and creoles often function as lingua francas, but many such languages are neither pidgins nor creoles. Whereas a vernacular language is used as a native language in a community, a _lingua franca_ is used beyond the boundaries of its original community and is used as a second language for communication between groups
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Vatican City
Coordinates : 41°54′N 12°27′E / 41.900°N 12.450°E / 41.900; 12.450 Vatican City State _Status Civitatis Vaticanae_ ( Latin ) _Stato della Città del Vaticano_ (Italian ) _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Inno e Marcia Pontificale _ (Italian ) " Pontifical Anthem and March" Location of Vatican City (green) in Europe (dark grey) – CAPITAL VATICAN CITY (city-state ) 41°54.2′N 12°27.2′E / 41.9033°N 12.4533°E / 41.9033; 12.4533 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Italian RELIGION Roman Catholicism GOVERNMENT
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Latins (italic Tribe)
The LATINS ( Latin
Latin
: Latini), sometimes known as the LATIANS, were an Italic tribe which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome . From about 1000 BC, the Latins inhabited the small region known to the Romans as Old Latium ( Latium
Latium
Vetus), that is, the area between the river Tiber and the promontory of Mount Circeo 100 kilometres (62 mi) SE of Rome. The Latins were an Indo-European people who probably migrated into the Italian peninsula during the late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(1200–900 BC). Their language, Latin
Latin
, belonged to the Italic branch of Indo-European. Their material culture, known as the Latial culture , was a distinctive subset of the Iron Age
Iron Age
Villanovan culture that appeared in parts of the Italian peninsula after 1000 BC. Latino-Faliscians occupied the Tyrrhenian coast between the current Lazio
Lazio
and Calabria
Calabria
and overlapped and mingled with the oldest Neolithic peoples. They had cremation burials and possessed advanced metallurgical techniques
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Vulgar Latin
VULGAR LATIN or SERMO VULGARIS ("common speech") was the nonstandard form(s) of Latin (as opposed to _classical _) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after classical period of the Roman Empire . It is from Vulgar Latin that the Romance languages developed; the best known are the national languages Italian , Spanish , Portuguese , Romanian , and French . Works written in Latin during classical times and the earlier Middle Ages used Classical Latin rather than Vulgar Latin, with very few exceptions (most notably sections of Gaius Petronius ' _ Satyricon _). Because of its nonstandard nature, Vulgar Latin had no official orthography . Vulgar Latin is sometimes also called colloquial Latin, or COMMON ROMANCE (particularly in the late stage). In Renaissance Latin , Vulgar Latin was called _vulgare Latinum_ or _Latinum vulgare._ By its nature Vulgar Latin varied greatly by region and by time period. A few major divisions can be seen, however. Vulgar Latin dialects began to significantly diverge from Classical Latin during the 3rd century during the classical period of the Roman Empire. Nevertheless up to the 4th and 5th centuries CE, the most widely spoken dialects were still similar to and mostly mutually intelligible with Classical Latin
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Romance Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
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Sacred Language
A SACRED LANGUAGE, "HOLY LANGUAGE" (in religious context) or LITURGICAL LANGUAGE is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 Buddhism * 3 Christianity * 4 Hinduism * 5 Islam * 6 Judaism * 6.1 Donmeh * 7 Lingayatism * 8 List of sacred languages * 9 References CONCEPT _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (May 2013)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_A sacred language is often the language which was spoken and written in the society in which a religion's sacred texts were first set down; however, thereafter these texts, becoming fixed and holy, remain frozen and immune to later linguistic developments. Once a language becomes associated with religious worship, its believers may ascribe virtues to the language of worship that they would not give to their native tongues. In the case of sacred texts, there is a fear of losing authenticity and accuracy by a translation or re-translation, and difficulties in achieving acceptance for a new version of a text. A sacred language is typically vested with a solemnity and dignity that the vernacular lacks
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Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian Church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome , known as the Pope , the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed . Its central administration, the Holy See , is in the Vatican City , enclaved within Rome , Italy . The Catholic Church teaches that it is the one true church founded by Jesus Christ , that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles , and that the Pope is the successor to Saint Peter ; the Prince of the Apostles . The Catholic Church maintains that the doctrine on faith and morals that it declares as definitive is infallible . The Latin Church and Eastern Catholic Churches , as well as institutes such as mendicant orders and enclosed monastic orders , reflect a variety of theological and spiritual emphases in the Church. The Catholic Church is notable within Western Christianity for its sacred tradition and seven sacraments . The principal sacrament, the Eucharist , is celebrated liturgically in the Mass
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