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Cycle Per Second
The CYCLE PER SECOND was a once-common English name for the unit of frequency now known as the hertz . The plural form was typically used, often written CYCLES PER SECOND, CYCLES/SECOND, C.P.S., C/S, ~, or, ambiguously, just CYCLES. The term comes from the fact that sound waves have a frequency measurable in their number of vibrations, or _cycles_, per second. With the organization of the International System of Units in 1960, the cycle per second was officially replaced by the hertz , or reciprocal second . Symbolically, "cycle per second" units are "cycle/second", while hertz is "1/s" or "s−1". This particular mandate has been so widely adopted as to render the old 'cycle per second' all but extinct. For higher frequencies, _kilocycles_ (kc), as an abbreviation of _kilocycles per second_ were often used on components or devices. Other higher units like _megacycle_ (Mc) and less commonly _kilomegacycle_ (kMc) were used before 1960 and in some later documents. These have modern equivalents such as kilohertz (kHz), megahertz (MHz), and gigahertz (GHz). The rate at which aperiodic or stochastic events occur may be expressed in becquerels (as in the case of radioactive decay ), not hertz, since although the two are mathematically similar by convention hertz implies regularity where becquerels implies the requirement of a time averaging operation
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Crystal Oscillator
A CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency . This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time, as in quartz wristwatches , to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits , and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers . The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits incorporating them became known as crystal oscillators, but other piezoelectric materials including polycrystalline ceramics are used in similar circuits. A crystal oscillator, particularly one made of quartz crystal , works by being distorted by an electric field when voltage is applied to an electrode near or on the crystal. This property is known as electrostriction or inverse piezoelectricity. When the field is removed, the quartz - which oscillates in a precise frequency - generates an electric field as it returns to its previous shape, and this can generate a voltage. The result is that a quartz crystal behaves like an RLC circuit . Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz. More than two billion crystals are manufactured annually. Most are used for consumer devices such as wristwatches , clocks , radios , computers , and cellphones
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Frequency
FREQUENCY is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time . It is also referred to as TEMPORAL FREQUENCY, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency . The PERIOD is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example, if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats ). Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio (sound ) signals, radio waves , and light . CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Units * 3 Period versus frequency * 4 Related types of frequency * 5 In wave propagation * 6 Measurement * 6.1 Counting * 6.2 Stroboscope * 6.3 Frequency counter * 6.4 Heterodyne methods * 7 Examples * 7.1 Light * 7.2 Sound * 7.3 Line current * 8 See also * 9 Notes and references * 10 Further reading * 11 External links DEFINITIONS As time elapses—here moving left to right on the horizontal axis—the five sinusoidal waves vary, or cycle, regularly at different rates
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Hertz
The HERTZ (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second . It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves . Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples : kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones , particularly those used in radio - and audio-related applications. It is also used to describe the speeds at which computers and other electronics are driven. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 History * 3 Applications * 3.1 Vibration * 3.2 Electromagnetic radiation * 3.3 Computers * 4 SI multiples * 5 See also * 6 Notes and references * 7 External links DEFINITIONThe hertz is equivalent to cycles per second , i.e., "1/second" or s 1 {displaystyle {text{s}}^{-1}}
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Sound Wave
