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Cyrenaica
CYRENAICA (/saɪrᵻˈneɪ.ᵻkə/ _SY-rə-NAY-ə-kə_ ; Ancient Greek : Κυρηναϊκή _Kyrēnaïkḗ_, after the city of Cyrene ; Arabic : برقة‎‎ _Barqah_) is the eastern coastal region of Libya
Libya
. Also known as _Pentapolis_ ("Five Cities") in antiquity , it formed part of the Roman province
Roman province
of Crete and Cyrenaica , later divided into _ Libya
Libya
Pentapolis_ and _ Libya
Libya
Sicca_. During the Islamic period, the area came to be known as _Barqa_, after the city of Barca . Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was the name of an administrative division of Italian Libya from 1927 until 1943, then under British military and civil administration from 1943 until 1951, and finally in the Kingdom of Libya
Libya
from 1951 until 1963. In a wider sense, still in use, Cyrenaica includes all of the eastern part of Libya, including the Kufra District
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Pentapolis (other)
A PENTAPOLIS, from the Greek words πέντε (pente), "five" and πόλις (polis ), "city(-state)" is a geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities. Cities in the ancient world probably formed such groups for political, commercial and military reasons, as happened later with the Cinque Ports
Cinque Ports
in England. CONTENTS * 1 Significant historical cases * 2 Pentapoleis of the modern world * 2.1 Italy * 2.2 India * 2.3 United States of America * 2.4 Algeria * 3 Notes * 4 See also * 5 Sources and references SIGNIFICANT HISTORICAL CASES The Pentapolis
Pentapolis
on the Adriatic was part of the Exarchate of Ravenna
Ravenna
, an administrative unit of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. Red: The Pentapolis. Orange: Other cities of the Exarchate
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Barka (other)
BARKA, BARCA or BARQA or BARKAH may refer to: PLACES* Barka River , a river in Eritrea and Sudan * Barka (Eritrea) , a former province of Eritrea * Barka, Oman , a town in Oman * Barka, Saudi Arabia , a village in Saudi Arabia * Barka, Pomeranian Vo
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Autonomous Region
An AUTONOMOUS ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION (also referred to as an AUTONOMOUS AREA, ENTITY, UNIT, REGION, SUBDIVISION, or TERRITORY) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance , or autonomy , from an external authority. Typically, it is either geographically distinct from the rest of the country or populated by a national minority . Decentralization of self-governing powers and functions to such divisions is a way for a national government to try to increase democratic participation or administrative efficiency and/or to defuse internal conflicts. Countries that include autonomous areas may be federacies , federations , or confederations . Autonomous areas can be divided into territorial autonomies, subregional territorial autonomies, and local autonomies
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Libya
LIBYA ( Arabic
Arabic
: ليبيا‎‎ _Lībiyā_) is a country in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region of North Africa
North Africa
, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt
Egypt
to the east, Sudan
Sudan
to the southeast, Chad
Chad
and Niger to the south and Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
to the west. The country is made of three historical regions, Tripolitania , Fezzan and Cyrenaica . With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres (700,000 sq mi), Libya
Libya
is the fourth largest country in Africa, and is the 16th largest country in the world
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Flag Of Cyrenaica
The FLAG OF LIBYA was originally introduced in 1951, following the creation of the Kingdom of Libya
Kingdom of Libya
. It was designed by Omar Faiek Shennib and approved by King Idris Al Senussi
Senussi
who comprised the UN delegation representing the regions of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
, Fezzan
Fezzan
and Tripolitania
Tripolitania
at UN unification discussions. The flag fell out of use in 1969, but was subsequently adopted by the National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
and anti-Gaddafi forces and effectively reinstated as the country’s national flag in article three of the Libyan Draft Constitutional Charter for the Transitional Stage issued on 3 August 2011
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Italian Cyrenaica
ITALIAN CYRENAICA was an Italian colony, located in present-day eastern Libya
Libya
, that existed from 1927 to 1934. It was part of the Italian North African territory conquered from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1911. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Italian concentration camps in Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
* 3 Infrastructure * 4 Main military and political developments * 5 Notes * 6 Bibliography * 7 See also HISTORYItalian Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was formed in 1927, after it and Italian Tripolitania became independent colonial entities within Italian North Africa. In 1934, Italian Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
became part of Italian Libya
Italian Libya
. In the 1920s, Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was the scene of fighting between Italian colonial forces and Libyan rebels who were fighting for independence from colonial rule
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Governorates Of Libya
The GOVERNORATES OF LIBYA (muhafazah ) were a tenfold top-level administrative division of Libya
Libya
