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Czechoslovakia
CZECHOSLOVAKIA or CZECHO-SLOVAKIA /ˌtʃɛkoʊsloʊˈvækiə, -kə-, -slə-, -ˈvɑː-/ (Czech and Slovak : _Československo_, _Česko-Slovensko_) was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire , until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
, the state did not _de facto _ exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Soviet bloc with a command economy . Its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949, and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring , was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded . In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution ; state price controls were removed after a period of preparation. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia
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Czechoslovak (other)
CZECHOSLOVAK may refer to: * demonym or adjective pertaining to Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1918–93) * First Czechoslovak Republic (1918–38) * Second Czechoslovak Republic (1938–39) * Third Czechoslovak Republic (1948–60) * Fourth Czechoslovak Republic (1960–89) * Fifth Czechoslovak Republic (1989–93)* Czechoslovak, also Czecho-Slovak, any grouping of the Czech and Slovak ethnicities: * national identity, see Czechoslovakism * linguistic, see West Slavic languages , Comparison of Czech and Slovak * title of Symphony no. 8 in G Major op. 88 Antonín Dvořák
Antonín Dvořák
in 1889/90 This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title CZECHOSLOVAK. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Czechoslovak_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Czechoslovak Government-in-exile
The CZECHOSLOVAK GOVERNMENT-IN-EXILE , sometimes styled officially as the PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA (Czech : Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition . The name came to be used by other World War II
World War II
Allies as they subsequently recognized it. The Committee was originally created by the former Czechoslovak President , Edvard Beneš in Paris, France
Paris, France
, in October 1939. Unsuccessful negotiations with France
France
for diplomatic status, as well as the impending Nazi occupation of France
France
, forced the Committee to withdraw to London
London
in 1940. From there, it moved to Aston Abbots , Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
in 1941, where it sought relative safety from the London
London
Blitz . It was the legitimate government for Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
throughout the Second World War
Second World War

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Flag Of Czechoslovakia
The national FLAG OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC (Czech : státní vlajka České republiky) is the same as the flag of the former Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
. Upon the dissolution of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, the Czech Republic kept the Czechoslovak flag while Slovakia
Slovakia
adopted its own flag . The first flag of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was based on the flag of Bohemia , and was white over red. This was almost identical to the flag of Poland (only the proportion was different), so a blue triangle was added at the hoist in 1920. The flag was banned by the Nazis
Nazis
in 1939, and a horizontal tricolor of white, red, and blue was enforced. The 1920 flag was restored in 1945. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Dimensions * 3 Presidential standard * 3.1 Previous versions * 4 See also * 5 Literature * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY* Flag of Kingdom of Bohemia (1198-1918), and Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
. (1918–1920) * Flag of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1920–1992) * Flag of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
. (1939–1945) * Naval Ensign of Czechoslovakia. (1935–1955) * Naval Ensign of Czechoslovakia
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Coat Of Arms Of Czechoslovakia
The COAT OF ARMS OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA were changed many times during Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
’s history, some alongside each other. This reflects the turbulent history of the country and a wish to use appropriate territorial coats of arms . CONTENTS * 1 First Czechoslovak Republic (1918-1938) and Post-War (1945-1960) * 2 Occupied Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1938-1945) * 3 Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960-1990) * 4 Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (1990-1992) * 5 Post-Czechoslovak coats of arms * 6 References FIRST CZECHOSLOVAK REPUBLIC (1918-1938) AND POST-WAR (1945-1960) Lesser coat of arms of Czechoslovakia (1920-1938) and (1945-1960). Middle coat of arms of Czechoslovakia (1920-1939). Greater coat of arms of Czechoslovakia (1920-1938) and (1945-1960). Motive from emblem of the Czechoslovak Legion