In physics , SOUND is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure , through a transmission medium such as air , water or other materials. In human physiology and psychology , sound is the _reception_ of such waves and their _perception_ by the brain . Humans can hear sound waves with frequencies between about 20 Hz and 20 kHz. Sound above 20 kHz is ultrasound and below 20 Hz is infrasound . Other animals have different hearing ranges . CONTENTS * 1 Acoustics * 2 Definition * 3 Physics of sound * 3.1 Longitudinal and transverse waves * 3.2 Sound wave properties and characteristics * 3.3 Speed of sound * 4 Perception of sound * 4.1 Elements of sound perception * 4.1.1 Pitch * 4.1.2 Duration * 4.1.3 Loudness * 4.1.4 Timbre * 4.1.5 Sonic texture * 4.1.6 Spatial location * 4.2 Noise * 4.3 Soundscape * 5 Sound pressure level * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ACOUSTICS Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including vibration, sound, ultrasound, and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an _acoustician_, while someone working in the field of acoustical engineering may be called an _acoustical engineer_
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International System Of Units
The INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (abbreviated as SI, from the French _Système internationale (d'unités)_) is the modern form of the metric system , and is the most widely used system of measurement . It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units . The system also establishes a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system was published in 1960 as a result of an initiative that began in 1948. It is based on the metre–kilogram–second system of units (MKS) rather than any variant of the centimetre–gram–second system (CGS). SI is intended to be an evolving system, so prefixes and units are created and unit definitions are modified through international agreement as the technology of measurement progresses and the precision of measurements improves. The 24th and 25th General Conferences on Weights and Measures (CGPM) in 2011 and 2014, for example, discussed a proposal to change the definition of the kilogram , linking it to an invariant of nature rather than to the mass of a material artefact, thereby ensuring long-term stability. The motivation for the development of the SI was the diversity of units that had sprung up within the CGS systems and the lack of coordination between the various disciplines that used them
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Reciprocal Second
The INVERSE SECOND, RECIPROCAL SECOND, or PER SECOND (s−1) is a unit of frequency , defined as the multiplicative inverse of the second (a unit of time). It is dimensionally equivalent to: * Hertz (the SI unit for cycles per second ) * Becquerels (the SI unit for aperiodic or stochastic radionuclide events per second) * Shear rate (the velocity gradient in a fluid)It also provides the denominator for temporal rates , such as that of angular frequency in radians per second . SEE ALSO * Category:Units of frequency * Aperiodic frequency REFERENCES * "The SI unit of frequency is given as the hertz, implying the unit cycles per second; the SI unit of angular velocity is given as the radian per second; and the SI unit of activity is designated the becquerel, implying the unit counts per second. Although it would be formally correct to write all three of these units as the reciprocal second, the use of the different names emphasises the different nature of the quantities concerned." "Units with special names and symbols; units that incorporate special names and symbols". * "(d) The hertz is used only for periodic phenomena, and the becquerel (Bq) is used only for stochastic processes in activity referred to a radionuclide." "BIPM - Table 3". BIPM . Retrieved 2012-10-24. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Inverse_second additional terms may apply
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Aperiodic Frequency
APERIODIC FREQUENCY is the rate of incidence or occurrence of non-cyclic phenomena, including random processes such as radioactive decay . It is expressed in units of measurement of reciprocal seconds or, in the case of radioactivity, becquerels . It is defined as a ratio , f = N/T, involving the number of times an event happened (N) during a given time duration (T); it is a physical quantity of type temporal rate . SEE ALSO * Frequency (statistics) This science article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aperiodic_frequency additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Becquerel
The BECQUEREL (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity . One becquerel is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second . The becquerel is therefore equivalent to an inverse second, s −1. The becquerel is named after Henri Becquerel , who shared a Nobel Prize in Physics with Pierre and Marie Curie in 1903 for their work in discovering radioactivity. CONTENTS * 1 Capitalization * 2 Definition * 3 Prefixes * 4 Relationship to the curie * 5 Calculation of radioactivity * 6 Radiation-related quantities * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links CAPITALIZATIONAs with every International System of Units (SI) unit named for a person, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase (Bq). However, when an SI unit is spelled out in English, it should always begin with a lowercase letter (becquerel)—except in a situation where any word in that position would be capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in material using title case. DEFINITION1 Bq = 1 s−1 A special name was introduced for the reciprocal second (s−1) to represent radioactivity to avoid potentially dangerous mistakes with prefixes. For example, 1 µs−1 could be taken to mean 106 disintegrations per second: 1·(10−6 s)−1 = 106 s−1. Other names considered were hertz (Hz), a special name already in use for the reciprocal second, and fourier (Fr)
