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Cyrenaica
CYRENAICA (/saɪrᵻˈneɪ.ᵻkə/ SY-rə-NAY-ə-kə ; Ancient Greek : Κυρηναϊκή Kyrēnaïkḗ, after the city of Cyrene ; Arabic : برقة‎‎ Barqah) is the eastern coastal region of Libya
Libya
. Also known as Pentapolis ("Five Cities") in antiquity , it formed part of the Roman province
Roman province
of Crete and Cyrenaica
Crete and Cyrenaica
, later divided into Libya Pentapolis and Libya
Libya
Sicca. During the Islamic period, the area came to be known as Barqa, after the city of Barca . Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was the name of an administrative division of Italian Libya from 1927 until 1943, then under British military and civil administration from 1943 until 1951, and finally in the Kingdom of Libya
Libya
from 1951 until 1963
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Garrigue
GARRIGUE or PHRYGANA is a type of low, soft-leaved scrubland ecoregion and plant community in the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome . It is found on limestone soils in southern France
France
and around the Mediterranean Basin , generally near the seacoast where the moderated Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
provides annual summer drought . The term has also found its way into haute cuisine , suggestive of the resinous flavours of a garrigue shrubland
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Maquis Shrubland
MAQUIS (French ) or MACCHIA (Italian : macchia mediterranea) is a shrubland biome in the Mediterranean region
Mediterranean region
, typically consisting of densely growing evergreen shrubs . SEE ALSO * Maquis * Garrigue
Garrigue
* Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
REFERENCES * ^ Habitats of the world. New York: Marshall Cavendish. 2006. pp. 488, 492–493. ISBN 978-0761475231 . Retrieved 26 November 2015. * ^ Costantini, Edoardo A.C. (ed.); Dazzi, Carmelo (ed.) (2013). The soils of Italy. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 30,78,80,83,255,283. ISBN 978-9400756410 . Retrieved 26 November 2015. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Aranda Jimenez, Gonzalo; Montón Subías, Sandra; Sánchez Romero, Margarita (December 10, 2014)
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Steppe
In physical geography , a STEPPE (Russian : степь; IPA: ) is an ecoregion , in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes , characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa
South Africa
they are referred to as veld . The prairie (especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie) is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such. It may be semi-desert , or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude . The term is also used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest , but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is typically of chernozem type. Steppes are usually characterized by a semi-arid and continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C (113 °F) and in winter, −55 °C (−67 °F)
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Gulf Of Sidra
GULF OF SIRTE (Arabic : خليج سرت‎‎, Khalij Surt), or GULF OF SIDRA (Arabic : خليج السدرة‎‎, Khalij as-Sidra) after the port of Sidra , is a body of water in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea on the northern coast of Libya
Libya
. Historically it has been also known as the GREAT SIRTE or GREATER SYRTIS (Latin: Syrtis Major, Greek : Σύρτις μεγάλη, contrasting with Syrtis Minor in Tunisia
Tunisia
). CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 2.1 Ancient History * 2.2 World War II
World War II
* 2.3 Cold War period * 2.3.1 1973 * 2.3.2 1980 * 2.3.3 1981 * 2.3.4 1986 * 2.3.5 1989 * 2.4 Libyan civil war * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links GEOGRAPHYThe Gulf of Sirte
Sirte
has been a major centre for tuna fishing in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
for centuries
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Sarcopoterium Spinosum
Poterium L. SARCOPOTERIUM is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family. The genus is synonymous to Poterium. The sole species within this genus, SARCOPOTERIUM SPINOSUM, is common to the southeast Mediterranean region and Middle East. It is a perennial bush with small flowers in inflorescence. Sarcopoterium
Sarcopoterium
spinosum flowers in February to April and its fruits mature in autumn, then fall to earth to germinate with the rain water. Sarcopoterium
Sarcopoterium
spinosum has spines. In the summer (high temperatures) it is dried and appears dead. REFERENCES * ^ Seligman, No'am; Henkin, Zalmen (2003). Plant
Plant
Ecology. 164 (1): 95–107. doi :10.1023/A:1021289412812 . Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ Gargano, Domenico; Fenu, Giuseppe; Medagli, Piero; Sciandrello, Saverio; Bernardo, Liliana (1 December 2007)
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Mediterranean Climate
A MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE /ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ or DRY SUMMER CLIMATE, is the climate typical of areas in the Mediterranean Basin . The Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
is usually characterized by rainy winters and dry, warm to hot summers. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Sea, an area where this climate is commonplace, it is also present in other areas of the planet, although with variations in the distribution of temperatures. In addition to the Mediterranean Basin, the climate is also found in most of California
California
in the United States , in parts of Western and South Australia
South Australia
, in southwestern South Africa
South Africa
, sections of Western and Central Asia
Central Asia
, and in Central Chile
Chile

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Shabiyah
SHABIYAH ( Arabic
Arabic
: شعبية‎) (plural: Shabiyat, شعبيات) is an administrative division of Libya