Czechoslovak Legion
was used as provisional coat of arms of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in (1918-1920). The lesser and the greater versions were not used from 1938 onwards, but the middle arms also was effectively put out of use when Germany occupied Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
in 1939
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Pravda Vítězí
"TRUTH PREVAILS" (Czech : Pravda vítězí, Slovak : Pravda víťazí, Latin : Veritas vincit) was a motto inscribed on the banner of the President of Czechoslovakia, still used today on the banner of the President of the Czech Republic
President of the Czech Republic
. The banner of the President is one of the national symbols according to the Czech Constitution . The phrase also appears along the base of the Jan Hus Memorial in Prague
Prague
. The motto is believed to be derived from Jan Hus ' phrase "Seek the truth, hear the truth, learn the truth, love the truth, speak the truth, hold the truth and defend the truth until death". "Truth prevails" was adopted as motto by the first President of Czechoslovakia Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk in 1918 and then echoed in Václav Havel
Václav Havel
's notion of "life in truth" and in his famous statement "Truth and love must prevail over lies and hatred" (Czech : Pravda a láska musí zvítězit nad lží a nenávistí). The Latin version "Veritas vincit" was in use on the presidential banner from 1990 to 1992 as a linguistically neutral compromise reached between the Czech and Slovak political representation
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Czech Language
CZECH (/ˈtʃɛk/ ; _čeština_ Czech pronunciation: ), historically also BOHEMIAN (/boʊˈhiːmiən, bə-/ ; _lingua Bohemica_ in Latin ), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group , that is extensively influenced by Latin and German . It is spoken by over 10 million people and is the official language of the Czech Republic . Czech is closely related to Slovak , to the point of being mutually intelligible to a very high degree. The Czecho-Slovak group developed within West Slavic in the high medieval period, and the standardisation of Czech and Slovak within the Czech–Slovak dialect continuum emerges in the early modern period. In the later 18th to mid-19th century, the modern written standard was codified in the context of the Czech National Revival . The main vernacular, known as Common Czech, is based on the vernacular of Prague , but is now spoken throughout most of the Czech Republic. The Moravian dialects spoken in the eastern part of the country are also counted as Czech, although some of their eastern variants are closer to Slovak. The Czech phoneme inventory is moderate in size,′ comprising five vowels (each short or long ) and twenty-five consonants (divided into "hard", "neutral" and "soft" categories). Words may contain uncommon (or complicated) consonant clusters, including one consonant represented by the grapheme _ř _, or lack vowels altogether
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Slovak Language
SLOVAK /ˈsloʊvæk, -vɑːk/ (_ listen ) (Slovak: slovenský jazyk_, pronounced (_ listen ), or slovenčina_ ; not to be confused with _slovenski jezik_ or _slovenščina_, the native names of the Slovene language ) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech , Polish , Silesian , Kashubian , and Sorbian ). Slovak is the official language of Slovakia where it is spoken by approximately 5.51 million people (2014). Slovak speakers are also found in the United States , the Czech Republic , Argentina , Serbia , Ireland , Romania , Poland , Canada , Hungary , Croatia , the United Kingdom , Australia , Austria , Ukraine and many others worldwide
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence
Terence

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Kde Domov Můj?
KDE DOMOV MůJ (Czech pronunciation: ; English : Where is my home?) is the national anthem of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, written by the composer František Škroup and the playwright Josef Kajetán Tyl . The piece was written as a part of the incidental music to the comedy Fidlovačka aneb Žádný hněv a žádná rvačka (Fidlovačka, or No Anger and No Brawl). It was first performed by Karel Strakatý at the Estates Theatre in Prague
Prague
on December 21, 1834. The original song consists of two verses (see below). Although J. K. Tyl is said to have considered leaving the song out of the play, not convinced of its quality, it soon became very popular among Czechs and was accepted as an informal anthem of a nation seeking to revive its identity within the Habsburg Monarchy . Soon after Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was formed in 1918, the first verse of the song became the Czech part of the national anthem, followed by the first verse of the Slovak song Nad Tatrou sa blýska
Nad Tatrou sa blýska