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Radioactive Decay
RADIOACTIVE DECAY (also known as NUCLEAR DECAY or RADIOACTIVITY) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame ) by emitting radiation , such as an alpha particle , beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture , gamma ray , or electron in the case of Internal conversion . A material containing such unstable nuclei is considered RADIOACTIVE. Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay through neutron emission , or more rarely, proton emission . Radioactive decay is a stochastic (i.e. random) process at the level of single atoms, in that, according to quantum theory , it is impossible to predict when a particular atom will decay, regardless of how long the atom has existed. However, for a collection of atoms, the collection's expected decay rate is characterized in terms of their measured decay constants or half-lives . This is the basis of radiometric dating . The half-lives of radioactive atoms have no known upper limit, spanning a time range of over 55 orders of magnitude , from nearly instantaneous to far longer than the age of the universe . A radioactive nucleus with zero spin can have no defined orientation, and hence emits the total momentum of its decay products isotropically (all directions and without bias)
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Reciprocating Motion
RECIPROCATING MOTION, also called RECIPROCATION, is a repetitive up-and-down or back-and-forth linear motion . It is found in a wide range of mechanisms, including reciprocating engines and pumps . The two opposite motions that comprise a single reciprocation cycle are called strokes . A crank can be used to convert circular motion into reciprocating motion, or conversely turn reciprocating motion into circular motion. For example, inside an internal combustion engine (a type of reciprocating engine), the expansion of burning fuel in the cylinders periodically pushes the piston down, which, through the connecting rod , turns the crankshaft . The continuing rotation of the crankshaft drives the piston back up, ready for the next cycle. The piston moves in a reciprocating motion, which is converted into circular motion of the crankshaft, which ultimately propels the vehicle or does other useful work. Reciprocating motion is close to, but different from, sinusoidal simple harmonic motion . The point on the crankshaft which connects to the connecting rod, rotates smoothly at a constant velocity in a circle. Thus, the horizontal displacement, of that point, is indeed exactly sinusoidal by definition. However, during the cycle, the angle of the connecting rod changes continuously. So, the horizontal displacement of the "far" end of the connecting rod (i.e., connected to the piston) differs from sinusoidal
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Machine Press
A FORMING PRESS, commonly shortened to PRESS, is a machine tool that changes the shape of a workpiece by the application of pressure. Presses can be classified according to * their mechanism: hydraulic , mechanical , pneumatic ; * their function: forging presses , stamping presses , press brakes , punch press , etc. * their structure, e.g. Knuckle-joint press , screw press * their controllability: conventional vs. servo-presses CONTENTS * 1 An example of peculiar press structure: shop press * 2 Some examples of presses by application * 3 An example of peculiar press control: servo-press * 4 Types of presses * 5 History * 6 Safety * 7 References * 8 External links AN EXAMPLE OF PECULIAR PRESS STRUCTURE: SHOP PRESSA simple frame, fabricated from C type press machine , containing a bottle jack or simple hydraulic cylinder. Good for general-purpose work in the auto mechanic shop, machine shop, garage or basement shops, etc. Typically 1 to 30 tons of pressure, depending on size and expense. Lighter-duty mechanical versions are called arbor presses . They are classed with engine hoists and engine stands in many tool catalogs. A shop press is commonly used to press interference fit parts together, such as gears onto shafts or bearings into housings. SOME EXAMPLES OF PRESSES BY APPLICATION * A press brake is a special type of machine press that bends sheet metal into shape
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Reciprocating Engine