from 1963 until 1983. They came into being on 27 April 1963. In 1970, after the 1 September 1969 Free Officers Movement coup , there was an administrative reorganization which gave local authorities more power to implement policies of the national government, and redesignated some of the names and boundaries of the ten governorates. In February 1975, Libya
Libya
issued a law that abolished the governorates and their service directorates, however they continued to operate until they were fully replaced in 1983 by the baladiyat system districts . Historically, the three provinces of Libya
Libya
( Tripolitania
Tripolitania
in the northwest, Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
in the east, and Fezzan
Fezzan
in the southwest) were sometimes called governorates
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Capital City
A CAPITAL CITY (or simply CAPITAL) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country , state , province , or other administrative region , usually as its seat of government . A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of its respective government ; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution . In some jurisdictions , including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place. Capital cities that are also the prime economic, cultural, or intellectual centres of a nation or an empire are sometimes referred to as primate cities
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Benghazi, Libya
BENGHAZI /bɛnˈɡɑːzi/ (Arabic : بنغازي‎ Banghāzī) is the second most populous city in Libya
Libya
and the largest in Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
. A port on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the Kingdom of Libya, Benghazi
Benghazi
had joint-capital status alongside Tripoli
Tripoli
, possibly because the King and the Senussi
Senussi
royal family were associated with Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
rather than Tripolitania
Tripolitania
. The city was also provisional capital of the National Transitional Council . Benghazi
Benghazi
continues to hold institutions and organizations normally associated with a national capital city, such as the country's parliament, national library , and the headquarters of Libyan Airlines , the national airline, and of the National Oil Corporation
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Libyan House Of Representatives
The HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES (HOR) —Arabic : مجلس النواب‎, translit. Majlis al-Nuwaab, lit. 'Council of Deputies'—is the legislature of Libya
Libya
. As part of the ongoing civil war , it represents the " Tobruk
Tobruk
government" based in the east of the country. CONTENTS * 1 Formation * 2 Government of National Accord * 3 Location * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links FORMATIONIt took power on 4 August 2014, following an election on 25 June 2014 , replacing the General National Congress
General National Congress
. Turnout at the election was 18%, down from 60% in the first post- Gaddafi
Gaddafi
election of July 2012. Because of security concerns no voting took place in some locations. The current chairman is Aguila Saleh Issa
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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects . Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers
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Cyrene, Libya
CYRENE (/saɪˈriːniː/ ; Ancient Greek : Κυρήνη, translit. Kyrēnē) was an ancient Greek and Roman city near present-day Shahhat , Libya
Libya
. It was the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities in the region. It gave eastern Libya
Libya
the classical name Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
that it has retained to modern times. Nearby located, the ancient Necropolis of Cyrene
Necropolis of Cyrene
. Cyrene lies in a lush valley in the Jebel Akhdar uplands. The city was named after a spring , Kyre, which the Greeks
Greeks
consecrated to Apollo
Apollo
. It was also the seat of the Cyrenaics
Cyrenaics
, a famous school of philosophy in the 4th century BC, founded by Aristippus
Aristippus
, a disciple of Socrates
Socrates
. It was then nicknamed the " Athens
Athens
of Africa"
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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Ancient Libya
The Latin
Latin
name LIBYA (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile
Nile
generally corresponding to the modern Maghreb . Its people were ancestors of the modern Berbers
Berbers
. Berbers
Berbers
occupied the area for thousands of years before the beginning of human records in ancient Egypt. Climate changes affected the locations of the settlements. More narrowly, Libya
Libya
could also refer to the country immediately west of Egypt, viz. Marmarica ( Libya
Libya
Inferior) and Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Libya Superior). The Libyan Sea
Libyan Sea
or Mare Libycum was the part of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
south of Crete
Crete
, between Cyrene and Alexandria
Alexandria

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Roman Province
In Ancient Rome , a PROVINCE ( Latin : _provincia_, pl. _provinciae_) was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy (293 AD), largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of Italy . The word _province_ in modern English has its origins in the term used by the Romans. Provinces were generally governed by politicians of senatorial rank, usually former consuls or former praetors . A later exception was the province of Egypt, incorporated by Augustus after the death of Cleopatra : it was ruled by a governor of equestrian rank only, perhaps as a discouragement to senatorial ambition. This exception was unique, but not contrary to Roman law, as Egypt was considered Augustus' personal property, following the tradition of earlier, Hellenistic kings
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