. The songs reflected the two nations' concerns in the 19th century when they were confronted with the already fervent national-ethnic activism of the Germans
Germans
and the Hungarians , their fellow ethnic groups in the Habsburg Monarchy
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Nad Tatrou Sa Blýska
NAD TATROU SA BLýSKA (Slovak pronunciation: ; English : Lightning over the Tatras) is the national anthem of Slovakia . The origins of the anthem are in the Central European activism of the 19th century. Its main themes are a storm over the Tatra mountains that symbolized danger to the Slovaks, and a desire for a resolution of the threat. It used to be particularly popular during the 1848–1849 insurgencies . During the days of Czechoslovakia , the anthem was played in many Slovak towns at noon. This tradition ceased to exist after the two nations split. Nad Tatrou sa blýska is now performed mainly at special events, including sporting events. CONTENTS* 1 Origin * 1.1 Circumstances * 1.2 Versions * 2 National anthem * 3 Lyrics * 3.1 Close reading and footnotes * 3.2 Poetics * 3.3 English rhyming ditty * 4 References * 5 External links ORIGINCIRCUMSTANCES Notation in Paulíny-Tóth notebook (1844) 23-year-old Janko Matúška wrote the lyrics of this anthem in January - February 1844. The tune came from the folk song Kopala studienku (She was digging a well) suggested to him by his fellow student Jozef Podhradský (1823 – 1915), a future religious and Pan-Slavic activist and gymnasial teacher
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World War Ii
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Prague
Motto: " Praga Caput Rei publicae" (Latin ) "Prague, Head of the Republic" _other historical mottos _ * " Praga mater urbium" (Latin ) "Praha matka měst" (Czech ) "Prague, Mother of Cities" * " Praga Caput Regni" (Latin ) "Prague, Head of the Kingdom" Coordinates: 50°05′N 14°25′E / 50.083°N 14.417°E / 50.083; 14.417 Coordinates : 50°05′N 14°25′E / 50.083°N 14.417°E / 50.083; 14.417 COUNTRY Czech Republic
Czech Republic
FOUNDED 6th century GOVERNMENT • MAYOR
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German Language
_No official regulation_ ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography ). LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 de ISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T) ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh – Middle High German goh – Old High German gct – Colonia Tovar German bar – Bavarian cim – Cimbrian geh – Hutterite German ksh – Kölsch nds – Low German sli – Lower Silesian ltz – Luxembourgish vmf – Mainfränkisch mhn – Mócheno pfl – Palatinate German pdc – Pennsylvania German pdt – Plautdietsch swg – Swabian German gsw – Swiss German uln – Unserdeutsch sxu – Upper Saxon wae – Walser German wep – Westphalian hrx – Riograndenser Hunsrückisch yec – Yenish GLOTTOLOG high1287 High Franconian uppe1397 Upper German LINGUASPHERE further information 52-AC (Continental West Germanic) > 52-ACB (Deutsch & Dutch) > 52-ACB-d ( Central German incl. 52-ACB–dl & -dm Standard/Generalised High German ) + 52-ACB-e & -f ( Upper German & Swiss German ) + 52-ACB-h (émigré German varieties incl
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Yiddish Language
YIDDISH (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish ", pronounced ; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe , providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with an extensive Germanic based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic , as well as from Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages . Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized alphabet based on the Hebrew alphabet . The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German . Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון (mame-loshn, lit. "mother tongue"), distinguishing it from לשון־קדש (loshn koydesh , "holy tongue"), meaning Hebrew and Aramaic. The term "Yiddish", short for Yidish Taitsh "Jewish German", did not become the most frequently used designation in the literature until the 18th century. In the late 19th and into the 20th century the language was more commonly called "Jewish", especially in non-Jewish contexts, but "Yiddish" is again the more common designation
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Rusyn Language
62,000 (2000–2006) Census population: 70,000. These are numbers from national official bureaus for statistics: Slovakia – 33,482 Serbia – 15,626 Ukraine – 6,725 Poland – 10,000 Croatia – 2,337 Hungary – 1,113 Czech Republic – 777 LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Balto-Slavic * Slavic * East Slavic * RUSYN OFFICIAL STATUS Recognised minority language in Czech Republic Serbia Slovakia Ukraine LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-3 rue GLOTTOLOG rusy1239 LINGUASPHERE 53-AAA-ec < 53-AAA-e (varieties: 53-AAA-eca to 53-AAA-ecc) THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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