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Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(/saɪrəˈneɪ.ɪkə/ SY-rə-NAY-ik-ə; Latin: Cyrenaica (Provincia), Ancient Greek: Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; Arabic: برقة‎ Barqah) is the eastern coastal region of Libya. Also known as Pentapolis ("Five Cities") in antiquity, it formed part of the Roman province
Roman province
of Crete
Crete
and Cyrenaica, later divided into Libya Pentapolis and Libya
Libya
Sicca. During the Islamic period, the area came to be known as Barqa, after the city of Barca. Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was the name of an administrative division of Italian Libya from 1927 until 1943, then under British military and civil administration from 1943 until 1951, and finally in the Kingdom of Libya
Libya
from 1951 until 1963
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Quercus Coccifera
Quercus coccifera, the kermes oak, is an oak in the Quercus section Cerris. It is native to the Mediterranean region
Mediterranean region
and Northern African Maghreb, south to north from Morocco
Morocco
to France
France
and west to east from Portugal
Portugal
to Cyprus
Cyprus
and Turkey, crossing Spain, Italy, Libya, Balkans, and Greece, including Crete. The Kermes Oak
Oak
was historically important as the food plant of the Kermes scale insect, from which a red dye called crimson was obtained.[2] The etymology of the specific name 'coccifera' is related to the production of red cochineal (crimson) dye and derived from Latin coccum which was from Greek κὀκκος, the kermes insect
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Sea Level
Mean
Mean
sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location.[1] Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales
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Gulf Of Sidra
Gulf of Sirte
Sirte
(Arabic: خليج سرت‎, Khalij Surt), or Gulf of Sidra (Arabic: خليج السدرة‎, Khalij as-Sidra) after the port of Sidra,[2] is a body of water in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea on the northern coast of Libya. Historically it has been also known as the Great Sirte
Sirte
or Greater Syrtis (Latin: Syrtis Major, Greek: Σύρτις μεγάλη, contrasting with Syrtis Minor
Syrtis Minor
in Tunisia).[3]Contents1 Geography 2 History2.1 Ancient history 2.2 World War II 2.3 Cold War2.3.1 1973 2.3.2 1980 2.3.3 1981 2.3.4 1986 2.3.5 19892.4 Libyan Civil War3 See also 4 References 5 External linksGeography[edit] The Gulf of Sirte
Sirte
has been a major centre for tuna fishing in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
for centuries
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Shabiyah
Shabiyah (Arabic: شعبية‎) (plural: Shabiyat, شعبيات) is an administrative division of Libya. It is often translated as popularate, but also as "municipality" or "district". Etymology[edit] The term ("شعبية") in Arabic
Arabic
can mean both "popularity" or "That that is of the people" or more simply "pertaining to the people". The second meaning was used by the Libyan government to refer to the districts of Libya, in tandem with the general ideology of the state. Sha'biyat in Libya
Libya
are the highest administrative level
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Ecoregion
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone. All three of these are either less or greater than an ecosystem.[citation needed][clarification needed] Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural communities and species. The biodiversity of flora, fauna and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. In theory, biodiversity or conservation ecoregions are relatively large areas of land or water where the probability of encountering different species and communities at any given point remains relatively constant, within an acceptable range of variation (largely undefined at this point). Three caveats are appropriate for all bio-geographic mapping approaches. Firstly, no single bio-geographic framework is optimal for all taxa
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Mediterranean Climate
A Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
/ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ or dry summer climate, is the climate typical of areas in the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
is usually characterized by rainy winters and dry, warm to hot summers. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Sea, an area where this climate is commonplace, it is also present in other areas of the planet, although with variations in the distribution of temperatures
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Maquis Shrubland
Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian: macchia mediterranea) is a shrubland biome in the Mediterranean region, typically consisting of densely growing evergreen shrubs. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7] See also[edit]Maquis Garrigue Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrubReferences[edit]^ Habitats of the world. New York: Marshall Cavendish. 2006. pp. 488, 492–493. ISBN 978-0761475231. Retrieved 26 November 2015.  ^ Costantini, Edoardo A.C. (ed.); Dazzi, Carmelo (ed.) (2013). The soils of Italy. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 30,78,80,83,255,283. ISBN 978-9400756410. Retrieved 26 November 2015. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Aranda Jimenez, Gonzalo; Montón Subías, Sandra; Sánchez Romero, Margarita (December 10, 2014). The Archaeology of Bronze Age Iberia: Argaric Societies (Routledge Studies in Archaeology) (Routledge Studies in Archaeology (Book 17) ed.). Routledge. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-1138821330
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Garrigue
Garrigue
Garrigue
or phrygana is a type of low, soft-leaved scrubland ecoregion and plant community in the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome. It is found on limestone soils in southern France
France
and around the Mediterranean Basin, generally near the seacoast where the modera
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Steppe
In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: степь, IPA: [stʲepʲ]) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa, they are referred to as veld. The prairie of North America
North America
(especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie) is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such. A steppe may be semi-desert or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude. The term is also used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is typically of chernozem type. Steppes are usually characterized by a semi-arid and continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C (113 °F) and in winter, −55 °C (−67 °F)
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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Oak Savanna
An oak savanna is a type of savanna, or lightly forested grassland, where oaks (Quercus spp.) are the dominant trees. These savannas were maintained historically through wildfires set by lightning or humans, grazing, low precipitation, and/or poor soil.Map of oak savanna distribution in North AmericaAlthough there are pockets of oak savanna almost anywhere in North America where oaks are present, there are three major oak savanna areas: 1) California, Washington and Oregon in the west; 2) Southwestern United States and Mexico; and 3) the prairie/forest border of the Midwest.[1][2] There are also small areas of oak savannas in other parts of the world. (See also Eastern savannas of the United States for information on pine savannas of the U.S
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Sarcopoterium Spinosum
Poterium L. Sarcopoterium
Sarcopoterium
is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family. The genus is synonymous to Poterium. The sole species within this genus, Sarcopoterium
Sarcopoterium
spinosum, is common to the southeast Mediterranean region[1] and Middle East.[2] It is a perennial bush with small flowers in inflorescence. Sarcopoterium
Sarcopoterium
spinosum flowers in February to April and its fruits mature in autumn, then fall to earth to germinate with the rain water. Sarcopoterium
Sarcopoterium
spinosum has spines. In the summer (high temperatures) it is dried and appears dead. References[edit]^ Seligman, No'am; Henkin, Zalmen (2003). Plant
Plant
Ecology. 164 (1): 95–107. doi:10.1023/A:1021289412812.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Gargano, Domenico; Fenu, Giuseppe; Medagli, Piero; Sciandrello, Saverio; Bernardo, Liliana (1 December 2007)
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Artemisia Herba-alba
Artemisia herba-alba, the white wormwood, is a perennial shrub in the genus Artemisia that grows commonly on the dry steppes of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
regions in Northern Africa
Northern Africa
(Saharan Maghreb), Western Asia (Arabian Peninsula) and Southwestern Europe.[2] It is used as an antiseptic and antispasmodic in herbal medicine.Contents1 Names 2 Botanical description 3 Phytochemistry 4 Uses4.1 Herbal medicine5 Culture 6 References 7 External linksNames[edit] Its specific epithet herba-alba means "white herb" in Latin, as its stems and leaves are white and woolly.[3] Similarly, it is armoise herbe-blanche or armoise blanche in French. In Arabic, it is shīeḥ (الشيح).[4] And it is la'anah (לענה) in Old Testament Hebrew.[5][6] " Wormwood " ( in the Bible, Rev
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Autonomous Region
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority. Typically, it is either geographically distinct from the rest of the country or populated by a national minority. Decentralization
Decentralization
of self-governing powers and functions to such divisions is a way for a national government to try to increase democratic participation or administrative efficiency or to defuse internal conflicts. Countries that include autonomous areas may be federacies, federations, or confederations
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