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Cyclopentane
Cyclopentane
Cyclopentane
is a highly flammable alicyclic hydrocarbon with chemical formula C5H10
C5H10
and CAS number 287-92-3, consisting of a ring of five carbon atoms each bonded with two hydrogen atoms above and below the plane. It occurs as a colorless liquid with a petrol-like odor
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Chemical Nomenclature
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book[1] and the Red Book,[2] respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book,[3] describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book,[4] contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry[5] (the White Book, in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry[6] (the Orange Book), macromolecular chemistry[7] (the Purple Book) and clinical chemistry[8] (the Silver Book)
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National Institute For Occupational Safety And Health
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. NIOSH
NIOSH
is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the U.S
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Acid Dissociation Constant
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution. It is the equilibrium constant for a chemical reaction known as dissociation in the context of acid–base reactions.[note 1] In aqueous solution, the equilibrium of acid dissociation can be written symbolically as: HA + H 2 O ↽ − − ⇀ A − + H 3 O + displaystyle ce HA + H2O <=> A^- + H3O^+ where HA is a generic acid that dissociates into A−, known as the conjugate base of the acid and a hydrogen ion which combines with a water molecule to make a hydronium ion
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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Refractive Index
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium. It is defined as n = c v , displaystyle n= frac c v , where c is the speed of light in vacuum and v is the phase velocity of light in the medium. For example, the refractive index of water is 1.333, meaning that light travels 1.333 times faster in vacuum than in the water. Refraction
Refraction
of a light rayThe refractive index determines how much the path of light is bent, or refracted, when entering a material. This is the first documented use of refractive indices and is described by Snell's law
Snell's law
of refraction, n1 sinθ1 = n2 sinθ2, where θ1 and θ2 are the angles of incidence and refraction, respectively, of a ray crossing the interface between two media with refractive indices n1 and n2
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Worker Safety And Health
Occupational safety and health
Occupational safety and health
(OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health,[1] or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work. These terms also refer to the goals of this field,[2] so their use in the sense of this article was originally an abbreviation of occupational safety and health program/department etc. The goals of occupational safety and health programs include to foster a safe and healthy work environment.[3] OSH may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment
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NFPA 704
"NFPA 704: Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response" is a standard maintained by the U.S.-based National Fire Protection Association. First "tentatively adopted as a guide" in 1960,[1] and revised several times since then, it defines the colloquial "fire diamond" or "safety square" used by emergency personnel to quickly and easily identify the risks posed by hazardous materials. This helps determine what, if any, special equipment should be used, procedures followed, or precautions taken during the initial stages of an emergency response.Contents1 Codes 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksCodes[edit]The four divisions are typically color-coded with red indicating flammability, blue indicating level of health hazard, yellow for chemical reactivity, and white containing codes for special hazards. Each of health, flammability and reactivity is rated on a scale from 0 (no hazard) to 4 (severe risk)
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Flash Point
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source. The flash point may sometimes be confused with the autoignition temperature, which is the temperature at which the vapor ignites spontaneously without an ignition source. The fire point is the lowest temperature at which vapors of the material will keep burning after being ignited and the ignition source removed
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Autoignition Temperature
The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it spontaneously ignites in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. This temperature is required to supply the activation energy needed for combustion. The temperature at which a chemical ignites decreases as the pressure or oxygen concentration increases. It is usually applied to a combustible fuel mixture. Autoignition temperatures of liquid chemicals are typically measured using a 500-millilitre (18 imp fl oz; 17 US fl oz) flask placed in a temperature-controlled oven in accordance with the procedure described in ASTM E659.[1] When measured for plastics, autoignition temperature can be also measured under elevated pressure and at 100% oxygen concentration. The resulting value is used as a predictor of viability for high-oxygen service
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Permissible Exposure Limit
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States
United States
for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise. Permissible exposure limits are established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Most of OSHA’s PELs were issued shortly after adoption of the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act in 1970.[1] For chemicals, the chemical regulation is usually expressed in parts per million (ppm), or sometimes in milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). Units of measure for physical agents such as noise are specific to the agent. A PEL is usually given as a time-weighted average (TWA), although some are short-term exposure limits (STEL) or ceiling limits. A TWA is the average exposure over a specified period, usually a nominal eight hours
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Vapor Pressure
Vapor
Vapor
pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile. The pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor also increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relation
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Recommended Exposure Limit
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States
United States
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit. The REL is a level that NIOSH believes would be protective of worker safety and health over a working lifetime if used in combination with engineering and work practice controls, exposure and medical monitoring, posting and labeling of hazards, worker training and personal protective equipment. No REL has ever been adopted by OSHA, but they have been used as guides by some industry and advocacy organizations. RELs for chemical exposures are usually expressed in parts per million (ppm), or sometimes in milligrams per cubic metre (mg/m3)
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IDLH
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations
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Standard State
In chemistry, the standard state of a material (pure substance, mixture or solution) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions. In principle, the choice of standard state is arbitrary, although the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) recommends a conventional set of standard states for general use.[1] IUPAC
IUPAC
recommends using a standard pressure po = 105 Pa.[2] Strictly speaking, temperature is not part of the definition of a standard state. For example, as discussed below, the standard state of a gas is conventionally chosen to be unit pressure (usually in bar) ideal gas, regardless of the temperature
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Flammable
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible. The degree of flammability or combustibility in air depends largely upon the chemical composition of the subject material, as well as the ratio of mass versus surface area. Take wood as an example. Finely divided wood dust can undergo explosive combustion and produce a blast wave. A piece of paper (made from wood) catches on fire quite easily. A heavy oak desk is much harder to ignite, even though the wood fibre is the same in all three materials. Common sense (and indeed scientific consensus until the mid-1700s) would seem to suggest that material "disappears" when burned, as only the ash is left. In fact, there is an increase in weight because the combustible material reacts (or combines) chemically with oxygen, which also has mass
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