Libya
. It is often translated as popularate, but also as "municipality" or "district". ETYMOLOGYThe term ("شعبية") in Arabic
Arabic
can mean both "popularity" or "That that is of the people" or more simply "pertaining to the people". The second meaning was used by the Libyan government to refer to the districts of Libya
Libya
, in tandem with the general ideology of the state. Sha'biyat in Libya
Libya
are the highest administrative level. A lower level, equivalent to a county, exists and divides each Shabiyah into smaller entities
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Sea Level
MEAN SEA LEVEL (MSL) (abbreviated simply SEA LEVEL) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth\'s oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation , or, in aviation , as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured in order to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels . A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales . The careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change , and sea level rise has been widely quoted as evidence of ongoing global warming
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Limestone
LIMESTONE is a sedimentary rock , composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral , forams and molluscs . Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite , which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone
Limestone
has numerous uses: as a building material , an essential component of concrete ( Portland cement
Portland cement
), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints , as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime , as a soil conditioner , or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens
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Miocene
The MIOCENE ( /ˈmaɪəˌsiːn/ ) is the first geological epoch of the Neogene
Neogene
Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.333 million years ago (Ma). The Miocene
Miocene
was named by Sir Charles Lyell . Its name comes from the Greek words μείων (meiōn, “less”) and καινός (kainos, “new”) and means "less recent" because it has 18% fewer modern sea invertebrates than the Pliocene
Pliocene
. The Miocene
Miocene
follows the Oligocene Epoch and is followed by the Pliocene
Pliocene
Epoch. As the earth went from the Oligocene through the Miocene
Miocene
and into the Pliocene, the climate slowly cooled towards a series of ice ages
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Ecoregion
An ECOREGION (ECOLOGICAL REGION) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion , which in turn is smaller than an ecozone . All three of these are either less or greater than an ecosystem . Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural communities and species . The biodiversity of flora , fauna and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. In theory, biodiversity or conservation ecoregions are relatively large areas of land or water where the probability of encountering different species and communities at any given point remains relatively constant, within an acceptable range of variation (largely undefined at this point). Three caveats are appropriate for all bio-geographic mapping approaches. Firstly, no single bio-geographic framework is optimal for all taxa
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Asphodelus Microcarpus
Asphodelus microcarpus Viv. ASPHODELUS RAMOSUS, also known as BRANCHED ASPHODEL, is a perennial herb in the Asparagales
Asparagales
order. Similar in appearance to Asphodelus albus and particularly Asphodelus cerasiferus , it may be distinguished by its highly branched stem and smaller fruits. Asphodelus ramosus is native to the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region of southern Europe
Europe
, northern Africa
Africa
, and the Middle East
Middle East
. It can also be found in the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
. It is particularly common on the Catalan coast, where it shows an affinity for acidic soils, mainly schist . It is to be found close to the sea on the slopes of the Albères massif , where it forms abundant colonies in April to May
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Oak Savanna
An OAK SAVANNA is a type of savanna , or lightly forested grassland , where oaks (Quercus spp.) are the dominant trees. These savannas were maintained historically through wildfires set by lightning or humans, grazing, low precipitation , and/or poor soil. Map of oak savanna distribution in North America Although there are pockets of oak savanna almost anywhere in North America where oaks are present, there are three major oak savanna areas: 1) California , Washington and Oregon in the west; 2) Southwestern United States and Mexico; and 3) the prairie/forest border of the Midwest. There are also small areas of oak savannas in other parts of the world. (See also Eastern savannas of the United States for information on pine savannas of the U.S
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Arabic Language
ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah ( listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎ ʻarabī ( listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world
Arab world
. It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula . The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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Quercus Coccifera
QUERCUS COCCIFERA, the KERMES OAK, is an oak in the Quercus section Cerris . It is native to the Mediterranean region
Mediterranean region
and Northern African Maghreb , south to north from Morocco
Morocco
to France
France
and west to east from Portugal
Portugal
to Cyprus
Cyprus
and Turkey
Turkey
, crossing Spain
Spain
, Italy
Italy
, Libya
Libya
, Balkans, and Greece
Greece
, including Crete
Crete

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