A RECIPROCATING ENGINE, also often known as a PISTON ENGINE, is typically a heat engine (although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion . This article describes the common features of all types. The main types are: the internal combustion engine , used extensively in motor vehicles; the steam engine , the mainstay of the Industrial Revolution ; and the niche application Stirling engine . Internal combustion engines are further classified in two ways: either a spark-ignition (SI) engine , where the spark plug initiates the combustion; or a compression-ignition (CI) engine , where the air within the cylinder is compressed, thus heating it , so that the heated air ignites fuel that is injected then or earlier . CONTENTS * 1 Common features in all types * 2 History * 3 Engine capacity * 4 Other modern non-internal combustion types * 5 Reciprocating quantum heat engine * 6 Miscellaneous engines * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 External links COMMON FEATURES IN ALL TYPESThere may be one or more pistons. Each piston is inside a cylinder , into which a gas is introduced, either already under pressure (e.g. steam engine ), or heated inside the cylinder either by ignition of a fuel air mixture (internal combustion engine ) or by contact with a hot heat exchanger in the cylinder ( Stirling engine )
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Cycles Per Instruction
In computer architecture , CYCLES PER INSTRUCTION (aka CLOCK CYCLES PER INSTRUCTION, CLOCKS PER INSTRUCTION, or CPI) is one aspect of a processor\'s performance: the average number of clock cycles per instruction for a program or program fragment. It is the multiplicative inverse of instructions per cycle . CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Explanation * 3 Examples * 3.1 Example 1 * 3.2 Example 2 * 4 See also * 5 References DEFINITIONCycles Per Instruction is defined by the following: C P I = i ( I C i ) ( C C i ) I C {displaystyle CPI={frac {Sigma _{i}(IC_{i})(CC_{i})}{IC}}} Where I C i {displaystyle IC_{i}} is the number of instructions for a given instruction type i {displaystyle i} , C C i {displaystyle CC_{i}} is the clock-cycles for that instruction type and I C = i ( I C i ) {displaystyle IC=Sigma _{i}(IC_{i})} is the total instruction count. The summation sums over all instruction types for a given benchmarking process. EXPLANATIONLet us assume a classic RISC pipeline , with the following 5 stages: * Instruction fetch cycle (IF). * Instruction decode/Register fetch cycle (ID). * Execution/Effective address cycle (EX). * Memory access (MEM). * Write-back cycle (WB).Each stage requires one clock cycle and an instruction passes through the stages sequentially
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Heinrich Hertz
HEINRICH RUDOLF HERTZ (German: ; 22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell 's electromagnetic theory of light . The unit of frequency — cycle per second — was named the "hertz " in his honor. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Death * 2 Scientific work * 2.1 Meteorology * 2.2 Contact mechanics * 2.3 Electromagnetic waves * 2.4 Cathode rays * 3 Nazi persecution * 4 Legacy and honors * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links BIOGRAPHYHeinrich Rudolf Hertz was born in 1857 in Hamburg , then a sovereign state of the German Confederation , into a prosperous and cultured Hanseatic family. His father Gustav Ferdinand Hertz (originally named David Gustav Hertz) (1827–1914) was a barrister and later a senator . His mother was Anna Elisabeth Pfefferkorn. Hertz's father converted from Judaism to Christianity in 1834. His mother's family was a Lutheran pastor's family. While studying at the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums in Hamburg, Hertz showed an aptitude for sciences as well as languages, learning Arabic and Sanskrit
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Instructions Per Cycle
In computer architecture , INSTRUCTIONS PER CYCLE (IPC) is one aspect of a processor 's performance: the average number of instructions executed for each clock cycle . It is the multiplicative inverse of cycles per instruction . CONTENTS* 1 Explanation * 1.1 Calculation of IPC * 1.2 Factors governing IPC * 2 FLOPs per cycle for various microarchitectures * 3 Computer speed * 4 See also * 5 References EXPLANATIONCALCULATION OF IPCThe number of instructions per second and floating point operations per second for a processor can be derived by multiplying the number of instructions per cycle with the clock rate (cycles per second given in Hertz ) of the processor in question. The number of instructions per second is an approximate indicator of the likely performance of the processor. The number of instructions executed per clock is not a constant for a given processor; it depends on how the particular software being run interacts with the processor, and indeed the entire machine, particularly the memory hierarchy . However, certain processor features tend to lead to designs that have higher-than-average IPC values; the presence of multiple arithmetic logic units (an ALU is a processor subsystem that can perform elementary arithmetic and logical operations), and short pipelines
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